brucellosis (Brucella ovis)
- Host Animals
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Systems Affected
- Distribution Table
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Disease Course
- Impact: Economic
- Zoonoses and Food Safety
- Disease Treatment
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- brucellosis (Brucella ovis)
International Common Names
- English: Brucella ovis ram epididymitis; brucellosis in sheep; epididymitis of rams; epididymitis, orchitis, in sheep, goats, and pigs; orchitis; ovine contagious epididymitis; ovine epididymitis; ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis); seminal vesiculitis, adenitis, in large animals
OverviewTop of page
Ovine contagious epididymitis is a chronic disease that affects the reproductive tract of rams, causing reduced fertility (Burgess, 1982). The causative agent was isolated in the early fifties in New Zealand and Australia (McFarlane et al., 1952; Simmons and Hall, 1953), and the organism was named Brucella ovis in 1956 (Buddle, 1956). The micro-organism causes a transmissible disease unique to sheep in which the major symptom is epididymitis in rams and occasionally abortion in ewes. The disease in rams causes economic loss to the sheep industry of many countries mainly due to low fertility rates. Humans are not affected by B. ovis.
Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis) is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.
Host AnimalsTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Natural infection is almost exclusively associated with sheep. Cattle, goats and deer are susceptible to B. ovis in artificial transmission experiments but, of these, natural cases have been reported only in deer (Rider, 2001).
Systems AffectedTop of page reproductive diseases of small ruminants
DistributionTop of page
Brucella ovis infection is usually found in countries with an intensive sheep farming sector. Disease has been reported in Latin American, North American, South American and European countries as well as Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, but may occur in most sheep-raising countries, with the apparent exception of the United Kingdom.
For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 11 Mar 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Benin||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Botswana||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||Chartier (1992)|
|Djibouti||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Eswatini||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Ethiopia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Kenya||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Madagascar||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Mauritius||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Mozambique||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Niger||Present||Bloch and Diallo (1991)|
|South Africa||Present||OIE (2009); Jansen (1980)|
|Sudan||Present, Localized||OIE (2009)|
|Tunisia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Uganda||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Zimbabwe||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Armenia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Azerbaijan||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Bahrain||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|China||Present||Feng PeiZhong et al. (1997)|
|-Xinjiang||Present||Liu et al. (1983)|
|India||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||OIE (2009); Katoch et al. (1996)|
|Indonesia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Iran||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Iraq||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Israel||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Japan||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Jordan||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Kazakhstan||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Kuwait||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Kyrgyzstan||Present, Localized||OIE (2009)|
|Laos||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Lebanon||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Malaysia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Mongolia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Myanmar||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Oman||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Pakistan||Present||Afzal et al. (1987)|
|Philippines||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Saudi Arabia||Present||OIE (2009)|
|Singapore||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Sri Lanka||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Syria||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|United Arab Emirates||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Vietnam||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Albania||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Austria||Absent, No presence record(s)||2008||OIE (2009); Khaschabi et al. (1993)||Last reported: 200804|
|Belarus||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Belgium||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Bulgaria||Present||OIE (2009); Milanov et al. (1986)|
|Cyprus||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Czechia||Absent, No presence record(s)||2004||OIE (2009); Seidl and Bischofová (1990)|
|Denmark||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Estonia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Finland||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|France||Present, Localized||OIE (2009); Fensterbank (1987)|
|Germany||Absent, No presence record(s)||1986||OIE (2009); Pozvari (1980)|
|Greece||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Hungary||Present||OIE (2009); Hegedüs et al. (1992)|
