Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Brucella suis

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Datasheet

Brucella suis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brucella suis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rhizobiales
  •         Family: Brucellaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
brucellosis (Brucella suis); symptoms. Sow with her new litter of piglets. Some of the newborn are dead, and others are sickly, due to a case of brucellosis, caused by the bacterium, Brucella suis. Swine brucellosis causes abortion, reduced milk production, and infertility. USA.
TitleField symptoms
Captionbrucellosis (Brucella suis); symptoms. Sow with her new litter of piglets. Some of the newborn are dead, and others are sickly, due to a case of brucellosis, caused by the bacterium, Brucella suis. Swine brucellosis causes abortion, reduced milk production, and infertility. USA.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Public Health Image Library (PHIL) - CC0
brucellosis (Brucella suis); symptoms. Sow with her new litter of piglets. Some of the newborn are dead, and others are sickly, due to a case of brucellosis, caused by the bacterium, Brucella suis. Swine brucellosis causes abortion, reduced milk production, and infertility. USA.
Field symptomsbrucellosis (Brucella suis); symptoms. Sow with her new litter of piglets. Some of the newborn are dead, and others are sickly, due to a case of brucellosis, caused by the bacterium, Brucella suis. Swine brucellosis causes abortion, reduced milk production, and infertility. USA.Public Domain - Released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Public Health Image Library (PHIL) - CC0
brucellosis (Brucella suis); Processed using the Gram-stain method, this photomicrograph revealed the presence of numerous Gram-negative, coccobacillus, Brucella suis bacteria.
TitleBrucella suis bacteria
Captionbrucellosis (Brucella suis); Processed using the Gram-stain method, this photomicrograph revealed the presence of numerous Gram-negative, coccobacillus, Brucella suis bacteria.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Public Health Image Library (PHIL)/original image by Dr. W.A. Clark-1977 - CC0
brucellosis (Brucella suis); Processed using the Gram-stain method, this photomicrograph revealed the presence of numerous Gram-negative, coccobacillus, Brucella suis bacteria.
Brucella suis bacteriabrucellosis (Brucella suis); Processed using the Gram-stain method, this photomicrograph revealed the presence of numerous Gram-negative, coccobacillus, Brucella suis bacteria.Public Domain - Released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Public Health Image Library (PHIL)/original image by Dr. W.A. Clark-1977 - CC0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brucella suis Huddleston

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rhizobiales
  •                 Family: Brucellaceae
  •                     Genus: Brucella
  •                         Species: Brucella suis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 06 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BurundiPresentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Côte d'IvoirePresent
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJan-Jun-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaPresent
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalestineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaPresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandPresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
FrancePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaPresentJul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
-AlaskaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsentJan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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The survival of Brucella under environmental conditions is a relatively important factor in the transmission of disease. The survival rate of Brucella is similar to other non-sporing Gram-negative bacteria and as such is extremely variable depending on prevailing conditions. Experimental evidence indicates that B. suis is readily killed by pasteurisation, 2-4 hours of direct sunlight, and the most commonly used disinfectants. Brucella can survive in organic matter at freezing or near-freezing temperatures in excess of 2 years. Consequently, efforts to eliminate brucellosis from pig farms must include an effective sanitation program (Luchsinger et al., 1965).

The understanding of the pathogenesis of brucellosis has increased substantially in recent years (for reviews see Poester et al., 2013; Olsen et al., 2014; de Figueiredo et al., 2015) although there remain significant gaps in knowledge. Brucella can invade through epithelial cells of its host and once invaded through the digestive or respiratory tract is capable of surviving intracellularly within phagocytic or non-phagocytic host cells. The mechanisms of cell invasion are not clear and specific host receptors have not been identified but invasion through the digestive tract elicits no host inflammatory response so Brucella invade silently unnoticed by the innate immune response of the host. Brucellae lack classical virulence factors, but lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a major role as it prevents complement mediated bacterial killing and provides resistance against antimicrobial peptides such as defensins and lactoferrin. Brucella LPS has weak endotoxic properties compared to other bacteria, allowing the organism to escape detection by Toll-like receptors of the innate immune system. Brucella interact with cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts) within the plasma membrane mediating internalisation into host cells.

Once Brucella have entered cells they interfere with intracellular trafficking preventing fusion of the Brucella containing vacuole (BCV) with lysosome markers and directing the BCV towards a rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) containing compartment highly permissive to intracellular replication of Brucella and the establishment of chronic infection. One of a number of systems known to be important for virulence is the BvrR/BvrS two component regulator which is required for modulation of host cell cytoskeleton on Brucella invasion. Cylic β-1,2 glucans are constituents of the bacterial periplasm with osmoregulatory and cholesterol sequestering activity required for intracellular survival. They prevent phagosome maturation by interfering with lipid rafts and preventing fusion of lysosomes with the BCV. Brucella also express a type IV secretion system encoded by the virB operon that is induced intracellularly in macrophages (Boschiroli et al., 2002) and is crucial for intracellular survival and virulence of B. suis .B. suis virB mutants cannot survive and multiply in macrophages or epithelial cells (O’Callaghan et al., 1999).

References

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Boschiroli ML; Ouahrani-Bettache S; Foulongne V; Michaux-Charachon S; Bourg G; Allardet-Servent A; Cazevieille C; Liautard JP; Ramuz M; O'Callaghan D, 2002. The Brucella suis virB operon is induced intracellularly in macrophages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(3):1544-1549.

Figueiredo Pde; Ficht TA; Rice-Ficht A; Rossetti CA; Adams LG, 2015. Pathogenesis and immunobiology of brucellosis : review of Brucella-host interactions. American Journal of Pathology, 185(6):1505-1517. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002944015001832

Luchsinger DW; Anderson RK; Werring DF, 1965. A swine brucellosis epizootic. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 147:632-636.

O'Callaghan D; Cazevieille C; Allardet-Servent A; Boschiroli ML; Bourg G; Foulongne V; Frutos P; Kulakov Y; Ramuz M, 1999. A homologue of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB and Bordetella pertussis Ptl type IV secretion systems is essential for intracellular survival of Brucella suis. Molecular Microbiology, 33(6):1210-1220.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Olsen SC; Palmer MV, 2014. Advancement of knowledge of Brucella over the past 50 years. Veterinary Pathology, 51(6):1076-1089. http://vet.sagepub.com/content/51/6/1076.short

Poester FP; Samartino LE; Santos RL, 2013. Pathogenesis and pathobiology of brucellosis in livestock. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 32(1):105-115.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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