Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Capra hircus
(goats)

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Datasheet

Capra hircus (goats)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Capra hircus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • goats
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The goat (Capra hircus) was domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. These herbivores have a highly varied diet and are able to utilise a larger number of plant spe...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Capra hircus (goats); goats grazing in an Argan tree (Argania spinosa). Essaouira, Morocco. June 2013.
TitleGoats grazing in a tree
CaptionCapra hircus (goats); goats grazing in an Argan tree (Argania spinosa). Essaouira, Morocco. June 2013.
Copyright©Grand Parc - Bordeaux, France/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Capra hircus (goats); goats grazing in an Argan tree (Argania spinosa). Essaouira, Morocco. June 2013.
Goats grazing in a treeCapra hircus (goats); goats grazing in an Argan tree (Argania spinosa). Essaouira, Morocco. June 2013.©Grand Parc - Bordeaux, France/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Capra hircus Linnaeus 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • goats

Other Scientific Names

  • Capra aegagrus hircus
  • Capra indicus

International Common Names

  • English: billy; goat; kid; kids; nanny
  • Spanish: cabras
  • French: chèvres

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Hausziege; Ziegen
  • Italy: capre
  • Portugal: cabras

Summary of Invasiveness

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The goat (Capra hircus) was domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. These herbivores have a highly varied diet and are able to utilise a larger number of plant species than other livestock. Goats alter plant communities and forest structure and threaten vulnerable plant species. The reduction of vegetation reduces shelter options for native animals and overgrazing in native communities leads to ecosystem degradation. Feral goats spread disease to native animals. Native fauna on islands are particularly susceptible.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Artiodactyla
  •                         Suborder: Ruminantia
  •                             Family: Bovidae
  •                                 Genus: Capra
  •                                     Species: Capra hircus

Description

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Males weigh between 45 and 55 kilos and females weigh between 25 and 35 kilos. Colouration is highly variable from mostly black, to various shades of brown, and from single-coloured to multi-coloured. Black anterior with brown posterior is a common pattern. Horns are dimorphic, having homonymous spiral and anterior keel. Males are bearded and produce pheromones during the breeding season.

Distribution

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Goats were domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. Feral goats are derived from domestic goats, originally native to Asia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BangladeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-BeijingPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GansuPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Nei MengguPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Andhra PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AssamPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Himachal PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Indian PunjabPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-KarnatakaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-KeralaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MeghalayaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-OdishaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-RajasthanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Tamil NaduPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Uttar PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-West BengalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndonesiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IranPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IraqPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IsraelPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
JapanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
JordanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Korea, Republic ofPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
KuwaitPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MalaysiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Middle EastPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NepalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
OmanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PakistanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PhilippinesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Saudi ArabiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Sri LankaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TaiwanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ThailandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TurkeyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
United Arab EmiratesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
VietnamPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Africa

BotswanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
CameroonPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EgyptPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EritreaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EthiopiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GambiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GhanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GuineaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
KenyaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
LibyaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MalawiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MaliPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MauritiusRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MayottePresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MoroccoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NamibiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NigeriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
RéunionPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Saint Helena
-AscensionEradicatedIntroduced<1700 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Tristan Da CunhaEradicatedIntroduced<1790, 1942 Invasive ISSG, 2011
SenegalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SeychellesRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
SomaliaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
South AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Spain
-Canary IslandsRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
SudanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TanzaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
TogoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UgandaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ZambiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ZimbabwePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

North America

CanadaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-British ColumbiaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MexicoRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
USAPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AlabamaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-CaliforniaRestricted distributionIntroduced<1827 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-GeorgiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-IndianaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MontanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-North CarolinaRestricted distributionIntroducedc. 1800 Invasive ISSG, 2011

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
BonaireRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
French West IndiesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GuadeloupePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
HaitiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
MartiniquePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Invasive Daltry, 2009; ISSG, 2012Invasive on Dennery Island; impacts vegetation and animal habitats
Trinidad and TobagoRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