|Iceland||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Ireland||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Latvia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Liechtenstein||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Lithuania||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Luxembourg||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Malta||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Montenegro||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Netherlands||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Norway||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Poland||Absent, No presence record(s)||2004||OIE (2009); Boryczko and Królak (1987)|
|Portugal||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|-Russia (Europe)||Present||Syusyukin et al. (1986)|
|Slovakia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Slovenia||Present||OIE (2009); Brglez et al. (1993)|
|Spain||Present, Localized||OIE (2009); Blasco et al. (1982)|
|Sweden||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Switzerland||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Ukraine||Absent, No presence record(s)||1994||OIE (2009); Dénes et al. (1993)||Last reported: 199412|
|United Kingdom||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Belize||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Canada||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|-Alberta||Present||Niilo et al. (1986)|
|-Ontario||Present||Buckrell et al. (1985)|
|Costa Rica||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Cuba||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Dominican Republic||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Greenland||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Guatemala||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Jamaica||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Mexico||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009); CABI (Undated)|
|United States||Present, Localized||OIE (2009)|
|-Idaho||Present||DeLong et al. (1979)|
|-Iowa||Present||Youngs and Weber (1992)|
|-Kansas||Present||Beeman et al. (1982)|
|-Utah||Present||Bagley et al. (1985)|
|-Wyoming||Present||Corbel et al. (1983)|
|Australia||Present||OIE (2009); Gee (1987)|
|French Polynesia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|New Caledonia||Present||OIE (2009)|
|New Zealand||Present||OIE (2009); West and Bruce (1991)|
|Argentina||Present, Localized||OIE (2009); Robles et al. (1993)|
|Brazil||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||Magalhães Neto and Gil-Turnes (1996)|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Marinho and Mathias (1996)|
|Chile||Present, Localized||OIE (2009); Tamayo et al. (1989)|
|Colombia||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Ecuador||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Falkland Islands||Present||1991||Reichel et al. (1994)|
|Peru||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
|Uruguay||Present||OIE (2009); Paravis et al. (1995)|
|Venezuela||Absent, No presence record(s)||OIE (2009)|
PathologyTop of page
Lesions in male animals are largely in the epididymis, tunica vaginalis and testis varying from a slight enlargement of the epididymis, either unilateral or bilateral, to large indurations. Spermatoceles containing partially inspissated spermatic fluid may be found in the epididymis and fibrous atrophy can occur in the testis. The tunica vaginalis is often thickened and fibrous, and can have extensive adhesions. There are generally no clinical signs in the ewe although occasionally infection causes abortion or the birth of weak or stillborn lambs, associated with a placentitis.
DiagnosisTop of page
The diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in rams is complicated by the fact that infected rams retain a degree of sexual activity and fertility although the total concentration and number of normal living spermatozoa are significantly reduced (Cameron and Lauerman, 1976; Blasco, 1990). Palpation of the testicles may give a presumptive diagnosis but epididymitis is not unique to infection with B. ovis. Semen or vaginal smears can be examined following staining by Stamp’s method and characteristic coccobacilli should be demonstrated in many infected animals. Examination of stained smears of suspect tissues (ram genital tract, inguinal lymph nodes, placentas, and abomasal content and lung of fetuses) may also allow a rapid presumptive diagnosis. However, other bacteria with similar morphology or staining characteristics can also be present in such samples and microscopy results should always be confirmed by culture of the microorganism.
Isolation of the agent from a diseased animal unequivocally establishes the infection but because excretion of the organism may be intermittent, infected rams may test culture negative (Hughes and Claxton, 1968). Nevertheless, the most common sites from which B. ovis can be isolated at necropsy are the epididymis and accessory sexual glands (Worthington et al., 1985). Recovery of B. ovis from dead lambs is most frequent from the lungs, abomasum contents, and the spleen (Burgess, 1982).
As with B. abortus and B. melitensis, serological tests are essential for the diagnosis of B. ovis. The most efficient and commonly used tests are the complement fixation test (CFT), the double agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and the indirect enzyme-Iinked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). While the only test prescribed by the OIE and the European Union (EU) for international trade is the CFT, the AGID test is simpler to perform and has been shown to have similar sensitivity to CFT. Disadvantages of the CFT include technical complexity, anti-complementary activity of some sera, the difficulty of performing it with haemolysed sera, and the prozone phenomena. In contrast the simplicity and easy interpretation of AGID make it useful for routine use in nonspecialised laboratories. Studies have shown that I-ELISA may be more sensitive and specific than either of these tests (Marin et al., 1989, Ris et al., 1984, Spencer & Burgess, 1984; Worthington et al., 1984; Worthington et al., 1985) but further standardisation and validation is required.
