Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Capra hircus
(goats)

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Datasheet

Capra hircus (goats)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Capra hircus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • goats
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The goat (Capra hircus) was domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. These herbivores have a highly varied diet and are able to utilise a larger number of plant species than other livestock. G...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Capra hircus (goats); goats grazing in an Argan tree (Argania spinosa). Essaouira, Morocco. June 2013.
TitleGoats grazing in a tree
CaptionCapra hircus (goats); goats grazing in an Argan tree (Argania spinosa). Essaouira, Morocco. June 2013.
Copyright©Grand Parc - Bordeaux, France/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Capra hircus (goats); goats grazing in an Argan tree (Argania spinosa). Essaouira, Morocco. June 2013.
Goats grazing in a treeCapra hircus (goats); goats grazing in an Argan tree (Argania spinosa). Essaouira, Morocco. June 2013.©Grand Parc - Bordeaux, France/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Capra hircus (goats); female Toggenburg goat from "Zlatusha" farm of the Institute of Animal Science, Kostinbrod, Bulgaria, 1995.
TitleFemale
CaptionCapra hircus (goats); female Toggenburg goat from "Zlatusha" farm of the Institute of Animal Science, Kostinbrod, Bulgaria, 1995.
Copyright©Nadezhda Petrova
Capra hircus (goats); female Toggenburg goat from "Zlatusha" farm of the Institute of Animal Science, Kostinbrod, Bulgaria, 1995.
FemaleCapra hircus (goats); female Toggenburg goat from "Zlatusha" farm of the Institute of Animal Science, Kostinbrod, Bulgaria, 1995.©Nadezhda Petrova

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Capra hircus Linnaeus 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • goats

Other Scientific Names

  • Capra aegagrus hircus
  • Capra indicus

International Common Names

  • English: billy; goat; kid; kids; nanny
  • Spanish: cabras
  • French: chèvres

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Hausziege; Ziegen
  • Italy: capre
  • Portugal: cabras

Summary of Invasiveness

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The goat (Capra hircus) was domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. These herbivores have a highly varied diet and are able to utilise a larger number of plant species than other livestock. Goats alter plant communities and forest structure and threaten vulnerable plant species. The reduction of vegetation reduces shelter options for native animals and overgrazing in native communities leads to ecosystem degradation. Feral goats spread disease to native animals. Native fauna on islands are particularly susceptible.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Artiodactyla
  •                         Suborder: Ruminantia
  •                             Family: Bovidae
  •                                 Genus: Capra
  •                                     Species: Capra hircus

Description

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Males weigh between 45 and 55 kilos and females weigh between 25 and 35 kilos. Colouration is highly variable from mostly black, to various shades of brown, and from single-coloured to multi-coloured. Black anterior with brown posterior is a common pattern. Horns are dimorphic, having homonymous spiral and anterior keel. Males are bearded and produce pheromones during the breeding season.

Distribution

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Goats were domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. Feral goats are derived from domestic goats, originally native to Asia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresent
CameroonPresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresentIntroduced1860As: Capra hircus
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasive
MoroccoPresent
NamibiaPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresentIntroduced1610As: Capra hircus
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced1513As: Capra hircus
-AscensionAbsent, EradicatedFirst reported: <1700
-Tristan da CunhaAbsent, EradicatedFirst reported: <1790, 1942
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Antarctica

French Southern TerritoriesAbsent, EradicatedFirst reported: 1800s
-Crozet IslandsPresentIntroduced1875As: Capra hircus

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent
-BeijingPresent
-GansuPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresentIntroduced1853As: Capra hircus
JordanPresent
KuwaitPresent
MalaysiaPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresentIntroduced1953As: Capra hircus
DenmarkPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresentIntroduced1750As: Capra hircus
ItalyPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1960As: Capra hircus
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced1550As: Capra hircus
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced1910As: Capra hircus
SpainPresentIntroduced1855As: Capra hircus
-Canary IslandsPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedInvasive
BahamasPresentIntroducedInvasive
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
CanadaPresentIntroduced1850As: Capra hircus
-British ColumbiaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced1830As: Capra hircus
HaitiPresentIntroducedInvasive
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive on Dennery Island; impacts vegetation and animal habitats
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
United StatesPresentIntroduced1650As: Capra hircus
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: <1827
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IndianaPresent
-MontanaPresent
-North CarolinaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: c. 1800

