Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Burkholderia pseudomallei

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Datasheet

Burkholderia pseudomallei

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Burkholderiales
  •         Family: Burkholderiaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gram stain of Burkholderia pseudomallei grown on agar plates (oil immersion). Note the bipolar staining.
TitleGram stain
CaptionGram stain of Burkholderia pseudomallei grown on agar plates (oil immersion). Note the bipolar staining.
CopyrightJill F. Ellis
Gram stain of Burkholderia pseudomallei grown on agar plates (oil immersion). Note the bipolar staining.
Gram stainGram stain of Burkholderia pseudomallei grown on agar plates (oil immersion). Note the bipolar staining.Jill F. Ellis
Hypothesized cycle of infection of Burkholderia pseudomallei.
TitleLife cycle
CaptionHypothesized cycle of infection of Burkholderia pseudomallei.
CopyrightAdapted from Ellis & Titball, 1999. The Infectious Disease Review/Tamurlane Press Ltd.
Hypothesized cycle of infection of Burkholderia pseudomallei.
Life cycleHypothesized cycle of infection of Burkholderia pseudomallei.Adapted from Ellis & Titball, 1999. The Infectious Disease Review/Tamurlane Press Ltd.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Burkholderia pseudomallei Yabuuchi et al., 1992

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Betaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Burkholderiales
  •                 Family: Burkholderiaceae
  •                     Genus: Burkholderia
  •                         Species: Burkholderia pseudomallei

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
USANo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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B. pseudomallei is a small aerobic Gram-negative, motile rod-shaped bacterium, approximately 3-5 µm by 0.5-1 µm. Gram-stained smears of 18-24 h cultures on nutrient agars incubated at 37°C usually show bipolar staining. They are present singly, in pairs or sometimes in chains. After 48 h, the cells become oval, only staining at the periphery and may be mistaken for spores. Bipolar or uneven staining may be apparent in the bacteria in smears of clinical specimens, but the organism is not always seen in clinical specimens and definitive diagnosis depends on isolation and identification (Dance, 1998). Although an aerobe, B. pseudomallei can also grow anaerobically in complex media, requiring nitrate as the oxygen source (Groves, 1979).

The bacterium grows readily on or in simple nutrient media and can be recovered on most aerobically incubated primary isolation media used in clinical microbiology for enteric Gram negatives; notable exceptions to this are salmonella-shigella (SS) agar and deoxycholate-citrate agar (DCA) on which it is apparently reluctant to grow. On nutrient agar after 24 h at 37°C, colonies are small (0.5 to 1 mm in diameter), round, translucent, moist and slightly raised. By 48 h they become opaque, cream to yellow, 2-3 mm in diameter. With continued incubation, rough, heaped-up, 'corrugated' colonies may appear. On blood agar at 24 h, the colonies are transparent, shiny and convex; the confluent areas are grey to white with a sheen, and may be surrounded by a slight greening of the agar. On MacConkey’s agar, colonies are usually pink, but may be pink to colourless. Broths become uniformly turbid after 12 to 18 h at 37°C with a surface pellicle forming after continued incubation which becomes wrinkled and rough. A characteristic earthy, musty odour is frequently associated with these cultures.

The resistance of the Burkholderia pathogens to various dyes has allowed the formulation of media for selective separation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pitt, 1990). Ashdown’s medium (Ashdown, 1979), containing glycerol (which induces the characteristic wrinkled colony morphology), crystal violet and gentamicin at concentrations inhibitory to various other bacteria, including Proteus, and neutral red (selectively absorbed by B. pseudomallei), is especially recommended for B. pseudomallei. On this, only pale pink pinpoint colonies are visible at 18-24 h; by 48 h, they are 1-2 mm, pinkish-purple, flat, slightly dry with a sheen. At 72 h, they are 2-3 mm, drier and wrinkled, deeper purple, though there may be mucoid variants or different coloured variants (Walsh and Wuthiekanun, 1996). Dry wrinkled, violet-purple colonies with the Gram-stain characteristics already described, permit a presumptive identification of B. pseudomallei (Gilligan and Whittier, 1991). An enrichment broth consisting of Ashdown medium supplemented with 50 mg/l of colistin enhances selective recovery of B. pseudomallei (Walsh et al., 1995).