South America

ArgentinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BoliviaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BrazilPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-CearaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Minas GeraisPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ParaibaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ChilePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Falkland IslandsRestricted distributionIntroduced1870 Invasive ISSG, 2011
VenezuelaRestricted distributionIntroducedc.1500 Invasive ISSG, 2011

Europe

AustriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
BulgariaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
CroatiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
CyprusPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Czech RepublicPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
DenmarkPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
FrancePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GermanyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GreeceRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
HungaryPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ItalyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MaltaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NetherlandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NorwayPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PolandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PortugalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SlovakiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SpainPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SwitzerlandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UKPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Lord Howe Is.Restricted distributionIntroducedc. 1834 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-New South WalesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
FijiPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MarquesasPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesEradicatedIntroduced1800s Invasive ISSG, 2011
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1773 - Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Kermadec IslandsUnconfirmed recordIntroducedbefore 1836 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Norfolk IslandEradicatedIntroduced>1774 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Phoenix IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroducedbefore 1843 Invasive ISSG, 2011

Habitat

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Goats usually move in herds that roam over territories up to 20km wide. Sometimes herd ranges can be as small as 100m2. Males usually wander more widely than females. Grasslands, scrub lands, rocky outcrops and semi-open or open forests are all used extensively by goats as habitat substrate. In bad weather, they may seek shelter under rocky ledges (SPREP, 2000).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
Goats are herbivores and will forage on any palatable plants in their home range. Goats have rather large rumino-reticular volume so they are able to subsist on poorer quality plants than most herbivores, therefore goats can survive and subsist in heavily exploited environments.

In a study conducted by Chimera, Coleman and Parkes (1995) the rumen contents of 49 goats (captured in 1989) were identified and the dry weight of each component was measured to produce a breakdown of the diet of a small, unique remnant population (now extinct) of feral goats on Auckland Island (a Sub-Antarctic island located south of New Zealand). Woody plants and grasses made up the bulk of their diet (41% and 39%, respectively); seaweeds made up 13%, ferns 4% and herbaceous species 3%. At least 40 plant species were eaten by the goats, but just three species made up half of the total: rata (Metrosideros umbellate), snow tussock (Chionochloa Antarctica) and kelp (Durvillea Antarctica). Rata (Metrosideros umbellate), Coprosma foetidissima, Pseudopanax simplex and Carex appressa were the most commonly found species - eaten in at least some quantity by 90%, 80%, 76% and 69% of the goats respectively.

Unidentified grasses composed 21.4% of the total contents (dry weight) and were found in 100% of goats. NB: This population had a unique genetic makeup as it evolved separately for over 100 years on an isolated island with a cold and harsh climate and so it may not represent the dietary preferences of all goats. However, it highlights the huge adaptability of goats and their ability to subsist in particular and inhospitable landscapes.

Reproduction
Both sexes are physiologically capable of reproduction at about 6 months of age. Dominant males fight to win females. They follow a serial pattern and attend to one female after another as they come into oestrus. In one sense this is termed polygyny, as males breed with as many females as they can during a breeding period, but more properly this is serial monogamy as a male will tend a female for extended periods, both before and after copulation and before leaving in search of a different mate.

Realised reproduction varies among populations, seasons and years. At best a typical female goat would produce one young in its first pregnancy and twin kids in subsequent pregnancies. However, most females are at less than optimal condition, which may result in a twinning rate of as little as 0%. At best, herds may produce twins at a rate of 80% or more. Triplets are not uncommon.

 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Other: Goats (Capra hircus) were released as potential food for people marooned by shipwrecks.
Transportation of domesticated animals: Goats (Capra hircus) were introduced to islands for their milk.

Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement:
Natural dispersal (local):

 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Food Yes
Self-propelled Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Livestock production Negative

Impact

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General Impacts

Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Biodiversity on islands is vulnerable to introduced species, and the vegetation tends to lack adaptions to mammalian herbivores (Campbell and Donlan 2005). Unfortunately, goats (Capra hircus) have been established on many islands. Goats alter plant communities and forest structures and threaten vulnerable plant species; the flow-down effect of these outcomes includes increased soil erosion and the reduction of native fauna that share a similar environmental niche (Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, Coblentz 1978, Parkes 1984, Brennan 1986, Coblentz and Van Vuren 1987, Cronk 1989, Walker 1991, Moran 1996, Desender et al. 1999, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). In some island ecosystems it has been the case that goats are the most destructive herbivore present (King, 1985). Feral goats are particularly destructive in such environments and cause a huge loss of native vegetation due to their grazing habits. This leads to ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss (Coblentz 1978; Schofield 1989; Moran 1996; Desender et al. 1999 in Campbell and Donlan 2005).