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Lord Howe IslandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: c. 1834
-New South WalesPresent
-TasmaniaAbsent, Eradicated1947As: Capra hircus
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroduced
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Marquesas IslandsPresentIntroduced
GuamPresentIntroduced1705As: Capra hircus
Kiribati
-Phoenix IslandsPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Norfolk IslandAbsent, EradicatedFirst reported: >1774
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PitcairnPresentIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: before 1843

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced1700As: Capra hircus
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-CearaPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaibaPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
ChilePresentIntroduced1574As: Capra hircus
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Falkland IslandsPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1870Invasive
VenezuelaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported: c.1500

Habitat

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Goats usually move in herds that roam over territories up to 20km wide. Sometimes herd ranges can be as small as 100m2. Males usually wander more widely than females. Grasslands, scrub lands, rocky outcrops and semi-open or open forests are all used extensively by goats as habitat substrate. In bad weather, they may seek shelter under rocky ledges (SPREP, 2000).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
Goats are herbivores and will forage on any palatable plants in their home range. Goats have rather large rumino-reticular volume so they are able to subsist on poorer quality plants than most herbivores, therefore goats can survive and subsist in heavily exploited environments.

In a study conducted by Chimera, Coleman and Parkes (1995) the rumen contents of 49 goats (captured in 1989) were identified and the dry weight of each component was measured to produce a breakdown of the diet of a small, unique remnant population (now extinct) of feral goats on Auckland Island (a Sub-Antarctic island located south of New Zealand). Woody plants and grasses made up the bulk of their diet (41% and 39%, respectively); seaweeds made up 13%, ferns 4% and herbaceous species 3%. At least 40 plant species were eaten by the goats, but just three species made up half of the total: rata (Metrosideros umbellate), snow tussock (Chionochloa Antarctica) and kelp (Durvillea Antarctica). Rata (Metrosideros umbellate), Coprosma foetidissima, Pseudopanax simplex and Carex appressa were the most commonly found species - eaten in at least some quantity by 90%, 80%, 76% and 69% of the goats respectively.

Unidentified grasses composed 21.4% of the total contents (dry weight) and were found in 100% of goats. NB: This population had a unique genetic makeup as it evolved separately for over 100 years on an isolated island with a cold and harsh climate and so it may not represent the dietary preferences of all goats. However, it highlights the huge adaptability of goats and their ability to subsist in particular and inhospitable landscapes.

Reproduction
Both sexes are physiologically capable of reproduction at about 6 months of age. Dominant males fight to win females. They follow a serial pattern and attend to one female after another as they come into oestrus. In one sense this is termed polygyny, as males breed with as many females as they can during a breeding period, but more properly this is serial monogamy as a male will tend a female for extended periods, both before and after copulation and before leaving in search of a different mate.

Realised reproduction varies among populations, seasons and years. At best a typical female goat would produce one young in its first pregnancy and twin kids in subsequent pregnancies. However, most females are at less than optimal condition, which may result in a twinning rate of as little as 0%. At best, herds may produce twins at a rate of 80% or more. Triplets are not uncommon.

 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Other: Goats (Capra hircus) were released as potential food for people marooned by shipwrecks.
Transportation of domesticated animals: Goats (Capra hircus) were introduced to islands for their milk.

Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement:
Natural dispersal (local):

 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Food Yes
Self-propelled Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Livestock production Negative

Impact

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General Impacts

Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Biodiversity on islands is vulnerable to introduced species, and the vegetation tends to lack adaptions to mammalian herbivores (Campbell and Donlan 2005). Unfortunately, goats (Capra hircus) have been established on many islands. Goats alter plant communities and forest structures and threaten vulnerable plant species; the flow-down effect of these outcomes includes increased soil erosion and the reduction of native fauna that share a similar environmental niche (Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, Coblentz 1978, Parkes 1984, Brennan 1986, Coblentz and Van Vuren 1987, Cronk 1989, Walker 1991, Moran 1996, Desender et al. 1999, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). In some island ecosystems it has been the case that goats are the most destructive herbivore present (King, 1985). Feral goats are particularly destructive in such environments and cause a huge loss of native vegetation due to their grazing habits. This leads to ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss (Coblentz 1978; Schofield 1989; Moran 1996; Desender et al. 1999 in Campbell and Donlan 2005).

 

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Acrocephalus luscinia (nightingale reed warbler)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998d)
Adelocosa anops (Kauai cave wolf spider)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006a)
Bidens amplectens (koko'olau)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Bidens campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Bidens conjuncta (ko`oko`olau)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Bidens micrantha subsp. ctenophylla (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Calamagrostis hillebrandii (Hillegrands reedgrass)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Canavalia pubescens (jack bean)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cinclodes aricomaeCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)PeruHerbivory/grazing/browsing
Cyanea asplenifolia (haha)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea calycinaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Cyanea duvalliorumUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea horrida (prickly cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea kunthiana (Kunth's cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea lanceolata (lanceleaf cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Cyanea magnicalyxCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea maritaeUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea marksii (Marks' cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Cyanea mauiensisEX (IUCN red list: Extinct)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea munroiUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea obtusa (bluntlobe cyanea)National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea profuga (Mapulehu Valley cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyanea recta (Kealia cyanea)National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995b)
Cyanea solanacea (popolo)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyclura stejnegeri (Mona Island iguana)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1984a)
Cyrtandra ferripilosaNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyrtandra filipesNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Cyrtandra limahuliensis (Limahuli cyrtandra)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995b)
Cyrtandra oxybaphaNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Doryopteris takeuchii (Takeuch's lipfern)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Dracaena forbesii (hala pepe)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (hala pepe)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998a)
Drosophila aglaiaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila differens (Hawaiian picture-wing fly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila digressaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Drosophila hemipezaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila heteroneuraUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila montgomeryiUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila musaphiliaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila ochrobasisUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Drosophila substenopteraUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe (2010)
Emballonura semicaudata rotensis (Pacific sheath-tailed bat)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorthern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2015a)
Epicrates monensis monensis (Mona boa)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1984b)
Festuca hawaiiensis (Hawai'i fescue)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2015b)
Festuca molokaiensisNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Gardenia remyi (Remy's gardenia)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014a)
Harrisia portoricensis (higo chumbo)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010m)
Huperzia stemmermanniae (Stemmermann's clubmoss)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014b)
Hylaeus assimulans (assimulans yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014c)
Hylaeus facilis (easy yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014d)
Hylaeus hilaris (hilaris yellow-faced bee)USA ESA species proposed for listingHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014e)
Hylaeus kuakea (Hawaiian yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014f)
Hylaeus longicepsUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014g)
Hylaeus manaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014h)
Isodendrion longifolium (longleaf isodendrion)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011f)
Joinvillea ascendens ascendensNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014i)
Korthalsella taenioides (Degener's korthal mistletoe)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Leiolopisma telfairii (Round Island skink)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesMauritiusEcosystem change / habitat alterationMadagascar Reptile & Amphibian Specialist Group (1996)
Lobelia monostachya (Waianae Range lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c)
Lobelia niihauensis (Niihau lobelia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c)
Loxioides bailleui (palila)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006b)
Melanthera tenuifolia (Waianae Range nehe)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c)
Melanthera venosa (spreading nehe)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1994)
Melanthera waimeaensis (Waimea Canyon nehe)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998b)
Melicope christopherseniiEN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Melicope hiiakaeNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Melicope makahaeEN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Melicope makahaeEN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Mucuna sloanei var. persericeaNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Myrsine linearifolia (narrowleaf colicwood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2003)
Nothocestrum latifolium (broadleaf aiea)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013c)
Nothocestrum peltatum (Oahu aiea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995b)
Nototrichium humile (kaala rockwort)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNational Tropical Botanical Garden (2007); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2008c)
Oceanodroma castro (band-rumped storm-petrel)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesMontanaEcosystem change / habitat alteration
Ochrosia haleakalae (island yellowwood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014j)
Ochrosia kilaueaensis (Hawai'i yellowwood)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1996a)
Oreomystis bairdi (akikiki)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006b)
Oreomystis mana (Hawaii creeper)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006b)
Osmoxylon mariannenseCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorthern Mariana IslandsHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2007)