Primary distinguishing characteristics when differentiating B. pseudomallei from its nearest pathogenic relatives, in particular, B. mallei, B. cepacia, P. aeruginosa and P. stutzeri, are its distinctive colonial morphology (P. stutzeri has a similar morphology), characteristic odour (B. cepacia has a similar odour) and motility (B. mallei is non-motile). A full bank of confirmatory tests is given in Table 1. Walsh and Wuthiekanun (1996) consider that complete accuracy in the identification of B. pseudomallei can be achieved with the simplified schema outlined in Table 2. A diagnostic phage was included in the earlier literature (Howe et al., 1971), but is not included in more recent texts. [CAUTION: It should be pointed out that, because of the potential seriousness of melioidosis in humans and inhalation is a method of acquisition, odour should only be a first-time observation and should not be used as a follow-up test (Ashdown 1992a). Laboratory infections have occurred (Sewell, 1995), and once it is suspected that B. pseudomallei is present, further manipulations should be carried out in a biological safety cabinet under Biohazard Level 3 conditions.]

Commercial identification systems recorded as good for identifying B. pseudomallei are the Microbact 24E (Thomas, 1983), API 20NE (BioMerieux-Vitek, Hazlewood, MO, USA) (Dance et al., 1989; Walsh and Wuthiekanun, 1996; Dance, 1998) and Titertek NF with the Minitek system (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, MD, USA) good for final confirmation where other systems have given a presumptive identification of either B. pseudomallei or B. cepacia (Ashdown, 1992b).

Table 1. Distinguishing characteristics for B. pseudomallei and close relatives*

 

CharacteristicB. pseudomalleiB. malleiB. cepaciaB. stutzeriPs. aeruginosa
Oxidase + ± + + +
Growth on MacConkey agar + ± + + +
Fluorescence in UV light - - - - +
Motility + - + + +
Growth at 42°C + - ± ± +
Growth in KCN + ± - - +
Citrate utilization + - + or ± + +
Nitrate reduction + + ± + +
Gas from nitrate ± - - + ±
Lecithinase activity + ± + + -
Starch hydrolysis ± - - + -
Casein hydrolysis +   + - +
Gelatin hydrolysis + or ± ± or - ± - +
Urea hydrolysis§ ± ± + or ± ± +
Arginine dihydrolase + + - ± +
Acid from glucose + + + + +
Acid from lactose + ± + - -
Acid from maltose + - or ± + ± -
Acid from sucrose ± - or ± + - -
Acid from mannitol + ± + ± +
Acid from xylose + ± + + +
Acid from salicin - - + - -

 

*From Cowan (1974) and Gilligan and Whittier (1991).
+ = >85%; ± = 10-85%; - = <10%
§Results are method dependent

Table 2. Simplified identification scheme of Walsh and Wuthiekanun (1996)

 

CharacteristicB. pseudomalleiB. cepacia
Gram stain Gram-negative rods with bipolar staining As B. pseudomallei
Ashdown agar Typical colonies (see text) Brown/reddish coloration
O/n on Columbia agar with gentamicin and colistin (10 µg) disks Metallic sheen. Resistant to both antibiotics Yellow pigmented. Generally, but not always, resistant to both antibiotics
Arginine dihydrolase + -
Nitrate reduction + -
Lysine decarboxylase - +
ONPG - +
co-amoxyclav susceptible resistant

 

The pathogenesis of melioidosis is not well understood. Putative virulence factors include a thermolabile exotoxin, thought to suppress cellular immune functions (Yahya and Chui Lik, 1995), several hydrolytic enzymes, including proteases and phospholipases, at least one haemolysin and lipopolysaccharides/endotoxin (Rapaport et al., 1961; Ashdown and Koehler, 1990; Kanai and Kondo, 1994; Perry et al., 1995). Evidence suggests that B. pseudomallei can colonize mucosal tissue and that pili may be the means of adherence enabling this (Woods et al., 1999). Siderophores may be utilized (Yang et al., 1993). There is increasing evidence that a capsular polysaccharide is an important virulence determinant (Reckseidler et al., 2001). Resistance to complement-mediated bacteriolysis and ability to survive and possibly multiply in macrophages and neutrophils are believed to be important contributors to virulence (Egan and Gordon, 1996; Woods et al., 1999). At least in humans, it appears that infection can remain latent with reactivation occurring up to many years later, and this has been attributed to the ability of B. pseudomallei to persist intracellularly in a dormant state (Woods et al., 1999). This can provoke a state of delayed type hypersensitivity (Howe et al., 1971).

