Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

blackleg

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Datasheet

blackleg

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 July 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • blackleg
  • Pathogens
  • Clostridium chauvoei
  • Overview
  • Clostridium chauvoei is the bacterial agent responsible for the acute febrile disease called blackleg, which infects skeletal muscle in cattle and sheep causing myositis. Possibly the result of injury to the inte...

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    Compendia
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • blackleg

International Common Names

  • English: black quarter; blackleg, clostridium chauvoei in food animals; clostridial myositis; clostridial myositis in large animals; clostridial myositis, myonecrosis, malignant edema, in large animals; malignant edema

Pathogen/s

Top of page Clostridium chauvoei

Overview

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Clostridium chauvoei is the bacterial agent responsible for the acute febrile disease called blackleg, which infects skeletal muscle in cattle and sheep causing myositis. Possibly the result of injury to the intestinal tract, foot, leg and large muscle masses or from wounds caused by castration, which provide a portal for the introduction of spores of the bacterium. The bacteria are common contaminants of soils and forages in most regions of the world. Spores may also be transported via macrophages to large muscle masses migrating from the liver through the circulatory system. Subsequent exotoxin production occurs as the bacterium proliferates under anaerobic conditions and sporulation is stimulated (Princewell, 1965).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Capra hircus (goats)
ElephantidaeWild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Mustela lutreolaDomesticated host, Wild host
Neovison vison (American mink)Domesticated host, Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated hostSheep & Goats: All Stages
Struthio camelus (ostrich)Domesticated host, Wild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)

Hosts/Species Affected

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Few details are known as to the exact mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and therefore all risk factors have yet to be clearly identified. The disease is generally thought to be the result of spore ingestion, or wound contamination with spore-contaminated soil or forages. Cattle between the ages of 6 months and 2 years are thought to be most vulnerable. Animals younger than 6 months and over 3 years are thought to be ‘resistant’, although animal models have not been used to conclusively test this hypothesis. Animals affected by the disease are usually healthy, well fleshed and in a high nutritional plane. Excessive exercise is considered to be a risk factor (Gyles, 1993) as well as bruising of large muscle masses, such as can occur in young animals (Sterne and Batty, 1975). Management procedures causing open wounds, such as castration or tail docking can also be a significant risk factor, particularly on farms that have had or are experiencing the disease. Farms and pastures that have previously experienced the problem should be considered at higher risk for the disease.

Systems Affected

Top of page blood and circulatory system diseases of large ruminants
blood and circulatory system diseases of small ruminants
bone, foot diseases and lameness in small ruminants
multisystemic diseases of large ruminants
multisystemic diseases of small ruminants

Distribution

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Blackleg occurs worldwide, mainly in cattle and sheep.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaReported present or known to be presentSingh and Roychoudhury, 1982; OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedEl-Sanousi and Musa, 1989; OIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigerReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentBarnes et al., 1975; OIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentWhitford and Jones, 1986; Hall, 1989; Sojka et al., 1992; OIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentGuzmán and Micalizzi, 1992; OIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentHarwood, 1984; Malone et al., 1986; OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentGlastonbury et al., 1988; OIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentBruere, 1982; OIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Diagnosis

Top of page Signs

None if sufficiently acute, but usually include, depression, anorexia, animal rapidly becoming febrile, and lameness in affected quarters

Diagnoses

Carcasses exhibits stiff-legged posture, characteristic clinical signs and lesions (see above). Carcasses are often grossly distended from gas with a putrid odour. Bacterial culture and identification.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Prolonged capillary refill time Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Congestion oral mucous membranes, erythema, redness oral mucosa Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
General Signs / Back swelling, mass back region Sign
General Signs / Back swelling, mass back region Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hypothermia, low temperature Sign
General Signs / Icterus, jaundice Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Neck swelling, mass cervical region Sign
General Signs / Neck swelling, mass cervical region Sign
General Signs / Orbital, periorbital, periocular, conjunctival swelling, eyeball mass Sign
General Signs / Orbital, periorbital, periocular, conjunctival swelling, eyeball mass Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Pelvic or perineal swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Pelvic or perineal swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Sweating excessively, hyperhidrosis Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass anus rectum Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass anus rectum Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass, vulva, clitoris Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass, vulva, clitoris Sign
General Signs / Swelling, mass external abdomen Sign
General Signs / Swelling, mass external abdomen Sign
General Signs / Thoracic swelling, mass, thorax, chest, ribs, sternum Sign
General Signs / Thoracic swelling, mass, thorax, chest, ribs, sternum Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Back or thoracic crepitation, crepitus chest, ribs Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Forelimb crepitation, crepitus front leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Head or neck crepitation, crepitus Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Hindlimb or pelvic crepitation, crepitus rear leg, pelvis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Nervous Signs / Coma, stupor Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Colic, abdominal pain Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Hindlimb pain, hind leg Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, neck, cervical, throat Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cold skin, cool ears, extremities Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cold skin, cool ears, extremities Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Subcutaneous crepitation, skin emphysema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Subcutaneous crepitation, skin emphysema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Warm skin, hot, heat Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Warm skin, hot, heat Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign

Disease Course

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Animals ingest the spores or spores gain access to the circulatory system through wounds. Spores germinate and rapidly start producing toxins. Some toxins apparently are produced upon formation of spores. Affected animals can rapidly become febrile, and display marked depression and lameness in affected quarter(s). Frequently the disease is so acute that no signs are observed before animals are found dead. Incubation is usually five days or less, with the majority of mortalities occurring within a few days of crepitant swelling in large muscle masses and limbs. After death limbs are stiffly extend from the body. Carcasses are frequently very distended from the presence of gas in tissues. Skin may crackle when rubbed due to gas in tissues. Frothy blood and gas bubbles are sometimes present in subcutaneous tissues and mucosa. The musculature is usually dark, congested and may exhibit streaks of black necrosis, which are sometimes also observed on the tongue and heart.