Ovis ammon (argali)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesKyrgyzstan; Mongolia; TajikistanCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2002)
Ovis canadensis sierrae (Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008h)
Panicum fauriei (Carter's panicgrass)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011g)
Paroreomyza flammea (Molokai creeper)EX (IUCN red list: Extinct); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006b)
Partula gibba (humped tree snail)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2015a)
Partula langfordi (Langford's tree snail)USA ESA listing as endangered species; CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2015a)
Partula radiolata (Guam tree snail)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuamEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2015a)
Partulina semicarinata (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Partulina variabilis (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011d)
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995a)
Phyllostegia knudsenii (Waimea phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009b)
Phyllostegia mannii (Mann's phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011h)
Phyllostegia mollis (Waianae Range phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009f)
Phyllostegia parviflora (smallflower phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008d)
Phyllostegia renovans (red-leaf phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010l)
Phyllostegia waimeae (Kauai phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008e)
Phyllostegia wawrana (fuzzystem phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009a)
Phytotoma raimondii (Peruvian plantcutter)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesPeruEcosystem change / habitat alteration
Pittosporum napaliense (royal cheesewood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010l)
Plantago hawaiensis (Hawai'i plantain)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1996a)
Plantago princepsNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010n)
Platydesma cornuta var. cornutaNatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrensEN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServeHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a)
Platydesma rostrataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010l)
Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010b)
Portulaca sclerocarpaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1996a)
Pritchardia hardyi (Makaleha pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010o)
Pritchardia kaalae (Waianae Range pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2008f)
Pritchardia munroi (Kamalo pritchardia)No DetailsHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1996b); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2011b)
Pritchardia napaliensisCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010c)
Pritchardia remota (Remota loula palm)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011a)
Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense (enaena)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014k)
Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006b); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2009k)
Psychotria grandiflora (large-flowered balsamo)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010l)
Psychotria hobdyi (Hobdy's wild-coffee)USA ESA listing as endangered species; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010l)
Pteralyxia kauaiensis (Kauai pteralyxia)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995b); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2010d)
Pteralyxia laurifolia (ridged pteralyxia)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Pterodroma sandwichensisVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011e)
Pteropus mariannus mariannus (Mariana fruit bat)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009e)
Ranunculus hawaiensis (Hawai'ian buttercup)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014l)
Ranunculus mauiensis (Maui buttercup)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Remya kauaiensis (Kauai remya)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010e)
Remya mauiensis (Maui remya)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service (2009g)
Remya montgomeryi (Kalalau Valley remya)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010a)
Sanicula mariversa (Waianae Range blacksnakeroot)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2008g)
Schiedea apokremnos (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010p)
Schiedea haleakalensis (Haleakala schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011i)
Schiedea helleri (Kaholuamanu schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010f)
Schiedea helleri (Kaholuamanu schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010f)
Schiedea hookeri (sprawling schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011j)
Schiedea jacobii (Jacobi's schiedea)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Schiedea kaalae (Oahu schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c)
Schiedea kauaiensis (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008a)
Schiedea kealiae (Waianae Range schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010g)
Schiedea lydgatei (Kamalo Gulch schiedea)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011k)
Schiedea membranaceaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010h)
Schiedea nuttalliiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1999); US Fish and Wildlife Service (2009h)
Schiedea pubescensUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014m)
Schiedea salicariaNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)
Schiedea sarmentosaUSA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011l)
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopodaNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Schiedea spergulina var. spergulinaUSA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995b)
Schiedea stellarioidesCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010i)
Sesbania tomentosaNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010q)
Sibara filifolia (Santra Cruz Island Rockcress)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2006c)
Silene alexandriCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008i)
Silene hawaiiensis (Hawaii catchfly)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1996a)
Silene lanceolata (Kauai catchfly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010r)
Solanum incompletumCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008b)
Solanum sandwicenseNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009i)
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010s)
Stenogyne campanulata (Kalalau Valley stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009c)
Stenogyne kanehoana (Oahu stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998c)
Stenogyne purpurea (purplefruit stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010o)
Streptanthus bracteatus (bracted twistflower)USA ESA species proposed for listingTexasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2014n)
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus' murrelet)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Canada; Mexico; California; OregonEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2012b)
Tetramolopium arenarium (Maui tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1996a)
Tetramolopium filiforme (ridgetop tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010t)
Tetramolopium lepidotum (Waianae Range tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009j)
Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995a)
Tetraplasandra flynniiNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1995b)
Urera kaalaeCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Pest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011m)
Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2004)
Verbesina dissita (big-leaved crownbeard)National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010u)
Vetericaris chaceorum (anchialine pool shrimp)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Vicia menziesii (Hawaiian vetch)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1984c)
Vigna o-wahuensis (Oahu cowpea)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2011c)
Viola chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana (pamakani)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2008j)
Wilkesia hobdyi (dwarf iliau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010j)
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosumCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2009d)