 

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Acrocephalus luscinia (nightingale reed warbler)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998d
Adelocosa anops (Kauai cave wolf spider)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006a
Bidens amplectens (koko'olau)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Bidens campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Bidens conjuncta (ko`oko`olau)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Bidens micrantha subsp. ctenophylla (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Calamagrostis hillebrandii (Hillegrands reedgrass)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Canavalia pubescens (jack bean)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cinclodes aricomaeCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)PeruHerbivory/grazing/browsing,
Cyanea asplenifolia (haha)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea calycinaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Cyanea duvalliorumUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea horrida (prickly cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea kunthiana (Kunth's cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea lanceolata (lanceleaf cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Cyanea magnicalyxCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea maritaeUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea marksii (Marks' cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea mauiensisEX (IUCN red list: Extinct) EX (IUCN red list: Extinct)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea munroiUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea obtusa (bluntlobe cyanea)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea profuga (Mapulehu Valley cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyanea recta (Kealia cyanea)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Cyanea solanacea (popolo)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyclura stejnegeri (Mona Island iguana)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984a
Cyrtandra ferripilosaNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyrtandra filipesNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Cyrtandra limahuliensis (Limahuli cyrtandra)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Cyrtandra oxybaphaNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Doryopteris takeuchii (Takeuch's lipfern)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Dracaena forbesii (hala pepe)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing,
Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (hala pepe)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998a
Drosophila aglaiaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila differens (Hawaiian picture-wing fly)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila digressaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Drosophila hemipezaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila heteroneuraUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila montgomeryiUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila musaphilaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila ochrobasisUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Drosophila substenopteraUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNatureServe, 2010
Emballonura semicaudata rotensis (Pacific sheath-tailed bat)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorthern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015a
Epicrates monensis monensis (Mona boa)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984b
Festuca hawaiiensis (Hawai'i fescue)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015b
Festuca molokaiensisNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Gardenia remyi (Remy's gardenia)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014a
Harrisia portoricensis (higo chumbo)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010m
Huperzia stemmermanniae (Stemmermann's clubmoss)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014b
Hylaeus assimulans (assimulans yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014c
Hylaeus facilis (easy yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014d
Hylaeus hilaris (hilaris yellow-faced bee)USA ESA species proposed for listing USA ESA species proposed for listingHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014e
Hylaeus kuakea (Hawaiian yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014f
Hylaeus longicepsUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014g
Hylaeus manaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014h
Isodendrion longifolium (longleaf isodendrion)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011f
Joinvillea ascendens ascendensNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014i
Korthalsella taenioides (Degener's korthal mistletoe)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing,
Leiolopisma telfairii (Round Island skink)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesMauritiusEcosystem change / habitat alterationMadagascar Reptile & Amphibian Specialist Group, 1996
Lobelia monostachya (Waianae Range lobelia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Lobelia niihauensis (Niihau lobelia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Loxioides bailleui (palila)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Melanthera tenuifolia (Waianae Range nehe)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Melanthera venosa (spreading nehe)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994
Melanthera waimeaensis (Waimea Canyon nehe)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998b
Melicope christopherseniiEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Melicope hiiakaeNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Melicope makahaeEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Melicope makahaeEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Mucuna sloanei var. persericeaNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Myrsine linearifolia (narrowleaf colicwood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003
Nothocestrum latifolium (broadleaf aiea)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013c
Nothocestrum peltatum (Oahu aiea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Nototrichium humile (kaala rockwort)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingNational Tropical Botanical Garden, 2007; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008c
Oceanodroma castro (band-rumped storm-petrel)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesMontanaEcosystem change / habitat alteration,
Ochrosia haleakalae (island yellowwood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014j
Ochrosia kilaueaensis (Hawai'i yellowwood)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996a
Oreomystis bairdi (akikiki)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Oreomystis mana (Hawaii creeper)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Osmoxylon mariannenseCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNorthern Mariana IslandsHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007
Ovis ammon (argali)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesKyrgyzstan; Mongolia; TajikistanCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002
Ovis canadensis sierrae (Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008h
Panicum fauriei (Carter's panicgrass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011g
Paroreomyza flammea (Molokai creeper)EX (IUCN red list: Extinct) EX (IUCN red list: Extinct); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b
Partula gibba (humped tree snail)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015a
Partula langfordi (Langford's tree snail)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species; CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015a
