Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Carassius auratus auratus
(goldfish)

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Datasheet

Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Carassius auratus auratus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • goldfish
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Originating in China, the goldfish (C. auratus auratus) has been bred as an ornamental pond and pet fish for over 500 years. Often released intentionally or otherwise, this hardy and omnivorous fish has been impl...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adult in a tank. Great Lakes Aquarium, Duluth, Minnesota, USA. February 2011.
TitleAdult
CaptionCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adult in a tank. Great Lakes Aquarium, Duluth, Minnesota, USA. February 2011.
Copyright©Brianne-2011/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adult in a tank. Great Lakes Aquarium, Duluth, Minnesota, USA. February 2011.
AdultCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adult in a tank. Great Lakes Aquarium, Duluth, Minnesota, USA. February 2011.©Brianne-2011/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adults in a tank.
TitleAdults
CaptionCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adults in a tank.
Copyright©Spider.Dog/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adults in a tank.
AdultsCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adults in a tank.©Spider.Dog/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adults in a tank.
TitleAdults
CaptionCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adults in a tank.
CopyrightPublic Domain/via publicdomainpictures.net
Carassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adults in a tank.
AdultsCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish); adults in a tank.Public Domain/via publicdomainpictures.net

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Carassius auratus auratus Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • goldfish

Other Scientific Names

  • Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Carassius carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus auratus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus auratus cantonensis Tchang, 1933
  • Cyprinus chinensis Gronow, 1854
  • Cyprinus langsdorfi Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1842
  • Cyprinus maillardi Guichenot, 1863
  • Cyprinus mauritianus Bennett, 1832
  • Cyprinus thoracatus Valenciennes, 1842

International Common Names

  • English: golden carp
  • Spanish: pez rojo
  • French: carassin; dorade de chine; poisson rouge

Local Common Names

  • Albania: peshk i kuq
  • Australia: native carp
  • Bulgaria: zlatnakarracuda
  • Canada: cyprin dore
  • China/Hong Kong: kam tsak; kam ue; ngan tsak; tsak ue; tsak ue
  • Czech Republic: karas cinsky; karas stribrity; karas stribrity vychodoasijsky
  • Denmark: sølvkaruds; sølvkarusse
  • Finland: kultakala
  • France: carassin doré
  • Germany: Goldfisch
  • Greece: cheisopsaro; chrysopsaro; chryssopsaro
  • Hungary: aranyhal
  • Iran: mahi-e-hoz
  • Italy: carassio dorato; ciprino dorato; pesce dorato
  • Japan: kin-buna
  • Kazakhstan: gibel carp
  • Latvia: zolotaja rybka
  • Malaysia: edible goldfish; ikan mas
  • Mexico: carpa dorada; pez dorado
  • Norway: karauss
  • Philippines: tawes
  • Poland: karas zlocisty; karas zlocisty a. chinski
  • Portugal: peixe dourado; peixe encarnado; pimpão
  • Romania: caras rosu; caras-auriu
  • Russian Federation: chernyi teleskop; serebryani karas
  • Slovakia: karas zlaty
  • Switzerland: pesco rosso
  • Taiwan: gold crucian carp
  • Turkey: kirmizi balik
  • Ukraine: karas; zolotaja rybka
  • USA/Hawaii: funa; funa

Summary of Invasiveness

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Originating in China, the goldfish (C. auratus auratus) has been bred as an ornamental pond and pet fish for over 500 years. Often released intentionally or otherwise, this hardy and omnivorous fish has been implicated in causing changes to the local environment, such as increasing water turbidity and facilitating algal blooms, and predation upon native fish species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Carassius
  •                                 Species: Carassius auratus auratus

Description

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C. auratus auratus has an elongated, stocky body. Not all have the well-known bright gold colour. Wild populations vary in colour from gold to olive green or even creamy white. C. auratus auratus possess a long dorsal fin with 15 to 21 rays and a hard serrate spine at the origin of the dorsal and anal fins. The lateral line is complete, with 25-31 scales in a lateral series. C. auratus auratus can be distinguished from other Asian cyprinids by the presence of a stiff, serrate spine at the origin of the dorsal and anal fins. Asian cyprinids have a stiff, non-serrate spine at this position (Robison and Buchanan, 1988; Page and Burr, 1991). The anal fin of the male is concave, whereas on the female it is convex.

C. auratus auratus does not reach the large size attained by carp. It typically grows to 120-220 mm SL, with a maximum of 410 mm SL (Page and Burr, 1991). The usual life span is 6 to 7 years, with a maximum of 30 years recorded (Robison and Buchanan, 1988).