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pathogenic

Uses

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The ability of goat herds to survive in harsh environments has led to their introduction onto many islands, including Saint Helena Island, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Hawaii. They provided food for colonising people (specifically European colonisers and ship crews) (Campbell and Donlan 2005). Fishermen may have spread goats onto new islands, such as San Benitos (Mexico) and Pinta Island and Marchena Island (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) (Campbell and Donlan 2005).

Goats were domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran (Zeder and Hesse 2000, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). Goats are used for their fur and meat as well as for milk and cheese production. Goat meat is the most highly consumed meat source in the world. More goat’s milk is consumed than cow’s milk. Angora goats have long soft fur which is utilised to produce a soft silk-like fabric called mohair. In New Zealand, mohair prices are strong (2006) and farm gate returns are good. Although little is known of optimum farm management systems, it is considered that the farming of angora goats could contribute to the positive growth of the economy (Mohair NZ Business Plan 2006). The French are well known for utilising goat products for economic purposes; making cheese and other goat milk products (Canus Undated). Some cosmetic products have claimed to help eczema sufferers (Johnson 2006).

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Fresh meat
  • Milk and dairy products

Materials

  • Skins/leather/fur

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Management Information

Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 

Goats have been eradicated from approximately 120 islands and there is hope that native communities will recover rapidly (Hamann 1979, 1993, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). The largest islands on which substantial goat populations have been removed are: Lanai Island (Hawaii), San Clemente (USA), Pinta Island and Santiago Island (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) and Raoul Island (New Zealand) (Campbell and Donlan 2005; Cruz et al., 2009). In general, goat eradication management for islands larger than 500 hectares requires detailed planning and the use of specialised technology, equipment and personnel. Securing funds for eradication programmes may be an obstacle to goat control (Campbell and Donlan 2005). The recent eradication of feral goats from Santiago Island (58,465 ha) in <5 years cost US$6.1 million, and was achieved with a combination of techniques and technologies (Cruz et al. 2009).