Differential molecular assays such as the Bruceladder multiplex PCR or SNP typing (Gopaul et al., 2008; Lopez-Goni et al., 2008) and specific PCR tests (Xavier et al., 2010) are now available that can readily identify B. ovis following growth of suspect colonies. There are however still limited reports of the application of PCR directly to field material (Xavier et al., 2010; Costa et al., 2016). Multiplex PCRs that discriminate from other common bacterial causes of ovine epididymitis have also been reported (Saunders et al., 2007; Moustacas et al., 2013). Although the limited data available to date suggests that B. ovis is a genetically conserved species, tools such as multilocus sequence typing and multilocus variable number of tandem repeat typing (Whatmore et al., 2006; Whatmore et al., 2007; Whatmore et al., 2016) may prove increasingly useful to understand both global and local epidemiology and to track the transmission and spread of strains (Dorneles et al., 2014). B. ovis whole genome sequences are now available (Tsolis, 2009) and it is likely that whole genome sequencing will be an increasingly important epidemiological tool in the future.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|General Signs / Swelling mass penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum||Sheep & Goats:Breeding male||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Abnormal size testes / scrotum||Sheep & Goats:Breeding male||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth||Sheep & Goats:Mature female||Sign|
Disease CourseTop of page
Blasco, (1990) extensively reviewed the pathogenesis, pathology and histology of Brucella ovis infection. Briefly: as with other Brucella infections there is a period of generalized infection (Enright, 1990). After infection, the bacteria remain in the lymph nodes close to the entry site for 2-3 weeks. This is followed by a bacteraemic stage that may last up to 2 months. The organism infects the reticuloendothelial system and various organs (Biberstein et al., 1964). Although the bacteria can be isolated from several tissues they usually localize in the epididymis causing an epididymitis. However, not all infected rams develop a palpable epididymitis. Lower fertility and seminal degeneration almost always precede the appearance of lesions. In most cases there is a unilateral epididymitis affecting the tail of the epididymis. Sometimes the body and the head of the epididymis are also affected (Blasco, 1990). Following localization in the epididymis there is perivascular oedema and the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes into the peritubular tissue. Eventually the epithelial cells are destroyed, either by bacterial products or by extravasation of spermatozoa. This leads to formation of spermatic granulomas that block the epididymis (Jubb et al., 1985).
Testicular atrophy is characteristic for chronic infection. This affects semen quality, breeding efficiency and capacity. The affected testicle appears firm but on the cut surface granulomas and calcification may be apparent (Blasco, 1990). During the bacteraemic stage B. ovis can cause chronic interstitial nephritis resulting in permanent shedding of B. ovis in the urine (FAO/WHO, 1986).
Only ewes exposed to infection at early or mid-pregnancy develop infection that may lead to abortion. In pregnant sheep, B. ovis may cause placental necrosis and abortion 23-80 days post infection (Enright, 1990). For abortion to occur there has to be a sufficient accumulation of bacteria and exudate to cause necrosis of the placenta and separation from the caruncles. Thus, the primary effect of infection in ewes is a placentitis that interferes with normal foetal nutrition resulting in the death of lambs and abortion, or in birth of lambs with low birth weight (FAO/WHO, 1986). Dead foetuses are usually oedematous. Calcified plaques on the soles of the hooves are characteristic of abortion due to B. ovis infection (Enright 1990).
