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caseous lymphadenitis

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caseous lymphadenitis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • caseous lymphadenitis
  • Pathogens
  • Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  • Overview
  • Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic contagious disease of sheep, goats and cattle caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis with the incidence of disease increasing with age (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Caseous lymphadenitis involving the parotid lymph node in a ram.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCaseous lymphadenitis involving the parotid lymph node in a ram.
CopyrightPhilip R Scott
Caseous lymphadenitis involving the parotid lymph node in a ram.
SymptomsCaseous lymphadenitis involving the parotid lymph node in a ram.Philip R Scott

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • caseous lymphadenitis

International Common Names

  • English: caseous lymphadenitis in goats and sheep; caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats; corynebacteriosis; corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in cattle; equine ulcerative lymphangitis; lymphadenitis, caseous; lymphangitis, ulcerative; pseudotuberculosis; ulcerative lymphangitis; ulcerative lymphangitis in horses and ruminants

English acronym

  • CL
  • CLA

Pathogen/s

Top of page Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

Overview

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Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic contagious disease of sheep, goats and cattle caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis with the incidence of disease increasing with age (Kimberling, 1988). The disease is distributed worldwide and characterized by suppurative necrotizing inflammation of superficial lymph nodes particularly the parotid, submandibular, pop-liteal, pre-crural, and pre-scapular lymph nodes (Kimberling, 1988; Zaitoun and Ali, 1999). This form of the disease is often referred to as the cutaneous or superficial form of CLA. Spread of infection to the mediastinal and bronchial lymph nodes and internal viscera including lungs, spleen, kidneys, and liver constitutes the visceral or internal form of CLA. Economic losses result from poor performance including reduced milk and wool production (Paton et al., 1994), weight loss (Davis, 1996), carcass condemnation (Kimberling, 1988) and restricted trade. C. pseudotuberculosis also affects horses, cattle, camels, and wild ruminants in some countries. Rarely, humans handling infected sheep on farms or in slaughter plants may develop regional lymphadenitis. Ulcerative lymphangitis is the term classically used to describe cuticular manifestations of C. pseudotuberculosis, although it may also be less commonly caused by other bacteria.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
AntilocapraWild hostOther: All Stages
Bos indicus (zebu)
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)Domesticated hostOther: All Stages
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated hostOther: All Stages
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated hostSheep & Goats: All Stages
Cavia porcellus (domesticated guinea pig)Experimental settingsOther: All Stages
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated hostOther: All Stages
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settingsOther: All Stages
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated hostSheep & Goats: All Stages
RuminantiaWild hostOther: All Stages

Hosts/Species Affected

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Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic contagious disease of sheep, goats and cattle. C. pseudotuberculosis also affects horses, camels and wild ruminants in some countries.

Systems Affected

Top of page respiratory diseases of large ruminants
respiratory diseases of small ruminants
skin and ocular diseases of large ruminants
skin and ocular diseases of small ruminants

Distribution

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The disease is prevalent in many countries worldwide. Details can be found on the distribution map.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonPresentNfi and Ndi (1994); OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Ibrahim et al. (1998); OIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-SichuanPresent, WidespreadHuang ZhengZe and Zhang GuoAn (1995)
-YunnanPresent, WidespreadPang ShiLong et al. (1996)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Keyvanfar and Ghadimi (1995); OIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelPresentSteinman et al. (1999); OIE Handistatus (2005)
Japan
-HokkaidoPresent, WidespreadZhao et al. (1991)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005); CABI (Undated)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Bahaman et al. (1989); OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaPresentRadwan et al. (1989); OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Literák et al. (1999); OIE Handistatus (2005); CABI (Undated)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentLaak et al. (1988); OIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Ribeiro et al. (1988); OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Redondo et al. (1988); OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Canary IslandsPresentReal Valcarcel et al. (1992)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Kingdom
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-AlbertaPresent, WidespreadStanford et al. (1998)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadMenzies and Muckle (1989)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Ruíz L. et al. (1995); OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005); CABI (Undated)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-CaliforniaPresentMadewell et al. (1990)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPaton (1997); OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Western AustraliaPresent, WidespreadPaton et al. (1996)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Arrigo et al. (1993); OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-CearaPresentSanta Rosa et al. (1989)
-Minas GeraisPresentGarcia et al. (1987)
-Rio de JaneiroPresent, WidespreadLangenegger et al. (1991)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentRibeiro (1994)
-Sao PauloPresentGarcia et al. (1987)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathology

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The disease is characterized by the lamellar (‘onion-ring’) appearance of affected lymph nodes containing yellow-green viscous pus, which may become inspissated with a toothpaste-like consistency. Carcass lymph nodes may be 15 cm in diameter. Abscesses in superficial lymph nodes may rupture and discharge huge numbers of bacteria into the environment. In the lungs, there may be localized pleurisy associated with lesions involving the visceral pleura.