Partula radiolata (Guam tree snail)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuamEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015a
Partulina semicarinata (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Partulina variabilis (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011d
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995a
Phyllostegia knudsenii (Waimea phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Phyllostegia mannii (Mann's phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011h
Phyllostegia mollis (Waianae Range phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009f
Phyllostegia parviflora (smallflower phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008d
Phyllostegia renovans (red-leaf phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010l
Phyllostegia waimeae (Kauai phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008e
Phyllostegia wawrana (fuzzystem phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Phytotoma raimondii (Peruvian plantcutter)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesPeruEcosystem change / habitat alteration,
Pittosporum napaliense (royal cheesewood)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010l
Plantago hawaiensis (Hawai'i plantain)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996a
Plantago princepsNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010n
Platydesma cornuta var. cornutaNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Platydesma cornuta var. decurrensEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); NatureServe NatureServeHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Platydesma rostrataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010l
Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Portulaca sclerocarpaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996a
Pritchardia hardyi (Makaleha pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010o
Pritchardia kaalae (Waianae Range pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008f
Pritchardia munroi (Kamalo pritchardia)No DetailsHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b
Pritchardia napaliensisCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010c
Pritchardia remota (Remota loula palm)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense (enaena)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014k
Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009k
Psychotria grandiflora (large-flowered balsamo)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010l
Psychotria hobdyi (Hobdy's wild-coffee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010l
Pteralyxia kauaiensis (Kauai pteralyxia)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d
Pteralyxia laurifolia (ridged pteralyxia)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing,
Pterodroma sandwichensisVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011e
Pteropus mariannus mariannus (Mariana fruit bat)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesGuam; Northern Mariana IslandsEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009e
Ranunculus hawaiensis (Hawai'ian buttercup)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014l
Ranunculus mauiensis (Maui buttercup)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing,
Remya kauaiensis (Kauai remya)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Remya mauiensis (Maui remya)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009g
Remya montgomeryi (Kalalau Valley remya)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Sanicula mariversa (Waianae Range blacksnakeroot)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008g
Schiedea apokremnos (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010p
Schiedea haleakalensis (Haleakala schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011i
Schiedea helleri (Kaholuamanu schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Schiedea helleri (Kaholuamanu schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Schiedea hookeri (sprawling schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011j
Schiedea jacobii (Jacobi's schiedea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Schiedea kaalae (Oahu schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Schiedea kauaiensis (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Schiedea kealiae (Waianae Range schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010g
Schiedea lydgatei (Kamalo Gulch schiedea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011k
Schiedea membranaceaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010h
Schiedea nuttalliiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009h
Schiedea pubescensUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014m
Schiedea salicariaNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Schiedea sarmentosaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011l
Schiedea spergulina var. leiopodaNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsing,
Schiedea spergulina var. spergulinaUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Schiedea stellarioidesCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010i
Sesbania tomentosaNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010q
Sibara filifolia (Santra Cruz Island Rockcress)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006c
Silene alexandriCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008i
Silene hawaiiensis (Hawaii catchfly)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996a
Silene lanceolata (Kauai catchfly)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010r
Solanum incompletumCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Solanum sandwicenseNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009i
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010s
Stenogyne campanulata (Kalalau Valley stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009c
Stenogyne kanehoana (Oahu stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998c
Stenogyne purpurea (purplefruit stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010o
Streptanthus bracteatus (bracted twistflower)USA ESA species proposed for listing USA ESA species proposed for listingTexasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014n
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus' murrelet)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Canada; ; California; OregonEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012b
Tetramolopium arenarium (Maui tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996a
Tetramolopium filiforme (ridgetop tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010t
Tetramolopium lepidotum (Waianae Range tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009j
Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995a
Tetraplasandra flynniiNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995b
Urera kaalaeCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Pest and disease transmissionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011m
Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004
Verbesina dissita (big-leaved crownbeard)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010u
Vetericaris chaceorum (anchialine pool shrimp)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Vicia menziesii (Hawaiian vetch)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984c
Vigna o-wahuensis (Oahu cowpea)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011c
Viola chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana (pamakani)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008j
Wilkesia hobdyi (dwarf iliau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010j
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosumCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009d