EpidemiologyTop of page
Brucella ovis is the least pathogenic of all the Brucella species that infect domestic animals. It almost exclusively infects sheep and affects mainly rams, although male goats experimentally inoculated with B. ovis develop lesions similar to those observed in rams (Blasco, 1990). Whereas in practice the source of infection is contaminated semen excreted by infected rams, not every infected ram excretes B. ovis in the semen (Burgess, 1982). Passive venereal transmission is the main route of spread for B. ovis infection (Buddle, 1955; Hartley et al., 1955). However, passive venereal transmission requires both an infected and non-infected ram to mate with the same ewe in one oestrus cycle. Rams may become infected at the post-abortion oestrus, as B. ovis could be found for 10 days in the vaginal discharge following abortion (Hughes, 1972). Although venereal transmission is the most important route of exposure (Jubb et al., 1985), demonstration of infection in 4-month-old rams (Burgess et al., 1982) casts doubt whether age susceptibility to B. ovis infection exists (Blasco, 1990). It has been suggested that sodomy is responsible for the spread of infection amongst young rams (Burgess, 1982). Transmission, however, may also occur when healthy rams are housed in pens where previously infected rams were kept (Clapp et al., 1962). Furthermore, since rams often sniff the genital organs of other rams infection via the nasopharynx is also possible (FAO/WHO, 1986). Under experimental conditions sheep can be infected with B. ovis via several routes (Muhammed et al., 1975; Simmons and Hall, 1953; Blasco, 1990).
Susceptibility to B. ovis may vary between breeds of rams (Cameron et al., 1971; Blasco, 1990). Rams are more susceptible to infection than ewes. Ewes also rarely become actively infected or transmit the disease during abortion to another ewe although they usually develop complement fixation titres. Since only a few infected ewes abort or have dead or weak lambs it would appear that ewes are relatively resistant to infection (Buddle, 1955; Hartley et al., 1955; Clapp et al., 1962; Haughey et al., 1967). It is generally accepted that the role of an infected ewe in congenital transmission of the disease is negligible (Blasco, 1990).
Impact: EconomicTop of page
Outbreaks of Brucella ovis infections may cause significant economic loss in countries where the sheep industry plays a role in the national economy. The main economic problems arise from reduced numbers of lambs born, a high percentage (20%) of barren ewes, and a high percentage of lambs born alive that die within six weeks of birth. Furthermore, prolonging of the lambing season due to disease interference with the normal breeding scheme is of significant economic importance. Lamb yield may drop in infected flocks from 100% to 25% (FAO/WHO, 1986).
Zoonoses and Food SafetyTop of page
There are no confirmed reports of human infections with B. ovis and, unlike many Brucella, this species is not considered zoonotic.
Disease TreatmentTop of page
Treatment of Brucella ovis ram epididymitis with antibiotics is very expensive and not very effective. The effect of the treatment is of a short duration, with not all the shedders being cured and the fertility of some animals remaining impaired (Dargatz et al., 1990; Hajtós et al., 1994). Thus, antibiotic therapy is not endorsed except when rams with high breeding quality are infected (Blasco, 1990).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Disease prevention can be achieved by eradicating B. ovis from all the rams in a flock. However, since seronegative and clinically normal rams may be latent excretors of B. ovis, detection of all infected rams may not be simple. Vaccination of both rams and ewes is probably the most economical and practical means for medium-term control of B. ovis in areas with a high incidence of infection. The best available vaccine against B. ovis infection in rams is the live Brucella melitensis strain Rev 1 (Plommet, 1991; Ridler and West, 2011). A dose of 109 CFU given subcutaneously induces good protection in 3-5- and 13-month-old rams. However, because Rev 1 vaccination elicits an immune response that may interfere with the serological diagnosis, the use of conjunctival vaccination is suggested (Blasco, 1990; Plommet, 1991). The B. abortus RB51 live vaccine has not proven successful against B. ovis in sheep (Jiménez de Bagüés et al., 1995) and no alternative vaccines are currently available.
ReferencesTop of page
Adesiyun AA, Ezeokoli CD, Kumi-Diaka J, Udechukwu AL, 1985. Brucella ovis as a possible cause of infertility and abortion in two sheep ranches in Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 33(1):11-16; 13 ref.
Afzal M, Tengerdy RP, Ellis RP, Kimberling CV, McChesney AE, 1987. Brucella ovis induced ram epididymitis: a review. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 7(2):70-75; 10 ref.
Beeman KB, Hummels S, Rahaley R, 1982. Epididymitis in rams [in Kansas]. Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician, 77:1647-1650.
