Invasive Species Compendium

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blackleg

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Datasheet

blackleg

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • blackleg
  • Pathogens
  • Clostridium chauvoei
  • Overview
  • Clostridium chauvoei is the bacterial agent responsible for the acute febrile disease called blackleg, which infects skeletal muscle in cattle and sheep causing myositis. Possibly the result of injury to the inte...

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    Compendia
    CAB International
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • blackleg

International Common Names

  • English: black quarter; blackleg, clostridium chauvoei in food animals; clostridial myositis; clostridial myositis in large animals; clostridial myositis, myonecrosis, malignant edema, in large animals; malignant edema

Pathogen/s

Top of page Clostridium chauvoei

Overview

Top of page

Clostridium chauvoei is the bacterial agent responsible for the acute febrile disease called blackleg, which infects skeletal muscle in cattle and sheep causing myositis. Possibly the result of injury to the intestinal tract, foot, leg and large muscle masses or from wounds caused by castration, which provide a portal for the introduction of spores of the bacterium. The bacteria are common contaminants of soils and forages in most regions of the world. Spores may also be transported via macrophages to large muscle masses migrating from the liver through the circulatory system. Subsequent exotoxin production occurs as the bacterium proliferates under anaerobic conditions and sporulation is stimulated (Princewell, 1965).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Capra hircus (goats)
ElephantidaeWild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Mustela lutreolaDomesticated host, Wild host
Neovison vison (American mink)Domesticated host, Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated hostSheep & Goats: All Stages
Struthio camelus (ostrich)Domesticated host, Wild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)

Hosts/Species Affected

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Few details are known as to the exact mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and therefore all risk factors have yet to be clearly identified. The disease is generally thought to be the result of spore ingestion, or wound contamination with spore-contaminated soil or forages. Cattle between the ages of 6 months and 2 years are thought to be most vulnerable. Animals younger than 6 months and over 3 years are thought to be ‘resistant’, although animal models have not been used to conclusively test this hypothesis. Animals affected by the disease are usually healthy, well fleshed and in a high nutritional plane. Excessive exercise is considered to be a risk factor (Gyles, 1993) as well as bruising of large muscle masses, such as can occur in young animals (Sterne and Batty, 1975). Management procedures causing open wounds, such as castration or tail docking can also be a significant risk factor, particularly on farms that have had or are experiencing the disease. Farms and pastures that have previously experienced the problem should be considered at higher risk for the disease.

Systems Affected

Top of page blood and circulatory system diseases of large ruminants
blood and circulatory system diseases of small ruminants
bone, foot diseases and lameness in small ruminants
multisystemic diseases of large ruminants
multisystemic diseases of small ruminants

Distribution

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Blackleg occurs worldwide, mainly in cattle and sheep.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Burkina FasoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChadPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Guinea-BissauPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MaliPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigerPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SenegalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
TanzaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabwePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaPresentSingh and Roychoudhury (1982); OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
JapanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)El-Sanousi and Musa (1989); OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
YemenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining

Europe

AustriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentHarwood (1984); Malone et al. (1986); OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentBarnes et al. (1975); OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentWhitford and Jones (1986); Hall (1989); Sojka et al. (1992); OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentGlastonbury et al. (1988); OIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentBruere (1982); OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentGuzmán and Micalizzi (1992); OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChilePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Diagnosis

Top of page Signs

None if sufficiently acute, but usually include, depression, anorexia, animal rapidly becoming febrile, and lameness in affected quarters