The introduction of modern eradication technology has greatly improved the effectiveness of goat control programmes, making goat eradication more likely. Some control methods include the employment of aerial hunting (helicopter), specially trained goat-hunting dogs, Global Positioning Systems and Geographic Information System techniques as well as sterilised goats marked with radiotelemetry collars, called “Judas goats”, which gravitate to, and therefore detect, wild goat herds. Judas goats are used to find wild herds and are especially suitable for finding the last few survivors or to detect the presence of wild goats when it is uncertain whether they have been eradicated. Hunting dogs are particularly useful in situations when goat density is low and vegetation density is high. Aerial hunting is appropriate in situations where there is less ground cover and a higher density of goats. Eradication is always the better option when compared to short-term control. If short-term control is chosen, goats should be kept at low densities.

Although effective eradication technology is available, Benjamin et al. (2011) demonstrate the potential of strategic water management as a non-lethal technique to protect biodiversity from the impacts of feral goats. In the study area in New South Wales, feral goats were found to remain in close proximity to artificial water points. However, they were able to access and impact upon areas of conservation importance which were nearby to these water points. However, by using fencing, the distance the goats needed to travel from the water points to gain access to conservation areas was increased – this protected biodiversity without eradicating the goat population (although the population was locally reduced). This solution was favourable with local landholders some of whom harvest the feral goats.

Guidelines for managing the impact of feral goats have been developed under the Vertebrate Pest Program (VPP) Australia administered by the Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS). The purpose of these guidelines is to assist in the development of cost-effective strategies to reduce the damage feral goats cause to production and conservation. Management techniques and strategies for feral goat management are recommended and illustrated by case studies. Deficiencies in knowledge, management and legislation are identified. Please follow this link to view and download Parkes, J., R Henzell & G Pickles, 1995. Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Goats

 

Bibliography

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Atkinson, R., J. Renteria, W. Simbana. 2008. The Consequences of Herbivore Eradication on Santiago: Are We In Time to Prevent Ecosystem Degredation Again? In Galapagos Report 2007-8 FCD, PNG, and INGALA, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador.

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References

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984. Recovery plan for The Mona Boa (Epicrates monensis monensis). In: Recovery plan for The Mona Boa (Epicrates monensis monensis) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://www.fws.gov/caribbean/pdf/recovery_plans/epicrates_monensis_monensis.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984. The Vicia menziesii Recovery Plan. In: The Vicia menziesii Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.54 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Recovery Plan for Lipochaeta venosa and Isodendrion hosakae. In: Recovery Plan for Lipochaeta venosa and Isodendrion hosakae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46 pp. + appendix.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster. In: Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.84 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. In: Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants : US Fish and Wildlife Service.207 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Recovery Plan for the Nightingale Reed-warbler, Acrocephalus luscinia. In: Recovery Plan for the Nightingale Reed-warbler, Acrocephalus luscinia : US Fish and Wildlife Service.62 pp.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Retention of Threatened Status for Argali in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan. In: Federal Register , 67(99) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.35942-35957. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2002-05-22/pdf/02-12824.pdf#page=1