Biberstein EL, McGowan B, Olander H, Kennedy PC, 1964. Epididymitis in rams. Studies on pathogenesis. Cornell Veterinarian, 54:27-41.
Blasco JM, 1990. Brucella ovis.. Animal brucellosis., 351-378; 131 ref.
Blasco JM, Floch J, Barberan M, 1982. Reproductive characteristics of Romanov rams with infectious epididymitis. I. Clinical observations and fertility. Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Ganadera, Spain, No.15:67-76.
Boryczko Z, Królak M, 1987. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the first recorded outbreak in Poland of infectious ovine epididymitis caused by Brucella ovis.. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 43(10):617-620; 7 ref.
Brglez I, Mehle J, Zeleznik Z, 1993. Infectious diseases of animals in Slovenia. Survey of the situation in the last 10-20 years. Zbornik Veterinarske Fakultete Univerza Ljubljana, 30(1):5-15; 16 ref.
Buckrell BC, McEwen SA, Johnson WH, Savage NC, 1985. Epididymitis caused by Brucella ovis in a Southern Ontario sheep flock. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 26(10):293-296; 11 ref.
Buddle MB, 1955. Observation on the transmission of Brucella infection in sheep. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 3:10-19.
Buddle MB, 1956. Studies on Brucella ovis (N. Sp.), a cause of genital disease of sheep in New Zealand and Australia. Journal of Hygiene, 54:351-364.
Bulgin MS, 1990. Brucella ovis infection in a farm flock. Symposium on Diseases of Small Ruminants. Corvallis, Oregon, June 7-9, 1990., 118-127; 23 ref.
Burgess GW, 1982. Ovine contagious epididymitis: A review. Veterinary Microbiology, 7:551-575.
Burgess GW, McDonald JW, Norris MJ, 1982. Epidemiolgical studies on ovine brucellosis in selected ram flocks. Australian Veterinary Journal, 59:45-47.
Cameron RDA, Carles AB, Lauerman Jr LH, 1971. The incidence of Brucella ovis in some Kenya flocks and its relationship to clinical lesions and semen quality. Veterinary Record, 89:552-557.
Cameron RDA, Lauerman Jr LH, 1976. Characteristics of semen changes during Brucella ovis infection in rams. Veterinary Record, 99:231-233.
Clapp KH, Keogh J, Richards MH, 1962. Epidemiology of ovine brucellosis in South Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 38:482-486.
Corbel MJ, Gill KPW, Redwood, DW, 1979. Diagnostic procedures for non-smooth Brucella strains. UK: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Publications), 31-43.
Costa, L. F., Pessoa, M. S., Guimarães, L. B., Faria, A. K. S., Morão, R. P., Mol, J. P. da S., Garcia, L. N. N., Almeida, A. C., Gouveia, A. M. G., Silva, M. X., Paixão, T. A., Santos, R. L., 2016. Serologic and molecular evidence of Brucella ovis infection in ovine and caprine flocks in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil., 9(190), (26 March 2016). http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/398/art%253A10.1186%252Fs13104-016-1998-2.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fbmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com%2Farticle%2F10.1186%2Fs13104-016-1998-2&token2=exp=1484045479˜acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F398%2Fart%25253A10.1186%25252Fs13104-016-1998-2.pdf*˜hmac=5b3f1904f87c1cdcdee3ba18ab5d29b3b41affc41c793f67ef21704ae8f7bc1c
Dargatz DA, Smith JA, Knight AP, Farin PW, Kimberling CV, 1990. Antimicrobial therapy for rams with Brucella ovis infection of the urogenital tract. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 196(4):605-610; 20 ref.
DeLong WJ, Waldhalm DG, Hall RF, 1979. Bacterial isolates associated with epididymitis in rams from Idaho and Eastern Oregon flocks. American Journal for Veterinary Research, 40:101-102.
Dorneles EM, Freire GN, Dasso MG, Poester FP, Lage AP, 2014. Genetic diversity of Brucella ovis isolates from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by MLVA16. BMC Research Notes, 7:447
Enright FM, 1990. The pathogenesis and pathobiology of Brucella infection in domestic animals. Animal brucellosis., 301-320; 55 ref.