Histologically, there is massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes into the lymph nodes.

Diagnosis

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Sheep with the superficial form of CLA may show no clinical signs of illness unless enlargement of the abscess causes compression of the pharynx, larynx or other structure, impairing function. Although laboratory examinations of affected sheep may reveal increased white-blood-cell counts, elevated fibrinogen and globulin concentrations, these parameters indicate only an inflammatory response to infection and are not specific for CLA lesions.

The characteristic location of lesions within drainage lymph nodes differentiates CLA infection from abscesses and cellulitis lesions. Skin tumours and lympho-sarcoma are rare in sheep. Flock history may be important in forming a provisional diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis of the cutaneous form of CLA is based upon careful clinical examination of suspected cases and culture of C. pseudotuberculosis from discharging lymph nodes.

The visceral form of CLA is commonly associated with the ‘thin ewe syndrome’ with lesions in the lungs, mediastinum, liver, and kidneys (Kimberling, 1988). Less common sites are the vertebral column, udder, and scrotum. Large lung and mediastinal lesions may result in dyspnoea and this form of the disease is common in the USA where affected sheep are referred to as ‘lungers’.

CLA lesions in the liver and superficial lesions involving the visceral pleura may be imaged using ultrasonography. Within the lung and mediastinum they may be imaged by radiography. Liver-specific enzymes will only identify the occurrence of a hepatic insult not the cause. Samples can be collected at necropsy from suspicious lesions.

There is a humoral response to the C. pseudotuberculosis exotoxin and this forms the basis for serological testing. A seropositive result indicates exposure to the exotoxin and may indicate active infection; however, severely debilitated animals may yield a false negative result. Vaccinated animals will be seropositive and may lead to an erroneous conclusion especially in purchased sheep with an unknown vaccination history.

The differential diagnosis list should include actinobacillosis and tuberculosis. Common causes of chronic ill-thrift in adult sheep include restricted nutrition, poor dentition, chronic parasitism, paratuberculosis, maedi-visna virus infection, sheep pulmonary adenomatosis, chronic suppurative processes, and tumours of the gastrointestinal tract.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
General Signs / Exercise intolerance, tires easily Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Internal abdominal mass, swellings, adhesions abdomen Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Laryngeal, tracheal, pharyngeal swelling, mass larynx, trachea, pharynx Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
General Signs / Lymphadenopathy, swelling, mass or enlarged lymph nodes Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Diagnosis
General Signs / Mammary gland swelling, mass, hypertrophy udder, gynecomastia Pigs:Sow Sign
General Signs / Neck swelling, mass cervical region Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
General Signs / Paraparesis, weakness, paralysis both hind limbs Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
General Signs / Swelling, mass external abdomen Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
General Signs / Thoracic swelling, mass, thorax, chest, ribs, sternum Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Diagnosis
General Signs / Weight loss Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Forelimb pain, front leg Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Hindlimb pain, hind leg Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain mammary gland, udder Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sheep & Goats:Mature female Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sheep & Goats:Mature female Sign
Reproductive Signs / Anestrus, absence of reproductive cycle, no visible estrus Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female Sign
Reproductive Signs / Firm mammary gland, hard udder Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mastitis, abnormal milk Sheep & Goats:Mature female Sign
Reproductive Signs / Warm mammary gland, hot, heat, udder Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dull areas on percussion of chest, thorax Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Alopecia, thinning, shedding, easily epilated, loss of, hair Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Foul odor skin, smell Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Hyperkeratosis, thick skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Moist skin, hair or feathers Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Moist skin, hair or feathers Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Purulent discharge skin Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Diagnosis
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Rough hair coat, dull, standing on end Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin fistula, sinus Sheep & Goats:Hogget,Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Diagnosis
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin papules Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin pustules Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign

Disease Course

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The disease course varies from months to years. C. pseudotuberculosis enters the body through a break in the skin often caused by shearing cuts and spreads in the body via the lymphatic system. Ingestion or inhalation of fomites may also be important portals of entry through mucous membranes. Ruptured superficial or lung abscesses, containing huge numbers of organisms, are primary sources of environmental contamination. After entering the local lymphatics, the organisms are picked up by neutrophils and transported to the local drainage lymph node. Sheep with skin lesions on the head have parotid and sub-mandibular lymph node involvement whereas shearing wounds lead to infection of the pop-liteal, pre-crural and pre-scapular lymph nodes. Lesions in the lung and mediatinum may be caused by inhalation of fomites particularly during periods of close confinement.

Caseous lymphadenitis is characterized by abscessation of one or two carcass lymph nodes but lesion distribution in CLA infection varies between countries. Lesions may be difficult to observe in fully-fleeced sheep but are readily palpable during clinical examination, because the lymph nodes are up to 10 times their normal size. Occasionally lesions rupture to discharge viscous, sometimes inspissated, yellow-green pus.

In Australia, the pre-scapular and pre-crural lymph nodes are affected in 54 and 29 per cent of cases, respectively, with less than 1 per cent of lesions affecting lymph nodes of the head region (Batey et al., 1986). Conversely, CLA in the United Kingdom is characterized by abscessation of the parotid and sub-mandibular lymph nodes (Scott et al., 1997). Spread of infection to cause significant visceral lesions (Laven et al., 1997) is rare in the UK.

Internal abscesses involving the lung, mediastinum, or liver caused by C. pseudotuberculosis are a major cause of chronic weight loss in sheep and goats in the USA. Infection and abscessation of a vertebral body causes spinal cord compression with clinical findings dependent upon the site of the lesion.

Epidemiology

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The disease is introduced into a country or region through the importation of infected sheep or goats. Transmission occurs either directly between sheep during close confinement or indirectly via contaminated shearing equipment with fomites from sheep with lung lesions (Paton et al., 1995) or discharging skin lesions. Fighting, causing skin lesions to the head, facilitates disease transmission between rams (Scott et al., 1997). The epidemiology of CLA varies between countries, from little within-flock transmission in the United Kingdom to epidemic proportions in flocks in Australia and USA. The prevalence of infection increases with age and in sheep under intensive management.

Impact: Economic

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The economic impact of CLA varies between countries and management systems within countries. Economic losses with adult sheep may result from poor production including weight loss, reduced lactation and consequently poor lamb growth, lowered wool production, chronic wasting due to large visceral lesions, and carcass condemnation at the slaughter plant due to abscessation of regional lymph nodes. International trade restrictions may limit export of sheep and goats from known infected flocks/herds. Routine vaccination adds to production costs in those countries where vaccine is employed in CLA control measures.

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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Cases of lymphadenopathy have been reported in people in direct contact with sheep including shearers, and abattoir workers, but the cases are rare. Carcasses and viscera with evidence of CLA abscesses are condemned and removed from the food chain. Gloves should be worn when handling contaminated animals and carcasses. Because the disease is a potential zoonose all gloves and utensils used on infected animals should be properly disinfected or disposed of.

Disease Treatment

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Despite sensitivity of C. pseudotuberculosis to a number of antibiotics in-vitro, therapy is unsuccessful due to the intracellular site of the bacteria and the fibrous capsule surrounding the lesions. Lancing lesions only results in contamination of the environment increasing the potential for spread of disease. Abscesses frequently recur after drainage and lavage with antiseptics.

Prevention and Control

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Disease prevention in clean flocks can be maintained by effective biosecurity measures. In such programmes the role of shearing equipment and other handling facilities such as mobile plunge dippers and feeders as vectors for disease must be carefully considered. However, disease risks are highest with purchased animals, which must be inspected before purchase and quarantined for at least 2-months before mixing with the original flock. Replacement breeding stock must be purchased from disease-free flocks whenever possible. Alternatively, unvaccinated sheep should be purchased and serological testing undertaken before admission of seronegative stock to the flock.