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pathogenic

Uses

Top of page

The ability of goat herds to survive in harsh environments has led to their introduction onto many islands, including Saint Helena Island, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Hawaii. They provided food for colonising people (specifically European colonisers and ship crews) (Campbell and Donlan 2005). Fishermen may have spread goats onto new islands, such as San Benitos (Mexico) and Pinta Island and Marchena Island (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) (Campbell and Donlan 2005).

Goats were domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran (Zeder and Hesse 2000, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). Goats are used for their fur and meat as well as for milk and cheese production. Goat meat is the most highly consumed meat source in the world. More goat’s milk is consumed than cow’s milk. Angora goats have long soft fur which is utilised to produce a soft silk-like fabric called mohair. In New Zealand, mohair prices are strong (2006) and farm gate returns are good. Although little is known of optimum farm management systems, it is considered that the farming of angora goats could contribute to the positive growth of the economy (Mohair NZ Business Plan 2006). The French are well known for utilising goat products for economic purposes; making cheese and other goat milk products (Canus Undated). Some cosmetic products have claimed to help eczema sufferers (Johnson 2006).

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Fresh meat
  • Milk and dairy products

Materials

  • Skins/leather/fur

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Management Information

Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 

Goats have been eradicated from approximately 120 islands and there is hope that native communities will recover rapidly (Hamann 1979, 1993, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). The largest islands on which substantial goat populations have been removed are: Lanai Island (Hawaii), San Clemente (USA), Pinta Island and Santiago Island (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) and Raoul Island (New Zealand) (Campbell and Donlan 2005; Cruz et al., 2009). In general, goat eradication management for islands larger than 500 hectares requires detailed planning and the use of specialised technology, equipment and personnel. Securing funds for eradication programmes may be an obstacle to goat control (Campbell and Donlan 2005). The recent eradication of feral goats from Santiago Island (58,465 ha) in <5 years cost US$6.1 million, and was achieved with a combination of techniques and technologies (Cruz et al. 2009).

The introduction of modern eradication technology has greatly improved the effectiveness of goat control programmes, making goat eradication more likely. Some control methods include the employment of aerial hunting (helicopter), specially trained goat-hunting dogs, Global Positioning Systems and Geographic Information System techniques as well as sterilised goats marked with radiotelemetry collars, called “Judas goats”, which gravitate to, and therefore detect, wild goat herds. Judas goats are used to find wild herds and are especially suitable for finding the last few survivors or to detect the presence of wild goats when it is uncertain whether they have been eradicated. Hunting dogs are particularly useful in situations when goat density is low and vegetation density is high. Aerial hunting is appropriate in situations where there is less ground cover and a higher density of goats. Eradication is always the better option when compared to short-term control. If short-term control is chosen, goats should be kept at low densities.

Although effective eradication technology is available, Benjamin et al. (2011) demonstrate the potential of strategic water management as a non-lethal technique to protect biodiversity from the impacts of feral goats. In the study area in New South Wales, feral goats were found to remain in close proximity to artificial water points. However, they were able to access and impact upon areas of conservation importance which were nearby to these water points. However, by using fencing, the distance the goats needed to travel from the water points to gain access to conservation areas was increased – this protected biodiversity without eradicating the goat population (although the population was locally reduced). This solution was favourable with local landholders some of whom harvest the feral goats.