FAO/WHO, 1986. Sixth report of the expert committee on brucellosis. Technical report series 740, Geneva, Switzerland: FAO/WHO.
Feng PeiZhong, Su Cheng, Huang Jian, 1997. First systematic identification of suspected Brucella ovis from cases of epididymitis in rams in China. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica, 28(3):256-260; 7 ref.
Gopaul, K. K., Koylass, M. S., Smith, C. J., Whatmore, A. M., 2008. Rapid identification of Brucella isolates to the species level by real time PCR based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis., 8(86), (02 June 2008). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/8/86
Hartley WJ, Jebson JL, McFarlane, D, 1955. Some observations on natural transmission of ovine brucellosis. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 3:5-10.
Haughey KG, Hughes KL, Hartley WJ, 1967. The occurrence of congenital infections associated with perinatal lamb mortality. Australian Veterinary Journal, 43:413-420.
Hegedüs D, Tekes L, Hajtós I, 1992. Effect of the Brucella ovis infection of breeding rams on the reproduction indices of certain large scale sheep flocks in Bács-Kiskun county. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 47(7):381-384; 22 ref.
Hughes KL, 1972. Experimental Brucella ovis infection in ewes I: Breeding performance of infected ewes. 2: Correlation of infection and complement fixation titres. Australian Veterinary Journal, 48(1):12-17, 18-22.
Hughes KL, Claxton PD, 1968. Brucella ovis infection. I. An evaluation of microbiological, serological and clinical methods of diagnosis in the ram. Australian Veterinary Journal, 44:14-17.
Jansen BC, 1980. The pathology of bacterial infection of the genitalia in rams. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 47:263-267.
Jiménez de Bagüés MP, Barberán, M., Marín, C. M., Blasco, J. M., 1995. The Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine does not confer protection against Brucella ovis in rams.. 13(3) 301-304. doi: 10.1016/0264-410X(95)93317-3
Katoch RC, Joshi VB, Mandeep Sharma, Batta MK, Nagal KB, 1996. Seroprevalence of Brucella ovis, Brucella melitensis and Chlamydia psittaci in rams. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 66(11):1130-1131; 7 ref.
Liu ZW, Miao LW, Wang Y, Ci HJ, Long XS, Wang ZQ, Li JJ, Wang WD, 1983. The isolation and identification of Brucella ovis in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine (Zhongguo Shouyi Zazhi), 9(6):5-7; 6 ref.
López-Goñi, I., García-Yoldi, D., Marín, C. M., Miguel, M. J. de, Muñoz, P. M., Blasco, J. M., Jacques, I., Grayon, M., Cloeckaert, A., Ferreira, A. C., Cardoso, R., Sá, M. I. C. de, Walravens, K., Albert, D., Garin-Bastuji, B., 2008. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay (Bruce-ladder) for molecular typing of all Brucella species, including the vaccine strains., 46(10), 3484-3487. http://jcm.asm.org/ doi: 10.1128/JCM.00837-08
Marín CM, Bagués MPJde, Blasco JM, Gamazo C, Moriyón I, 1989. Comparison of three serological tests for Brucella ovis infection of rams using different antigenic extracts. Veterinary Record, 125(20):504-508.
McFarlane D, Salisbury RM, Osborne HG, Jebson JL, 1952. Investigations into sheep abortion in New Zealand during the 1950 lambing season. Australian Veterinary Journal, 28:221-226.
Moustacas, V. S., Silva, T. M. A., Costa, L. F., Xavier, M. N., Carvalho, C. A., Costa, É. A., Paixão, T. A., Santos, R. L., 2013. Species-specific multiplex PCR for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus seminis, and Histophilus somni infection in rams., 9(51), (21 March 2013). http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1746-6148-9-51.pdf
Muhammed SI, Lauerman Jr, LH, Mesfin GM, Otim CP, 1975. Duration of Brucella ovis infection in ewes. Cornell Veterinary, 65:223-227.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int
OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home
Paravis MS, Muller G, Rossi S, Tonna H, Silvera V, Carreto L, 1995. Evaluation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in Uruguay. Revista Latinoamericana de Pequenos Rumiantes, 1(3):197-210; 22 ref.