Impact: Economic

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The disease is widespread throughout the world, but has become less common with the introduction of commercial bacterins and pentavalent toxoids. Although, the disease can be economically devastating on individual farms or specific regions, its total impact worldwide would be considered significant (warranting the cost of multiple vaccinations) but not overwhelming, particularly when compared to other more common diseases of cattle and sheep. The economic impact in other species would be considered to be so sporadic as to be insignificant.

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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The disease is neither considered a zoonotic nor a food safety concern.

Consumption of material containing toxin could theoretically be a significant health risk, but is unlikely due to the rapid deterioration of affected carcasses and presence of overwhelming putrid smell.

Disease Treatment

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None.

Prevention and Control

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Management practices should include the removal of probable concentrated sources of spores (spoiled or rotten silage, forages). Mortalities should be immediately removed from the environment, since proliferation of the bacterium and release of spores is possible if carcasses burst from gas build-up. Fly control measures should be implemented to prevent mechanical transport of spores.

Immunization programmes with inactivated bacterins and pentavalent toxoids are used globally.

References

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Barnes DM; Bergeland ME; Higbee JM, 1975. Selected blackleg outbreaks and their relation to soil excavation. Canadian Veterinary Journal 16(9):257-259.

Bruere SN, 1982. Case studies: two outbreaks of blackleg in sheep (Clostridium chauvoei). Proceedings of the New Zealand Veterinary Association, Sheep & Beef Cattle Society (12th), 336-338.

Dixit; SN; Khera SS, 1968. Pathogenesis of Clostridium chauvoei infection in guinea pigs. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 6:80-83.

El-Sanousi SM; Musa MT, 1989. Notes on an association of Clostridium sordellii with a case of gas-gangrene in a Zebu cow. Revue d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 42(3):391-392.

Glastonbury JRW; Searson JE; Links IJ; Tuckett LM, 1988. Clostridial myocarditis in lambs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 65(7):208-209; 9 ref.

Guzmán AMSde; Micalizzi B, 1992. Diagnosis of blackleg by immunofluorescence of bone marrow. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología, 34(2):87-89; 13 ref.

Gyles CL, 1993. Histotoxic clostridia. In: Gyles GL, Thoen CO, eds., Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals, edition 2. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press, 106-113.

Hagemoser WA; Hoffman LJ; Lundvall RL, 1980. Clostridium chauvoei in a horse. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 176(7):631-633.

Hall KE, 1989. Treatment of a calf with Clostridium chauvoei infection. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 94(2):272; 1 ref.

Harwood DG, 1984. Apparent iatrogenic clostridial myositis in cattle. Veterinary Record, 115(16):412; 2 ref.

Langford EV, 1970. Feed-borne Clostridium chauvoei infection in mink. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 11(8):170-172.

Lublin A; Mechani S; Horowitz HI; Weisman Y, 1993. A paralytic-like disease of the ostrich (Struthio camelus masaicus) associated with Clostridium chauvoei infection. Veterinary Record, 132(11):273-275; 8 ref.

Malone FE; McParland PJ; O'Hagan J, 1986. Pathological changes in the pericardium and meninges of cattle associated with Clostridium chauvoei. Veterinary Record, 118(6):151-152; 8 ref.

Murphy DB, 1980. Clostridium chauvoei as the cause of malignant edema in a horse. Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Clinician, 75(7):1152-1154.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Princewell TJT, 1965. Effect of calcium chloride on germination and pathogenicity of spores of Clostidium chauvoei. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 75:343-351.

Ramachandran S, 1969. Haemolytic activities of Cl. chauvoei. Indian Veterinary Journal, 46:754-768.

Rebhun WC; Shin SJ; King JM; Baum KH; Patten V, 1985. Malignant edema in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 187(7):732-736; 14 ref.

Singh TJ; Roychoudhury GK, 1982. Note on general incidence and epizootiology of black-quarter in Manipur [Clostridium chauvoei]. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 52(10):963-965.

Sojka JE; Bowersock TL; Parker JE; Blevins WG; Irigoyen L, 1992. Clostridium chauvoei myositis infection in a neonatal calf. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 4(2):201-203; 8 ref.

Sterne M; Batty I, 1975. The role of clostridia in infections. In: Sterne M, Batty I, eds. Pathogenic Clostridia. Boston, USA: Butterworths Publishers, 18-32.

Whitford HW; Jones IP, 1986. Pulmonary Cl. chauvoei (blackleg). Southwestern Veterinarian, 37(3):203.

Distribution Maps

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