Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Betula pendula
(common silver birch)

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Datasheet

Betula pendula (common silver birch)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Betula pendula
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common silver birch
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Agroforestry
  • Charcoal
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil improvement

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Silver birch trees growing in sandy soil in River Warta valley, central Wielkopolska, Poland.
TitleTrees
CaptionSilver birch trees growing in sandy soil in River Warta valley, central Wielkopolska, Poland.
CopyrightWojciech Stachnowicz
Silver birch trees growing in sandy soil in River Warta valley, central Wielkopolska, Poland.
TreesSilver birch trees growing in sandy soil in River Warta valley, central Wielkopolska, Poland.Wojciech Stachnowicz
Pyramidal, graceful crown of silver birch. Botanical Garden of the Agricultural University in Poznan, Poland.
TitleCrown of B. pendula
CaptionPyramidal, graceful crown of silver birch. Botanical Garden of the Agricultural University in Poznan, Poland.
CopyrightPiotr Robakowski
Pyramidal, graceful crown of silver birch. Botanical Garden of the Agricultural University in Poznan, Poland.
Crown of B. pendulaPyramidal, graceful crown of silver birch. Botanical Garden of the Agricultural University in Poznan, Poland.Piotr Robakowski
Crown of mature tree in winter.
TitleMature tree
CaptionCrown of mature tree in winter.
CopyrightWojciech Stachnowicz
Crown of mature tree in winter.
Mature treeCrown of mature tree in winter.Wojciech Stachnowicz
Shows characteristic dark, fissured bark. Tree age approx. 130 years old, dbh 61 cm, height 24 m. Location: Dendrological Park, Kornik, Poland.
TitleButt
CaptionShows characteristic dark, fissured bark. Tree age approx. 130 years old, dbh 61 cm, height 24 m. Location: Dendrological Park, Kornik, Poland.
CopyrightPiotr Robakowski
Shows characteristic dark, fissured bark. Tree age approx. 130 years old, dbh 61 cm, height 24 m. Location: Dendrological Park, Kornik, Poland.
ButtShows characteristic dark, fissured bark. Tree age approx. 130 years old, dbh 61 cm, height 24 m. Location: Dendrological Park, Kornik, Poland.Piotr Robakowski
Lower trunk of B. pendula showing very characteristic whitish, papery bark.
TitleBark
CaptionLower trunk of B. pendula showing very characteristic whitish, papery bark.
CopyrightWojciech Stachnowicz
Lower trunk of B. pendula showing very characteristic whitish, papery bark.
BarkLower trunk of B. pendula showing very characteristic whitish, papery bark.Wojciech Stachnowicz
These silver birch trees have been planted in a pure stand, on the border between transitional peat bog and acidophilous oak forest.
TitleFissured bark
CaptionThese silver birch trees have been planted in a pure stand, on the border between transitional peat bog and acidophilous oak forest.
CopyrightWojciech Stachnowicz
These silver birch trees have been planted in a pure stand, on the border between transitional peat bog and acidophilous oak forest.
Fissured barkThese silver birch trees have been planted in a pure stand, on the border between transitional peat bog and acidophilous oak forest.Wojciech Stachnowicz
Twig of B. pendula showing leaves and clusters of catkins.
TitleFoliage and catkins
CaptionTwig of B. pendula showing leaves and clusters of catkins.
CopyrightWojciech Stachnowicz
Twig of B. pendula showing leaves and clusters of catkins.
Foliage and catkinsTwig of B. pendula showing leaves and clusters of catkins.Wojciech Stachnowicz
Female catkins.
TitleCatkins
CaptionFemale catkins.
CopyrightWojciech Stachnowicz
Female catkins.
CatkinsFemale catkins.Wojciech Stachnowicz
Light winged fruits of B. pendula: the seeds are distributed by wind.
TitleWinged fruits
CaptionLight winged fruits of B. pendula: the seeds are distributed by wind.
CopyrightWojciech Stachnowicz
Light winged fruits of B. pendula: the seeds are distributed by wind.
Winged fruitsLight winged fruits of B. pendula: the seeds are distributed by wind.Wojciech Stachnowicz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Betula pendula Roth

Preferred Common Name

  • common silver birch

Other Scientific Names

  • Betula aetnensis Raf.
  • Betula verrucosa Ehrh.