Guidelines for managing the impact of feral goats have been developed under the Vertebrate Pest Program (VPP) Australia administered by the Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS). The purpose of these guidelines is to assist in the development of cost-effective strategies to reduce the damage feral goats cause to production and conservation. Management techniques and strategies for feral goat management are recommended and illustrated by case studies. Deficiencies in knowledge, management and legislation are identified. Please follow this link to view and download Parkes, J., R Henzell & G Pickles, 1995. Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Goats

 

Bibliography

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References

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Pritchardia kaalae (Lo'ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Pritchardia kaalae (Lo'ulu). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Sanicula mariversa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sanicula mariversa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.40 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Silene alexandri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Silene alexandri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Phyllostegia mollis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Phyllostegia mollis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review Short Form Summary: Remya montgomeryi (no common name). In: 5-Year Review Short Form Summary: Remya montgomeryi (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3343.pdf

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia napaliensis (loulu palm). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia napaliensis (loulu palm) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pteralyxia kauaiensis (kaulu). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pteralyxia kauaiensis (kaulu) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea helleri (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea helleri (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kealiae (ma oli oli). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kealiae (ma oli oli) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea membranacea (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea membranacea (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea stellarioides (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea stellarioides (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Wilkesia hobdyi (dwarf iliau). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Wilkesia hobdyi (dwarf iliau) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.8 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele). In: 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule. In: Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule : US Fish and Wildlife Service.i + 205 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Higo Chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Higo Chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3078.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Plantago princeps (laukahi kuahiwi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem. In: Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem : US Fish and Wildlife Service.38 pp. + 3 maps.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Silene lanceolata (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Silene lanceolata (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Tetramolopium filiforme (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Tetramolopium filiforme (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Verbesina dissita (Big-leaved crownbeard). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Verbesina dissita (Big-leaved crownbeard). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.38 pp. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3559.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.9 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia munroi (lo'ulu). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia munroi (lo'ulu) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Vigna o-wahuensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Vigna o-wahuensis (no common name) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species. In: Federal Register , 76(148) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46362-46593. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-02/pdf/2011-17162.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Isodendrion longifolium (aupaka). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Isodendrion longifolium (aupaka). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.28 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3809.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Panicum fauriei var. carteri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Phyllostegia mannii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Phyllostegia mannii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea haleakalensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea haleakalensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea hookeri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea hookeri (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.20 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea lydgatei (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea lydgatei (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Schiedea sarmentosa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Schiedea sarmentosa (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Urera kaalae (opuhe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Urera kaalae (opuhe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 23 Species on Oahu and Designation of Critical Habitat for 124 Species; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 77(181) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.57648-57862. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-18/pdf/2012-19561.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2012/r8/B098_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15 Species on Hawaii Island; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(209) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.64638-64690. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-29/pdf/2013-24103.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(102) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32014-32065. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12105.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions. In: Federal Register , 78(226) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.70104-70162. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-22/pdf/2013-27391.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gardenia remyi. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gardenia remyi : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q33N_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/S02B_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GQ_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GY_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HT_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VM_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HC_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana : US Fish and Wildlife Service.30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VL_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Joinvillea ascendens ascendens. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Joinvillea ascendens ascendens : US Fish and Wildlife Service.22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q1XN_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q3ES_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q1WN_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ranunculus hawaiensis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ranunculus hawaiensis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q38H_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Schiedea pubescens. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Schiedea pubescens : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q2VZ_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Streptanthus bracteatus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Streptanthus bracteatus : US Fish and Wildlife Service.24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r2/Q1R7_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 16 Species and Threatened Status for 7 Species in Micronesia. In: Federal Register , 80(190) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.59424-59497. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-10-01/pdf/2015-24443.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 49 Species From the Hawaiian Islands. In: Federal Register , 80(189) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.58820-58909. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-09-30/pdf/2015-24305.pdf

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Reviewed by: Dr. Bruce Coblentz, Oregon State University, USA.

    Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
Last Modified: Wednesday, September 15, 2010

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