Interest in B. pseudomallei as a potential biological warfare or bioterrorism agent is promoting further research into better understanding of the pathogenesis of this bacterium.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Felis catus (cat)Domesticated host
GallusDomesticated host, Experimental settings
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Experimental settings

References

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Ashdown LR, 1979. An improved screening technique for isolation of Pseudomonas pseudomallei from clinical specimens. Pathology, 11:293-297.

Ashdown LR, 1992. Melioidosis and safety in the clinical laboratory. Journal of Hospital Infection, 21:301-306.

Ashdown LR, 1992. Rapid differentiation of Pseudomonas pseudomallei from Pseudomonas cepacia. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 14:203-205.

Ashdown LR; Koehler JM, 1990. Production of hemolysin and other extracellualar enzyme by clinical isolates of Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 28:2331-2334.

Cowan ST, 1974. Cowan and Steel's Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria, edition 2. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Dance DAB, 1998. Melioidosis and Glanders. In: Collier L, Balows A, Sussman M, eds. Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, edition 9, Vol. 3, Bacterial Infections. London, UK: Arnold, 919-929.

Dance DAB; Wuthiekanun V; Naigowit P; White NJ, 1989. Identification of Pseudomonas pseudomallei in clinical practice: use of simple screening tests and API 20NE. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 42:645-648.

Egan AM; Gordon DL, 1996. Burkholderia pseudomallei activates complementand is ingested but not killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infection and Immunity, 12:4952-4959.

Gilligan PH; Whittier S, 1991. Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Ralstonia, Brevundimonas, Comamonas, and Acidovorax. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, edition 7. Washington, DC, USA: ASM Press, 526-538.

Groves MG, 1979. Melioidosis. In: Steele JH, ed. CRC Handbook Series in Zoonoses, Vol. 1. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 465-472.

Howe C; Sampath A; Spotnitz M, 1971. The pseudomallei group: a review. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 124:598-606.

Kanai K; Kondo E, 1994. Recent advances in biomedical sciences of Burkholderia psudomallei. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology, 47:1-45.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Perry MB; MacLean LL; Schollaardt T; Bryan LE; Ho M, 1995. Structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide O antigens of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Infection and Immunity, 63:3348-3352.

Pitt TL, 1990. Pseudomonas.. Topley & Wilson's Principles of bacteriology, virology and immunity. Volume 2. Systematic bacteriology., 255-273; many ref.

Rapaport FT; Millar JW; Ruch J, 1961. Endotoxic properties of Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Archives of Pathology, 71:429-436.

Reckseidler SL; DeShazer D; Sokol PA; Woods DE, 2001. Detection of bacterial viulence genes by subtractive hybridizaton: identification of capsular polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a major virulence determinant. Infection and Immunity, 69:34-44.

Sewell DL, 1995. Laboratory-associated infections and biosafety. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 8(3):389-405; 158 ref.

Thomas AD, 1983. Evaluation of the API 20E and Microbact 24E systems for the identification of Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Veterinary Microbiology, 8:611-615.

Walsh AL; Wuthiekanun MD; Smith Y; Suputtamongko Y; White NJ, 1995. Selective broth for the isolation of Pseudomonas pseudomallei from clinical samples. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 89:124.

Walsh AL; Wuthiekanun V, 1996. The laboratory diagnosis of melioidosis. British Journal of Biomedical Science 53:249-253.

Woods DE; DeShazer D; Moore RA; Brett PJ; Burtnick MN; Reckseidler SL; Senkiw MD, 1999. Current studies on the pathogenesis of melioidosis. Microbes and Infection, 2:157-162.

Yahya MD; Chui Lik SY, 1995. Suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Malaysian Applied Biology, 24:105-107.

Yang H; Kooi CD; Sokol PA, 1993. Ability of Pseudomonas pseudomallei malleobactin to acquire transferrin-bound, lactoferrin-bound, and cell-derived iron. Infection and Immunity, 61:656-662.

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