Perez E, Flores-Castro R et al. , 1979. Diagnosis and description of an outbreak of ovine epididymitis in Mexico caused by Brucella ovis. Veterinaria, Mexico, 10:221-226.
Plommet M, 1991. New animal vaccines. In: Emel Tümbay, Süleyha Hilmi, Özdem Ang, eds. Brucella and brucellosis in man and animals. Proceedings of a symposium held in Izmir, Turkey, on September 24-26, 77-85.
Pozvari M, 1980. Comparison of the complement fixation and the agar gel immunodiffusion tests to detect Brucella ovis antibodies. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 87:182-186.
Ridler A, 2001. Brucella ovis infection in deer. Surveillance, 28(3):6-8
Ris, D. R., Hamel, K. L., Long, D. L., 1984. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunospecific assay (ELISA) with the cold complement fixation test for the serodiagnosis of Brucella ovis infection., 32(1/2), 18-20.
Saunders, V. F., Reddacliff, L. A., Berg, T., Hornitzky, M., 2007. Multiplex PCR for the detection of Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus seminis and Histophilus somni in ram semen., 85(1/2), 72-77. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/avj doi: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2006.00098.x
Simmons GC, Hall WTK, 1953. Epididymitis of rams. Australian Veterinary Journal, 29:33-40.
Tsolis, R. M., Seshadri, R., Santos, R. L., Sangari, F. J., García Lobo, J. M., Jong, M. F. de, Ren, Q. H., Myers, G., Brinkac, L. M., Nelson, W. C., DeBoy, R. T., Angiuoli, S., Khouri, H., Dimitrov, G., Robinson, J. R., Mulligan, S., Walker, R. L., Elzer, P. E., Hassan, K. A., Paulsen, I. T., 2009. Genome degradation in Brucella ovis corresponds with narrowing of its host range and tissue tropism., (No.May), e5519. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005519 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005519
Whatmore AM, Perrett LL, MacMillan AP, 2007. Characterisation of the genetic diversity of Brucella by multilocus sequencing. BMC Microbiology, 7:34.
Whatmore, A. M., Koylass, M. S., Muchowski, J., Edwards-Smallbone, J., Gopaul, K. K., Perrett, L. L., 2016. Extended multilocus sequence analysis to describe the global population structure of the genus Brucella: phylogeography and relationship to biovars., 7(December), 2049. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02049/full
Whatmore, A. M., Shankster, S. J., Perrett, L. L., Murphy, T. J., Brew, S. D., Thirlwall, R. E., Cutler, S. J., MacMillan, A. P., 2006. Identification and characterization of variable-number tandem-repeat markers for typing of Brucella spp., 44(6), 1982-1993. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02039-05
Worthington RW, Stevenson BJ, Lisle GWde, 1985. Serology and semen culture for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in chronically infected rams. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 33(6):84-86; 5 ref.
Xavier, M. N., Silva, T. M. A., Costa, É. A., Paixão, T. A., Moustacas, V. S., Carvalho Júnior, C. A., Sant'Anna, F. M., Robles, C. A., Gouveia, A. M. G., Lage, A. P., Tsolis, R. M., Santos, R. L., 2010. Development and evaluation of a species-specific PCR assay for the detection of Brucella ovis infection in rams., 145(1/2), 158-164. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135 doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.02.037
Blasco JM, Floch J, Barberan M, 1982. Reproductive characteristics of Romanov rams with infectious epididymitis. I. Clinical observations and fertility., 15 Ganadera, Spain: Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias. 67-76.
Bloch N, Diallo I, 1991. Serological survey on sheep and goats in four departments of Niger. (Enquête sérologique chez les petits ruminants dans quatre départements du Niger.). Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux. 44 (4), 397-404.
Boryczko Z, Królak M, 1987. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the first recorded outbreak in Poland of infectious ovine epididymitis caused by Brucella ovis. (Charakterystyka kliniczno-epizootiologiczna pierwszego stwierdzonego w Polsce ogniska zakaznego zapalenia najadrzy trykow na tle Brucella ovis.). Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 43 (10), 617-620.