In endemically infected flocks, the control programme must involve reducing exposure to possibly contaminated fomites, culling sheep with unexplained ill-thrift, and vaccination of animals. Young animals should be raised separately from older infected animals. Shearing equipment, particularly the combs and blades, must be regularly disinfected, especially after contact with a discharging lesion. Sheep should be shorn in age groups, youngest first, and those with skin lesions must be shorn last. Skin wounds inflicted during shearing should be treated with topical iodine spray (Serikawa et al., 1994). Shower dipping for ectoparasite control and keeping sheep under cover for one hour or more after shearing increased the odds of high CLA incidence in flocks in Western Australia (Paton et al., 1996).

Commercial vaccines reduce the incidence of CLA within a flock (Paton et al., 1995; Pointkowski and Shivvers 1998) but do not prevent all new infections nor cure sheep already infected. Commercial vaccines are used in many countries with a high CLA prevalence such as the USA and Australia but presently not in many countries within Europe. All commercial vaccines contain the phospholipase D (PLD) toxoid and some also contain killed whole bacterial cells. Clostridial antigens may also be included in the vaccine. Care must be exercised not to challenge heavily pregnant sheep with too many vaccine antigens at the same time as temporarily reduced feed intake may precipitate ovine pregnancy toxaemia.

Eradication is difficult and involves culling all infected sheep from vaccinated flocks. Thereafter, once clinical disease is at a low level, vaccination can be stopped and unvaccinated seropositive animals removed. In unvaccinated flocks, all seropositive animals must be culled and testing repeated until the disease is eliminated. A successful eradication programme based upon serological testing and disposal involving 13,000 goats in 53 goat herds in the Netherlands has been described (Dercksen et al., 1996).

References

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Abdirahman OM; Abdi BH, 1988. Pseudotuberculosis in goats in the Mogadiscio area. Bollettino Scientifico della Facoltà di Zootecnia e Veterinaria, Università Nazionale Somala, 8:33-37; 8 ref.

Abubakr MI; Nayel MN; Fadlalla ME, 1999. Corynebacterium abscesses in camels in Bahrain. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6(1):107-109; 6 ref.

Al-Rawashdeh OF; Al-Qudah KM, 2000. Effect of shearing on the incidence of caseous lymphadenitis in Awassi sheep in Jordan. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 47(4):287-293; 29 ref.

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Keyvanfar H; Ghadimi M, 1995. Detection of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis-infected goats and sheep via seroagglutination. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, 49(3/4):55-61; 10 ref.

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Langenegger CH; Langenegger J; Scherer PO, 1991. Prevalence and comparative diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis in goats in Rio de Janeiro State. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 11(1-2):31-34; 22 ref.

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Literák I; Skalka B; Rychla R, 1994. Danger for sheep farming. Caseous lymphadenitis (pseudotuberculosis) of sheep also in the Czech Republic. Veterinárství, 44(4):149-151; 14 ref.

Madewell BR; Gill DB; Evermann JF, 1990. Seroprevalence of ovine progressive pneumonia virus and other selected pathogens in California cull sheep. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 10(1-2):31-39; 29 ref.

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Menzies PI; Muckle CA, 1989. The use of a microagglutination assay for the detection of antibodies to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in naturally infected sheep and goat flocks. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 53(3):313-318; 25 ref.

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Pang ShiLong; Yu NaiSheng; Ye ShaoHui; Peng HeLu; Zhao Ding; Xiao JingYang; Chen Wen, 1996. Investigation of caseous lymphadenitis in goats and identification of the pathogens. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 26(9):15-17; 8 ref.

Paton M, 1997. The epidemiology of caseous lymphadenitis in Australia and observations on other production systems. Proceedings One Hundred and First Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 18-24 October, 1997., 444-452; 38 ref.

Paton M; Rose I; Hart R; Sutherland S; Mercy A; Ellis T, 1996. Post-shearing management affects the seroincidence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in sheep flocks. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 26(3/4):275-284; 11 ref.

Paton MW; Rose IR; Hart RA; Sutherland SS; Mercy AR; Ellis TM; Dhaliwal JA, 1994. New infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reduces wool production. Australian Veterinary Journal, 71(2):47-49; 13 ref.

Paton MW; Sutherland SS; Rose IR; Hart RA; Mercy AR; Ellis TM, 1995. The spread of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection to unvaccinated and vaccinated sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal, 72(7):266-269; 17 ref.

