Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Brucella suis

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Datasheet

Brucella suis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brucella suis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rhizobiales
  •         Family: Brucellaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brucella suis Huddleston

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rhizobiales
  •                 Family: Brucellaceae
  •                     Genus: Brucella
  •                         Species: Brucella suis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAOIE Handistatus, 2005
-AlaskaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileLast reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsLast reported1973OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported1957OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Last reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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The survival of Brucella under environmental conditions is a relatively important factor in the transmission of disease. The survival rate of Brucella is similar to other non-sporing Gram-negative bacteria and as such is extremely variable depending on prevailing conditions. Experimental evidence indicates that B. suis is readily killed by pasteurisation, 2-4 hours of direct sunlight, and the most commonly used disinfectants. Brucella can survive in organic matter at freezing or near-freezing temperatures in excess of 2 years. Consequently, efforts to eliminate brucellosis from pig farms must include an effective sanitation program (Luchsinger et al., 1965).

The understanding of the pathogenesis of brucellosis has increased substantially in recent years (for reviews see Poester et al., 2013; Olsen et al., 2014; de Figueiredo et al., 2015) although there remain significant gaps in knowledge. Brucella can invade through epithelial cells of its host and once invaded through the digestive or respiratory tract is capable of surviving intracellularly within phagocytic or non-phagocytic host cells. The mechanisms of cell invasion are not clear and specific host receptors have not been identified but invasion through the digestive tract elicits no host inflammatory response so Brucella invade silently unnoticed by the innate immune response of the host. Brucellae lack classical virulence factors, but lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a major role as it prevents complement mediated bacterial killing and provides resistance against antimicrobial peptides such as defensins and lactoferrin. Brucella LPS has weak endotoxic properties compared to other bacteria, allowing the organism to escape detection by Toll-like receptors of the innate immune system. Brucella interact with cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts) within the plasma membrane mediating internalisation into host cells.

Once Brucella have entered cells they interfere with intracellular trafficking preventing fusion of the Brucella containing vacuole (BCV) with lysosome markers and directing the BCV towards a rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) containing compartment highly permissive to intracellular replication of Brucella and the establishment of chronic infection. One of a number of systems known to be important for virulence is the BvrR/BvrS two component regulator which is required for modulation of host cell cytoskeleton on Brucella invasion. Cylic β-1,2 glucans are constituents of the bacterial periplasm with osmoregulatory and cholesterol sequestering activity required for intracellular survival. They prevent phagosome maturation by interfering with lipid rafts and preventing fusion of lysosomes with the BCV. Brucella also express a type IV secretion system encoded by the virB operon that is induced intracellularly in macrophages (Boschiroli et al., 2002) and is crucial for intracellular survival and virulence of B. suis .B. suis virB mutants cannot survive and multiply in macrophages or epithelial cells (O’Callaghan et al., 1999).

References

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Boschiroli ML; Ouahrani-Bettache S; Foulongne V; Michaux-Charachon S; Bourg G; Allardet-Servent A; Cazevieille C; Liautard JP; Ramuz M; O'Callaghan D, 2002. The Brucella suis virB operon is induced intracellularly in macrophages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(3):1544-1549.

Figueiredo Pde; Ficht TA; Rice-Ficht A; Rossetti CA; Adams LG, 2015. Pathogenesis and immunobiology of brucellosis : review of Brucella-host interactions. American Journal of Pathology, 185(6):1505-1517. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002944015001832

Luchsinger DW; Anderson RK; Werring DF, 1965. A swine brucellosis epizootic. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 147:632-636.

O'Callaghan D; Cazevieille C; Allardet-Servent A; Boschiroli ML; Bourg G; Foulongne V; Frutos P; Kulakov Y; Ramuz M, 1999. A homologue of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB and Bordetella pertussis Ptl type IV secretion systems is essential for intracellular survival of Brucella suis. Molecular Microbiology, 33(6):1210-1220.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Olsen SC; Palmer MV, 2014. Advancement of knowledge of Brucella over the past 50 years. Veterinary Pathology, 51(6):1076-1089. http://vet.sagepub.com/content/51/6/1076.short

Poester FP; Samartino LE; Santos RL, 2013. Pathogenesis and pathobiology of brucellosis in livestock. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 32(1):105-115.

Distribution Maps

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