Diagnoses

Carcasses exhibits stiff-legged posture, characteristic clinical signs and lesions (see above). Carcasses are often grossly distended from gas with a putrid odour. Bacterial culture and identification.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Prolonged capillary refill time Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Congestion oral mucous membranes, erythema, redness oral mucosa Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
General Signs / Back swelling, mass back region Sign
General Signs / Back swelling, mass back region Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hypothermia, low temperature Sign
General Signs / Icterus, jaundice Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Neck swelling, mass cervical region Sign
General Signs / Neck swelling, mass cervical region Sign
General Signs / Orbital, periorbital, periocular, conjunctival swelling, eyeball mass Sign
General Signs / Orbital, periorbital, periocular, conjunctival swelling, eyeball mass Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Pelvic or perineal swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Pelvic or perineal swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Sweating excessively, hyperhidrosis Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass anus rectum Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass anus rectum Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass, vulva, clitoris Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass, vulva, clitoris Sign
General Signs / Swelling, mass external abdomen Sign
General Signs / Swelling, mass external abdomen Sign
General Signs / Thoracic swelling, mass, thorax, chest, ribs, sternum Sign
General Signs / Thoracic swelling, mass, thorax, chest, ribs, sternum Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Back or thoracic crepitation, crepitus chest, ribs Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Forelimb crepitation, crepitus front leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Head or neck crepitation, crepitus Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Hindlimb or pelvic crepitation, crepitus rear leg, pelvis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Nervous Signs / Coma, stupor Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Colic, abdominal pain Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Hindlimb pain, hind leg Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, neck, cervical, throat Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cold skin, cool ears, extremities Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cold skin, cool ears, extremities Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Subcutaneous crepitation, skin emphysema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Subcutaneous crepitation, skin emphysema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Warm skin, hot, heat Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Warm skin, hot, heat Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign

Disease Course

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Animals ingest the spores or spores gain access to the circulatory system through wounds. Spores germinate and rapidly start producing toxins. Some toxins apparently are produced upon formation of spores. Affected animals can rapidly become febrile, and display marked depression and lameness in affected quarter(s). Frequently the disease is so acute that no signs are observed before animals are found dead. Incubation is usually five days or less, with the majority of mortalities occurring within a few days of crepitant swelling in large muscle masses and limbs. After death limbs are stiffly extend from the body. Carcasses are frequently very distended from the presence of gas in tissues. Skin may crackle when rubbed due to gas in tissues. Frothy blood and gas bubbles are sometimes present in subcutaneous tissues and mucosa. The musculature is usually dark, congested and may exhibit streaks of black necrosis, which are sometimes also observed on the tongue and heart.

Impact: Economic

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The disease is widespread throughout the world, but has become less common with the introduction of commercial bacterins and pentavalent toxoids. Although, the disease can be economically devastating on individual farms or specific regions, its total impact worldwide would be considered significant (warranting the cost of multiple vaccinations) but not overwhelming, particularly when compared to other more common diseases of cattle and sheep. The economic impact in other species would be considered to be so sporadic as to be insignificant.

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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The disease is neither considered a zoonotic nor a food safety concern.

Consumption of material containing toxin could theoretically be a significant health risk, but is unlikely due to the rapid deterioration of affected carcasses and presence of overwhelming putrid smell.

Disease Treatment

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None.

Prevention and Control

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Management practices should include the removal of probable concentrated sources of spores (spoiled or rotten silage, forages). Mortalities should be immediately removed from the environment, since proliferation of the bacterium and release of spores is possible if carcasses burst from gas build-up. Fly control measures should be implemented to prevent mechanical transport of spores.

Immunization programmes with inactivated bacterins and pentavalent toxoids are used globally.

References

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Barnes DM; Bergeland ME; Higbee JM, 1975. Selected blackleg outbreaks and their relation to soil excavation. Canadian Veterinary Journal 16(9):257-259.

Bruere SN, 1982. Case studies: two outbreaks of blackleg in sheep (Clostridium chauvoei). Proceedings of the New Zealand Veterinary Association, Sheep & Beef Cattle Society (12th), 336-338.

Dixit; SN; Khera SS, 1968. Pathogenesis of Clostridium chauvoei infection in guinea pigs. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 6:80-83.

El-Sanousi SM; Musa MT, 1989. Notes on an association of Clostridium sordellii with a case of gas-gangrene in a Zebu cow. Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 42(3):391-392.

Glastonbury JRW; Searson JE; Links IJ; Tuckett LM, 1988. Clostridial myocarditis in lambs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 65(7):208-209; 9 ref.

Guzmán AMSde; Micalizzi B, 1992. Diagnosis of blackleg by immunofluorescence of bone marrow. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología, 34(2):87-89; 13 ref.

Gyles CL, 1993. Histotoxic clostridia. In: Gyles GL, Thoen CO, eds., Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals, edition 2. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press, 106-113.