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Piontkowski MD; Shivvers DW, 1998. Evaluation of a commercially available vaccine against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis for use in sheep. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 212(11):1765-1768; 21 ref.

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Radwan AI; El-Magawry S; Hawari A; Al-Bekairi SI; Rebleza RM, 1989. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 21(4):229-230; 4 ref.

Real Valcarcel F; León Vizcaíno L; Acosta Hernández B; Ferrer Quintana O; Gutiérrez Cabrera C, 1992. Perineal lymphadenitis in Canary Island goats due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.. Medicina Veterinaria, 9(7-8):444-448; 29 ref.

Redondo E; Roncero V; Duran E; Moiano MC, 1988. Study of pseudotuberculosis in sheep. Acta Medica Veterinaria, 34(2):191-198; 14 ref.

Ribeiro LAO, 1994. Isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: a case of caseous lymphadenitis in a lamb in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Arquivos da Faculdade de Veterinária, UFRGS, 22:76-79; 9 ref.

Ribeiro OC; Silva JAHda; Maia PCC; Campos WG, 1988. Evaluation of an inactivated vaccine against caseous lymphadenitis in goats under extensive management. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 8(1-2):27-29; 6 ref.

Rosa JS; Johnson EH; Alves FSF; Santos LFL, 1989. A retrospective study of hepatic abscesses in goats: pathological and microbiological findings. British Veterinary Journal, 145(1):73-76; 12 ref.

Ruíz LJ; Quintana M; Barrera M, 1995. Isolation and biochemical classification of a strain of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from a goat in Cuba. Revista de Salud Animal, 17(3):307-309; 10 ref.

Santa Rosa J; Johnson EH; Alves FSF; Santos LFLdos, 1989. Occurrence of hepatic abscess in goats. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 24(1):63-68; 14 ref.

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Stanford K; Brogden KA; McClelland LA; Kozub GC; Audibert F, 1998. The incidence of caseous lymphadenitis in Alberta sheep and assessment of impact by vaccination with commercial and experimental vaccines. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 62(1):38-43; 22 ref.

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Steinman A; Elad D; Shpigel NY, 1999. Ulcerative lymphangitis and coronet lesions in an Israeli dairy herd infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Veterinary Record, 145(21):604-606; 14 ref.

Zaitoun AM; Ali HS, 1999. Clinical and experimental studies of pseudotuberculosis on a multiple-ages sheep and goats flock with control trials via treatment and BCG-vaccination. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 42(83):239-259.

Zhao HK; Morimura H; Hiramune T; Kikuchi N; Yanagawa R; Serikawa S, 1991. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep in Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 53(2):355-356; 6 ref.

Distribution References

Arrigo J L, Latorraca A, Uzal F A, Robles C A, Olaechea F V, Pelliza de Sbriller A, 1993. Mandibular pyogranulomas in sheep caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes. (Piogranulomas mandibulares en ovinos causados por Corynebacterium pyogenes.). Veterinaria Argentina. 10 (98), 536-539.

Bahaman A R, Maznah A E, Hajariah M S, Azhar P Z, 1989. Prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis in goats in Peninsular Malaysia. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia. 1 (1), 33-37.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Garcia M, Araujo W P, Carvalho V M de, Costa E O da, 1987. Isolation and identification of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from sheep and goats raised in São Paulo and Minas Gerais. (Isolamento e identifição do Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis em ovinos e Caprinos Criados nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais.). Revista da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo. 24 (1), 23-25.

Huang ZhengZe, Zhang GuoAn, 1995. Preliminary diagnosis and treatment of suspected caseous lymphadenitis in goats. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 21 (8), 12.

Ibrahim H A, Tawfig T M, Abdalla A E D, 1998. Control measures for caseous lymphadenitis along export route in the Sudan. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. 37 (1/2), 37-42.

Keyvanfar H, Ghadimi M, 1995. Detection of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis-infected goats and sheep via seroagglutination. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. 49 (3/4), 55-61.

Laak E A ter, Bosch J, König C D W, 1988. Caseous lymphadenitis in goats in the Gelderland province of the Netherlands. ('Caseous lymphadenitis' (CL) bij geiten in Gelderland: perspectieven voor een bestrijding.). Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde. 113 (24), 1362-1365.