Distribution

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Although C. auratus auratus are originated in China, it has been introduced throughout the world (Welcomme, 1988) and has now spread worldwide in aquariums, ponds, and into the wild. Although C. auratus auratus spawns and grows well in temperatures above 15°C, it will survive in water temperatures ranging from freezing to 30°C (Street, 2002). Its wide distribution due to hardiness, dependability on a number of natural food sources (omnivorous), low protein requirements and ornamental value in the export trade make this species an attractive candidate for aquaculture.

In addition to the numerous introductions listed in the Distribution table, the current status of this fish in the Gulf of Mexico, <_st13a_country-region _w3a_st="on"><_st13a_place _w3a_st="on">USA, can be found on the website of the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (http://nis.gsmfc.org). Further information on the non-indigenous distribution of this species within the <_st13a_country-region _w3a_st="on"><_st13a_place _w3a_st="on">USA can also be found in Nico and Schofield (2010).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive Kailola and et al. , 1993
-HainanPresentNative Not invasive Courtenay and et al. , 1984
-Hong KongPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2009
-LiaoningPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MacauPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2009
IndiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
IranPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
IraqPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
IsraelIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2009
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Kailola and et al. , 1993
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
Korea, Republic ofPresentNative Not invasive Courtenay and et al. , 1984
LaosPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2009
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
MyanmarPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2009
PakistanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
SingaporePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Courtenay and et al. , 1984
ThailandPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
TurkeyPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
UzbekistanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
VietnamPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009

Africa

EthiopiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
MadagascarPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
MauritiusPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
NamibiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
RéunionPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
SeychellesPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
South AfricaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
MexicoPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
USAPresentFroese and Pauly, 2009; Nico and Schofield, 2010C. auratus has been recorded from virtually every state, see Nico and Schofield (2010) for further information
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedDIAS, 2007; Froese and Pauly, 2009
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
BoliviaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
BrazilPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
ChilePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
ColombiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
PeruPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
UruguayPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
AustriaPresentNOBANIS, 2010C. auratus common
BelarusPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
BelgiumPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
CroatiaPresentIntroducedDIAS, 2007
CyprusPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
DenmarkLocalised Invasive NOBANIS, 2010C. auratus first recorded in 1737
EstoniaUnconfirmed recordFroese and Pauly, 2009
FrancePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
GermanyPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
GreecePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
HungaryPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
ItalyPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
LatviaPresentNOBANIS, 2010C. auratus first recorded in 1948
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
MoldovaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
NorwayPresent, few occurrences Not invasive NOBANIS, 2010C. auratus first recorded in the 1500s
PolandPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
PortugalPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
RomaniaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
Russian FederationPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
SerbiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
SpainPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
SwedenPresent, few occurrencesNOBANIS, 2010C. auratus first recorded in 1500
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
UKPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
UkrainePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Morgan and Beatty, 2004
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
New ZealandPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
SamoaPresentIntroducedDIAS, 2007

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Afghanistan Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Albania Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Argentina 1890-1899 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Private sector Yes No FishBase (2004)
Asia Costa Rica Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Australia 1876 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Austria Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Bangladesh Pakistan 1953 Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Bolivia Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Brazil Japan 1920-1929 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
British Columbia Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Bulgaria Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Canada 1600-1699 Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Chile 1856 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
China Japan 1976 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Colombia USA 1940 Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Cyprus Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Czech Republic Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Denmark Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Estonia Russian Federation 1948 Fisheries (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government Yes No FishBase (2004)
Fiji Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Former USSR Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
France China 1600-1699 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Germany Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Greece Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Hawaii China 1900 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Hungary Bulgaria 1891 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
India Japan Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FishBase (2004)
Indonesia China Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes No FishBase (2004)
Iran Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Iraq 1966-1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FishBase (2004)
Israel Germany 1985 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Kazakhstan 1950-1960 Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Korea, Republic of Japan 1972 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Madagascar France 1861 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Malaysia Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Mauritius Asia 1953 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Mexico China 1872 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FishBase (2004)
Mexico France 1872 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)
Government Yes No FishBase (2004)
Namibia Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Netherlands 1753-1754 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FishBase (2004)
New Zealand UK 1864-1868 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FishBase (2004)
New Zealand Australia 1864-1868 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FishBase (2004)
Norway Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Pakistan Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Papua New Guinea Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Peru Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Philippines Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Poland Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes No FishBase (2004)
Portugal <1700 Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Quebec Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Romania Germany 1927 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Russian Federation Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Fisheries (pathway cause)
Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Saudi Arabia Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Singapore China 1900-1997 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Private sector Yes No FishBase (2004)
Singapore Japan 1900-1997 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Private sector Yes No FishBase (2004)
Slovakia Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
South Africa Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Spain Japan 1600-1699 Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Taiwan China <1700 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
Thailand China 1692-1697 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Turkey Unknown No No FishBase (2004)
UK Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Uruguay Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Individual No No FishBase (2004)
USA Asia 1680-1689 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Uzbekistan Russian Federation 1951 Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Vietnam China Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)
Zimbabwe Unknown Yes No FishBase (2004)