Hagemoser WA; Hoffman LJ; Lundvall RL, 1980. Clostridium chauvoei in a horse. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 176(7):631-633.

Hall KE, 1989. Treatment of a calf with Clostridium chauvoei infection. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 94(2):272; 1 ref.

Harwood DG, 1984. Apparent iatrogenic clostridial myositis in cattle. Veterinary Record, 115(16):412; 2 ref.

Langford EV, 1970. Feed-borne Clostridium chauvoei infection in mink. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 11(8):170-172.

Lublin A; Mechani S; Horowitz HI; Weisman Y, 1993. A paralytic-like disease of the ostrich (Struthio camelus masaicus) associated with Clostridium chauvoei infection. Veterinary Record, 132(11):273-275; 8 ref.

Malone FE; McParland PJ; O'Hagan J, 1986. Pathological changes in the pericardium and meninges of cattle associated with Clostridium chauvoei. Veterinary Record, 118(6):151-152; 8 ref.

Murphy DB, 1980. Clostridium chauvoei as the cause of malignant edema in a horse. Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinician, 75(7):1152-1154.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Princewell TJT, 1965. Effect of calcium chloride on germination and pathogenicity of spores of Clostidium chauvoei. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 75:343-351.

Ramachandran S, 1969. Haemolytic activities of Cl. chauvoei. Indian Veterinary Journal, 46:754-768.

Rebhun WC; Shin SJ; King JM; Baum KH; Patten V, 1985. Malignant edema in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 187(7):732-736; 14 ref.

Singh TJ; Roychoudhury GK, 1982. Note on general incidence and epizootiology of black-quarter in Manipur [Clostridium chauvoei]. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 52(10):963-965.

Sojka JE; Bowersock TL; Parker JE; Blevins WG; Irigoyen L, 1992. Clostridium chauvoei myositis infection in a neonatal calf. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 4(2):201-203; 8 ref.

Sterne M; Batty I, 1975. The role of clostridia in infections. In: Sterne M, Batty I, eds. Pathogenic Clostridia. Boston, USA: Butterworths Publishers, 18-32.

Whitford HW; Jones IP, 1986. Pulmonary Cl. chauvoei (blackleg). Southwestern Veterinarian, 37(3):203.

Distribution References

Barnes D M, Bergeland M E, Higbee J M, 1975. Selected blackleg outbreaks and their relation to soil excavation. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 16 (9), 257-259.

Bruere SN, 1982. Case studies: two outbreaks of blackleg in sheep (Clostridium chauvoei). [Proceedings of the New Zealand Veterinary Association, Sheep & Beef Cattle Society], 336-338.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

El-Sanousi S M, Musa M T, 1989. Note on an association of Clostridium novyi type A and Clostridium sordellii with a case of gas-gangrene in a Zebu cow. Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux. 42 (3), 381-392.

Glastonbury J R W, Searson J E, Links I J, Tuckett L M, 1988. Clostridial myocarditis in lambs. Australian Veterinary Journal. 65 (7), 208-209. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1988.tb14459.x

Guzmán AMSde, Micalizzi B, 1992. Diagnosis of blackleg by immunofluorescence of bone marrow. In: Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología, 34 (2) 87-89.

Hall K E, 1989. Treatment of a calf with Clostridium chauvoei infection. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 94 (2), 272.

Harwood D G, 1984. Apparent iatrogenic clostridial myositis in cattle. Veterinary Record. 115 (16), 412.

Malone F E, McParland P J, O'Hagan J, 1986. Pathological changes in the pericardium and meninges of cattle associated with Clostridium chauvoei. Veterinary Record. 118 (6), 151-152.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Singh T J, Roychoudhury G K, 1982. Note on general incidence and epizootiology of black-quarter in Manipur. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 52 (10), 963-965.

Sojka J E, Bowersock T L, Parker J E, Blevins W G, Irigoyen L, 1992. Clostridium chauvoei myositis infection in a neonatal calf. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 4 (2), 201-203.

Whitford HW, Jones IP, 1986. Pulmonary Cl. chauvoei (blackleg). In: Southwestern Veterinarian, 37 (3) 203.

Distribution Maps

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