Langenegger C H, Langenegger J, Scherer P O, 1991. Prevalence and comparative diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis in goats in Rio de Janeiro State. (Prevalência e diagnóstico comparativo da linfadenite caseosa em caprinos do estado do Rio de Janeiro.). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 11 (1-2), 31-34.

Literák I, Horváthová A, Jahnová M, Rychlík I, Skalka B, 1999. Phenotype and genotype characteristics of the Slovak and Czech Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research. 32 (2), 107-111. DOI:10.1016/S0921-4488(98)00174-6

Madewell B R, Gill D B, Evermann J F, 1990. Seroprevalence of ovine progressive pneumonia virus and other selected pathogens in California cull sheep. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 10 (1-2), 31-39. DOI:10.1016/0167-5877(90)90048-M

Menzies P I, Muckle C A, 1989. The use of a microagglutination assay for the detection of antibodies to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in naturally infected sheep and goat flocks. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 53 (3), 313-318.

Nfi A N, Ndi C N, 1994. Caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats in Mankon, Cameroon. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 42 (3), 163-166.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Pang ShiLong, Yu NaiSheng, Ye ShaoHui, Peng HeLu, Zhao Ding, Xiao JingYang, Chen Wen, 1996. Investigation of caseous lymphadenitis in goats and identification of the pathogens. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology. 26 (9), 15-17.

Paton M, 1997. The epidemiology of caseous lymphadenitis in Australia and observations on other production systems. In: Proceedings One Hundred and First Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 18-24 October, 1997. [Proceedings One Hundred and First Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 18-24 October, 1997.], Richmond, USA: United States Animal Health Association. 444-452.

Paton M, Rose I, Hart R, Sutherland S, Mercy A, Ellis T, 1996. Post-shearing management affects the seroincidence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in sheep flocks. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 26 (3/4), 275-284. DOI:10.1016/0167-5877(95)00544-7

Radwan A I, El-Magawry S, Hawari A, Al-Bekairi S I, Rebleza R M, 1989. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 21 (4), 229-230. DOI:10.1007/BF02261094

Real Valcarcel F, León Vizcaíno L, Acosta Hernández B, Ferrer Quintana O, Gutiérrez Cabrera C, 1992. Perineal lymphadenitis in Canary Island goats due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. (La linfadenitis perineal en la cabra canaria por Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.). Medicina Veterinaria. 9 (7-8), 444-448.

Redondo E, Roncero V, Duran E, Moiano M C, 1988. Study of pseudotuberculosis in sheep. (Consideraciones sobre la pseudotuberculosis ovina.). Acta Medica Veterinaria. 34 (2), 191-198.

Ribeiro L A O, 1994. Isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: a case of caseous lymphadenitis in a lamb in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (Isolamento do Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis de um caso de linfoadenite caseosa em ovino no Rio Grande do Sul.). Arquivos da Faculdade de Veterinária, UFRGS. 76-79.

Ribeiro O C, Silva J A H da, Maia P C C, Campos W G, 1988. Evaluation of an inactivated vaccine against caseous lymphadenitis in goats under extensive management. (Avaliação de vacina contra linfadenite caseosa em caprinos mantidos em regime extensivo.). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 8 (1-2), 27-29.

Ruíz L J, Quintana M, Barrera M, 1995. Isolation and biochemical classification of a strain of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from a goat in Cuba. (Aislamiento y clasificacion bioquimica de una cepa de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis en la provincia La Habana.). Revista de Salud Animal. 17 (3), 307-309.

Santa Rosa J, Johnson E H, Alves F S F, Santos L F L dos, 1989. Occurrence of hepatic abscess in goats. (Ocorrência de abscesso hepático em caprinos.). Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 24 (1), 63-68.

Stanford K, Brogden K A, McClelland L A, Kozub G C, Audibert F, 1998. The incidence of caseous lymphadenitis in Alberta sheep and assessment of impact by vaccination with commercial and experimental vaccines. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 62 (1), 38-43.

Steinman A, Elad D, Shpigel N Y, 1999. Ulcerative lymphangitis and coronet lesions in an Israeli dairy herd infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Veterinary Record. 145 (21), 604-606.

Zhao H K, Morimura H, Hiramune T, Kikuchi N, Yanagawa R, Serikawa S, 1991. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep in Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 53 (2), 355-356.

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