Brglez I, Mehle J, Železnik Z, 1993. Infectious diseases of animals in Slovenia. Survey of the situation in the last 10-20 years. (Živalske kužne bolezni v Sloveniji. Pregled stanja v zadnjem obdobju.). Zbornik Veterinarske Fakultete Univerza Ljubljana. 30 (1), 5-15.
Bulgin M S, 1990. Brucella ovis infection in a farm flock. In: Symposium on Diseases of Small Ruminants. Corvallis, Oregon, June 7-9, 1990. [Symposium on Diseases of Small Ruminants. Corvallis, Oregon, June 7-9, 1990.], Corvallis, Oregon, USA: Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine. 118-127.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Dénes B, Tekes L, Hajtós I, 1993. Experiences of the eradication of Brucella ovis infection in breeding ram flocks in Carpathian Ruthenia [Ukraine]. (Tenyészkosállományok Brucella ovis-fertőzöttségtől való mentesítésének kárpátaljai tapasztalatai.). Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja. 48 (4), 228-233.
Feng PeiZhong, Su Cheng, Huang Jian, 1997. First systematic identification of suspected Brucella ovis from cases of epididymitis in rams in China. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica. 28 (3), 256-260.
Hegedüs D, Tekes L, Hajtós I, 1992. Effect of the Brucella ovis infection of breeding rams on the reproduction indices of certain large scale sheep flocks in Bács-Kiskun county. (A tenyészkosok Brucella ovis- fertőzöttségének hatása a bárányszaporulatra Bács- Kiskun megye nagyüzemi juhállományaiban.). Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja. 47 (7), 381-384.
Katoch R C, Joshi V B, Mandeep Sharma, Batta M K, Nagal K B, 1996. Seroprevalence of Brucella ovis, Brucella melitensis and Chlamydia psittaci in rams. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 66 (11), 1130-1131.
Khaschabi D, Schönbauer M, Schöpf K, Speckbacher G, 1993. On the occurrence of Brucella ovis-infection in sheep flocks in Austria. (Über die Verbreitung der Brucella ovis-Infektion in heimischen Schafbeständen.). Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift. 80 (8), 234-238.
Liu Z W, Miao L W, Wang Y, Ci H J, Long X S, Wang Z Q, Li J J, Wang W D, 1983. The isolation and identification of Brucella ovis in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine (Zhongguo Shouyi Zazhi). 9 (6), 5-7.
Marinho M, Mathias L A, 1996. Search for Brucella ovis antibodies among sheep in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (Pesquisa de anticorps contra Brucella ovis em ovinos do Estado de São Paulo.). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 16 (2/3), 45-48.
OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/
Paravis M S, Muller G, Rossi S, Tonna H, Silvera V, Carreto L, 1995. Evaluation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in Uruguay. (Brucella ovis: desarrollo de una tecnica de ELISA para diagnostico serologico en Uruguay.). Revista Latinoamericana de Pequeños Rumiantes. 1 (3), 197-210.
Pozvari M, 1980. Comparison of the complement fixation and the agar gel immunodiffusion tests to detect Brucella ovis antibodies. (Vergleichende Untersuchungen zwischen der Komplementbindungsreaktion und dem Agargel-Immunodiffusionstest zum Nachweis von Brucella-ovis-Antikorpern.). Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 87 (5), 182-186.
Robles C A, Torraca A la, Sancholuz M, Uzal F A, Evans E, 1993. Ovine brucellosis in Merino flocks in Chubut province, Argentina. (Brucelosis ovina en majadas Merino de la provincia de Chubut, Argentina.). Veterinaria Argentina. 10 (97), 458, 460-461.
Tamayo R, Valentin H, Schoebitz R, 1989. Determination of Brucella ovis antibodies in sheep in Region X, Chile. (Determinación, de anticuerpos a Brucella ovis en ovinos de la X Region de Chile.). Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, Chile. 21 (1), 22-28.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/