International Common Names

  • English: common birch; European birch; European birch; European white birch; silver birch
  • Spanish: Abedul comun
  • French: Bouleau blanc; bouleau blanc d'Europe; Bouleau verruqueux
  • Russian: Bereza borodavchataya
  • Portuguese: vidoeiro

Local Common Names

  • Canada: European birch; silver birch; white birch
  • Czechoslovakia (former): bríza belokorá
  • France: arbre de la sagesse; biole; bois à balais; boulard
  • Germany: Gemeine Hängebirke; gemeine sandbirke; Haenge- Birke; Sand- Birke; Trauer- Birke; Warzen- Birke; Weiss- Birke
  • Italy: Betulla bianca
  • Netherlands: Zilverberk
  • Poland: Brzoza brodawkowata
  • Sweden: Vaartbjoerk
  • USA: silver birch; white birch

EPPO code

  • BETPE (Betula pendula)

Trade name

  • cross-grained wood
  • dziegiec
  • marine plywood
  • plywood for general use
  • plywood for use in aircraft industry

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fagales
  •                         Family: Betulaceae
  •                             Genus: Betula
  •                                 Species: Betula pendula

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Agrilus anxius (bronze birch borer); Armillaria mellea (armillaria root rot); Cherry leaf roll virus (walnut ringspot); Cossus cossus (carpenter moth); Fenusa pusilla (birch leafminer); Lepidosaphes ussuriensis (Ussuri oystershell scale); Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth); Lymantria monacha (nun moth); Mimas tiliae; Phyllobius arborator; Phyllobius calcaratus (glaucous leaf weevil); Phyllobius maculicornis (apple leaf weevil); Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); Xylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle)

Minor host of:

Armillaria ostoyae (armillaria root rot); Armillaria tabescens (armillaria root rot); Ceroplastes ceriferus (Indian wax scale); Chalara elegans (black root rot); Fomitopsis pinicola (brown crumbly rot); Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); Heterobasidion annosum; Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato (Heterobasidion root rot); Heterobasidion parviporum; Hylobius abietis (large pine weevil); Neonectria ditissima (Nectria canker (apple, pear)); Orgyia antiqua (European tussock moth); Rhizobium radiobacter (crown gall); Rhizobium rhizogenes (gall); Saturnia pavonia (small emperor moth); Scolytus intricatus (European oak bark beetle)

Wild host of:

Apple mosaic virus (chestnut mosaic); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Xyleborus dispar (pear blight beetle)

Associated with (not a host):

Hypocrea rufa (green mould of narcissus); Ophiostoma karelicum

Host of (source - data mining):

Agrilus viridis (beech, borer); Apatura ilia; Apocheima pilosaria (pale brindled beauty); Betulaphis brevipilosa; Calaphis flava; Callipterinella callipterus; Callipterinella minutissima; Coleophora serratella (birch casebearer); Elasmucha grisea (mothering bug); Endromis versicolora; Euceraphis betulae; Euceraphis punctipennis (European birch aphid); Eulecanium douglasi; Laothoë populi (poplar hawkmoth); Melampsoridium betulinum (rust: birch); Nematus turgaiensis; Nymphalis antiopa (Camberwell beauty); Nymphalis polychloros (large tortoiseshell butterfly); Operophtera fagata; Papilio canadensis (tiger swallowtail); Pulvinaria betulae; Scolytus ratzeburgi (birch sapwood, borer); Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer); Xiphydria camelus (alder wood wasp)

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Fibre
  • Lipids
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Boats

Charcoal

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Tanks

Furniture

Lignin products

Other cellulose derivatives

Roundwood

  • Piles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Textiles

Veneers

Wood extractives (including oil)

Wood gas (and other hydrocarbons

Wood hydrolysates

Wood residues

Wood-based materials

  • Fibreboard
  • Improved wood
  • Laminated veneer lumber
  • Laminated wood
  • Particleboard
  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Musical instruments
  • Sports equipment
  • Tool handles
  • Toys
  • Turnery
  • Wood carvings