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Designation or Nondesignation of Critical Habitat for 95 Plant Species From the Islands of Kauai and Niihau, HI; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 68(39) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9116-9164. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr4053.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods: The Kauai Cave Wolf Spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai Cave Amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana). In: Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods: The Kauai Cave Wolf Spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai Cave Amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.64 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds. In: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds : US Fish and Wildlife Service.622 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Sibara filifolia (Santa Cruz Island Rockcress). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sibara filifolia (Santa Cruz Island Rockcress). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense). In: Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.86 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Solanum incompletum (Popolo ku mai). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Solanum incompletum (Popolo ku mai) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.5 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Kulu`i (Nototrichium humile). 5-Year Review. In: Kulu`i (Nototrichium humile). 5-Year Review : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Phyllostegia parviflora (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Phyllostegia parviflora (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Phyllostegia waimeae (no common name). 5-Year Review, Short Form. In: Phyllostegia waimeae (no common name). 5-Year Review, Short Form : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Pritchardia kaalae (Lo'ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Pritchardia kaalae (Lo'ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Sanicula mariversa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sanicula mariversa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.40 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Silene alexandri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Silene alexandri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana (Pamakani). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana (Pamakani). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Phyllostegia wawrana (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Phyllostegia wawrana (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.5 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Phyllostegia knudsenii (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Phyllostegia knudsenii (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Stenogyne campanulata (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Stenogyne campanulata (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum (A`e). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum (A`e) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus). In: Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.98 pp. https://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/documents/100330.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Phyllostegia mollis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Phyllostegia mollis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Schiedea nuttallii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea nuttallii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Solanum sandwicense (Popolo 'aiakeakua). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Solanum sandwicense (Popolo 'aiakeakua). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review Short Form Summary: Remya montgomeryi (no common name). In: 5-Year Review Short Form Summary: Remya montgomeryi (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3343.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia napaliensis (loulu palm). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia napaliensis (loulu palm) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pteralyxia kauaiensis (kaulu). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pteralyxia kauaiensis (kaulu) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Remya kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Remya kauaiensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.12 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea helleri (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea helleri (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kealiae (ma oli oli). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kealiae (ma oli oli) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea membranacea (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea membranacea (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea stellarioides (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea stellarioides (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Wilkesia hobdyi (dwarf iliau). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Wilkesia hobdyi (dwarf iliau) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.8 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele). In: 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule. In: Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule : US Fish and Wildlife Service.i + 205 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Higo Chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Higo Chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3078.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem. In: Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem : US Fish and Wildlife Service.38 pp. + 3 maps.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Silene lanceolata (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Silene lanceolata (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Tetramolopium filiforme (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Tetramolopium filiforme (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Verbesina dissita (Big-leaved crownbeard). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Verbesina dissita (Big-leaved crownbeard). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.38 pp. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3559.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia munroi (lo'ulu). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia munroi (lo'ulu) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Vigna o-wahuensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Vigna o-wahuensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species. In: Federal Register , 76(148) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46362-46593. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-02/pdf/2011-17162.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Isodendrion longifolium (aupaka). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Isodendrion longifolium (aupaka). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.28 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3809.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Phyllostegia mannii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Phyllostegia mannii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea haleakalensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea haleakalensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea hookeri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea hookeri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea lydgatei (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea lydgatei (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea sarmentosa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea sarmentosa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Urera kaalae (opuhe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Urera kaalae (opuhe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 23 Species on Oahu and Designation of Critical Habitat for 124 Species; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 77(181) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.57648-57862. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-18/pdf/2012-19561.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2012/r8/B098_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15 Species on Hawaii Island; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(209) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.64638-64690. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-29/pdf/2013-24103.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(102) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32014-32065. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12105.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions. In: Federal Register , 78(226) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.70104-70162. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-22/pdf/2013-27391.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gardenia remyi. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gardenia remyi : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q33N_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/S02B_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GQ_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GY_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HT_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VM_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HC_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana : US Fish and Wildlife Service.30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VL_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Joinvillea ascendens ascendens. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Joinvillea ascendens ascendens : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q1XN_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q3ES_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q1WN_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ranunculus hawaiensis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ranunculus hawaiensis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q38H_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Schiedea pubescens. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Schiedea pubescens : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q2VZ_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Streptanthus bracteatus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Streptanthus bracteatus : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r2/Q1R7_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 16 Species and Threatened Status for 7 Species in Micronesia. In: Federal Register , 80(190) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.59424-59497. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-10-01/pdf/2015-24443.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 49 Species From the Hawaiian Islands. In: Federal Register , 80(189) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.58820-58909. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-09-30/pdf/2015-24305.pdf

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Daltry JC, 2009. The Status and Management of Saint Lucia's Forest Reptiles and Amphibians. In: SFA 2003/SLU/BIT-04/0711/EMF/LC, Finland: FCG Fauna & Flora. 80 pp. http://www.bananatrustslu.com/index.php?link=doccentre&project=sfa2003

Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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Reviewed by: Dr. Bruce Coblentz, Oregon State University, USA.

    Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
Last Modified: Wednesday, September 15, 2010

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