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Lagoons Present, no further details
Freshwater
Lakes Present, no further details
Ponds Present, no further details
Rivers / streams Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Wetlands Present, no further details

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
benthic algae and weeds Adult
detritus Adult
plants Adult
zoobenthos Adult/Fry
zooplankton Adult

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.1 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5.0 Optimum Adult
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.002 Optimum Adult
Nitrate (mg/l) 3.0 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.3 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) >15 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 0.0 Optimum Adult
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) >15.0 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) 6.5 8.5 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <15 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) >15 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) Optimum 0-30 tolerated in wild

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Butorides striatus Predator Adult FishBase, 2004
Channa argus warpachowskii Predator Adult FishBase, 2004
Siniperca chuatsi Predator Adult FishBase, 2004

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Accidental Introduction

Wild populations may have established due to releases of pet goldfish.

Intentional Introduction

C. auratusauratus has been introduced throughout the world as an aquarium fish and for ornamental purposes stocking outdoor ponds.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Ornamental purposes Yes FishBase, 2004
Pet trade Yes FishBase, 2004

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Several countries have reported adverse ecological impacts after the introduction of this species.

Impact on Habitats

The presence of goldfish may increase the risk of algal blooms. Studies have shown growth of cyanobacteria is stimulated by passage through goldfish intestines (for further information please see Morgan and Beatty, 2004).

Impact on Biodiversity

The stomach contents of goldfish collected from the Vasse River, Western Australia, include cyanobacteria, diatoms, nematodes, insect larvae (anisopteran, coleopteran and dipteran), mosquito fish, green algae and some terrestrial insects (Morgan and Beatty, 2004).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Eremichthys acros (desert dace)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNevadaCompetition - monopolizing resources; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Gila nigra (headwater chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; New MexicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Gila robusta (roundtail chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; California; NevadaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Bait/attractant
  • Live feed

Environmental

  • Biological control

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Pet/aquarium trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

Prevention and Control

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In the summary of their report on the Vasse River, Western Australia, Morgan and Beatty (2004) suggest the implementation of an eradication program for goldfish in the form of an annual intensive capture effort prior to spawning and also the use of gill and seine nets, and electrofishing.

References

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Abramenko MI, Kravchenko OV, Velikoivanenko AE, 1997. Population genetic structure of the goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio diploid-triploid complex from the Don River Basin. Journal of Ichthyology, 37(1):56-65.

Courtenay WR Jr, Hensley DA, Taylor JN, McCann JA, 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States. In: Courtenay WR Jr, Stauffer JR Jr, ed. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 41-77.

DIAS, 2007. Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of the FAO. http://www.fao.org

FishBase, 2004. Entry for Carassius auratus auratus. Main ref. Kottelat M, Whitten AJ, Kartikasari SN, Wirjoatmodjo S, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions, 221 pp. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 13 October 2004.

Froese R, Pauly D, 2009. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Kailola PJ, Williams MJ, Stewart PC, Reichelt RE, McNee A, Grieve C, 1993. Australian Fisheries Resources. Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Resource Science, Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, 422 pp.

Lachner EA, Robins CR, Courtenay WR Jr, 1970. Exotic fishes and other aquatic organisms introduced into North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 59, 29 pp.

Matlock GC, 1990. Occurrence of goldfish in Texas saltwater. Texas Parks and Wildlife Data Management Series No. 41. Austin, 3 pp.

Morgan D, Beatty S, 2004. Fish fauna of the Vasse River and the colonisation by feral goldfish (Carassius auratus). Report to Fishcare WA and Geocatch. http://www.cffr.murdoch.edu.au/reports/VASSE_RIVER_FINAL_REPORT.pdf

Nico LG, Schofield PJ, 2010. Carassius auratus. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=508

NOBANIS, 2010. Carassius auratus. European Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/speciesInfo.asp?taxaID=688

Page LM, Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 432 pp.

Richardson MJ, Whoriskey FG, 1992. Factors influencing the production of turbidity by goldfish. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70:1585-1589.

Richardson MJ, Whoriskey FG, Roy LH, 1995. Turbidity generation and biological impacts of an exotic fish Carassius auratus, introduced into shallow, seasonally anoxic ponds. Journal of Fish Biology, 47:576-585.

Robison HW, Buchanan TM, 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press, 536 pp.

Street R, 2002. Carassius auratus, Animal Diversity Web. Online at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Carassius_auratus.html. Accessed 15 September 2004.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. In: Desert Dace (Eremichthys acros). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 27 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3985.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gila nigra. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 37 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2013/r2/E0AH_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gila robusta. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 79 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2013/r2/E02Z_V01.pdf

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissionhttp://nis.gsmfc.org/
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Researchhttp://www.niwa.co.nz/

Contributors

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20/01/2010 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, OX10 8DE, UK

Main Author
Sunil Siriwardena
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

Distribution Maps

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