Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Canis lupus familiaris
(dogs)

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Datasheet

Canis lupus familiaris (dogs)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Canis lupus familiaris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dogs
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Canis lupus familiaris (the dog) is possibly the first animal to have been domesticated by humans. It has been selectively bred into a wide range of different ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ethiopian highlands dog (Canis lupus)
TitleEthiopian highlands dog
CaptionEthiopian highlands dog (Canis lupus)
CopyrightClaudio Sillero
Ethiopian highlands dog (Canis lupus)
Ethiopian highlands dogEthiopian highlands dog (Canis lupus)Claudio Sillero

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • dogs

Other Scientific Names

  • Canis dingo Blumenbach, 1780
  • Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758
  • Canis familiaris domesticus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Canis lupus dingo Meyer, 1793

International Common Names

  • English: domestic dog; domestic dog (feral)

Local Common Names

  • French Polynesia: kurio
  • French Polynesia/Marquesas: peto
  • Germany: Haushund
  • New Zealand: guri
  • Samoa: uli

Summary of Invasiveness

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Canis lupus familiaris (the dog) is possibly the first animal to have been domesticated by humans. It has been selectively bred into a wide range of different forms. They are found throughout the world in many different habitats, both closely associated with humans and away from habitation. They are active hunters and have significant negative impacts on a wide range of native fauna.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Carnivora
  •                         Suborder: Fissipeda
  •                             Family: Canidae
  •                                 Genus: Canis
  •                                     Species: Canis lupus familiaris

Description

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Domestic dogs are believed to have first diverged from wolves around 100,000 years ago. Around 15,000 years ago dogs started diverging into the multitude of different breeds known today. This divergence was possibly triggered by humans changing from a nomadic, hunting based-lifestyle to a more settled, agriculture-based way of life (Vilà et al. 1997). Domestic dogs have been selectively bred for various behaviours, sensory capabilities and physical attributes, including dogs bred for herding livestock (collies, shepherds, etc.), different kinds of hunting (pointers, hounds, etc.), catching rats (small terriers), guarding (mastiffs, chows), helping fishermen with nets (Newfoundlands, poodles), pulling loads (huskies, St. Bernards), guarding carriages and horsemen (Dalmatians), and as companion dogs. Domestic dogs are therefore extremely variable but the basic morphology is that of the grey wolf, the wild ancestor of all domestic dog breeds.

Distribution

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Dogs have been transported by humans to most areas of the world, including many places (such as oceanic islands) where large mammal carnivores do not naturally occur. Dogs have been taken to most inhabited islands in the Pacific but the extent to which they have become feral on forested islands is unclear. R. Hay (pers. comm. 1999), for example, saw little evidence that dogs on Niue were penetrating the forest to any great degree, but this may have been because of the sharp pinnacles and cracks in the limestone substrate. Dogs can range through a wide variety of habitats from open rangeland or desert to thick forest.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
IranPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Africa

EthiopiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Tristan Da CunhaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011

North America

MexicoRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
USAPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-AlaskaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
-MinnesotaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedProbably 16th or 17th century Invasive ISSG, 2011
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedProbably 16th or 17th century Invasive ISSG, 2011
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
HaitiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Caribbean Conservation Association, 1991; Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, 2012Feral dogs severely impacting biodiversity
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

South America

EcuadorPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
French GuianaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Europe

BelarusPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
FinlandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GermanyPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
GreecePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ItalyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative4000 years agoISSG, 2011
Canton and Enderbury IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced1823–25ISSG, 2011
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
-MarquesasPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
GuamPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
KiribatiPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Midway IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
NauruPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
NiuePresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedmid-1700sISSG, 2011
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Phoenix IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
TokelauPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
TongaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011

Habitat

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Dogs are usually closely associated with humans so can potentially be found in all habitats. Feral and ranging domestic dogs may be found far from human habitation.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural
semi-natural/Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
Mainly carnivorous but may eat plant material and invertebrates

Reproduction
Placental, sexual. 4-12 puppies per litter. Both males and females become sexually mature at around 6-12 months.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Transportation of domesticated animals:

Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement: It is important to recognise that, even though there may be no truly feral dogs in a location, an uncontrolled domestic dog can wreak havoc on mammals and birds.

Pathway Causes

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Negative
Native fauna Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Impact

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General Impacts

Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
In Israel, free-ranging feral dogs are a major threat to populations of endangered mountain gazelles (see Gazella gazella ssp. gazella in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Manor and Salz, 2004). Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics within the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The source of the CDV was probably domestic dogs in the local villages surrounding the park. The canids affected included silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in 1978 and endangered African wild dogs (see Lycaon pictus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in 1991. The Serengeti lion population (see Panthera leo in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) which remained unaffected during these two epidemics was hit by an epidemic in early 1994, caused by a morbillivirus which is closely related to CDV. Later that year the epidemic had spread north to lions, hyenas, bat-eared foxes and leopards in the Maasi Mara National reserve. This epidemic claimed at least 30% of the lion population (estimated at 3000 in Serengeti at that time). It is suggested that the possible route of transmission from domestic dogs was the spotted hyena that range through human habitation and travel long distances within the park (Roelke-Parker et al. 1996).
 
Uncontrolled domestic dogs can be equally as damaging as truly feral animals. In New Zealand, during study of kiwi (see Apteryx australis; Apteryx haastii; Apteryx mantelli; and Apteryx owenii in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in a Northland forest, the loss of 13 out of 23 kiwi fitted with transmitters was found to be the result of predation by one German shepherd dog. It was estimated that this single dog alone had killed 500 out of 900 birds, although this estimate was considered to be possibly conservative (Taborsky 1988). Seabirds and mammals are included among the prey taken by feral dogs (e.g. Dickman, 1996, Stevenson and Woelher, 2007).

 

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Apteryx australisVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)New ZealandPredationISSG, 2011
Apteryx haastiiVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)New ZealandPredationISSG, 2011
Apteryx mantelliEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)New ZealandPredationISSG, 2011
Apteryx oweniiNT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)New ZealandPredationISSG, 2011
Canis mesomelas (black-backed jackal)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)Kenya; TanzaniaPest and disease transmissionISSG, 2011
Gazella gazella subsp. gazellaVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)IsraelPredationISSG, 2011
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Kenya; TanzaniaPest and disease transmissionISSG, 2011
Otocyon megalotis (bat-eared fox)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)Kenya; TanzaniaPest and disease transmissionISSG, 2011
Panthera leo (lion)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)TanzaniaPest and disease transmissionISSG, 2011
Panthera pardusNT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)TanzaniaPest and disease transmissionISSG, 2011
Caretta caretta (loggerhead sea turtle)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAlabama; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Texas; VirginiaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b
Charadrius alexandrinus nivosusUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; Oregon; WashingtonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007c
Cyclura stejnegeri (Mona Island iguana)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984
Eremophila alpestris strigata (streaked horned lark)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesOregon; WashingtonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Eretmochelys imbricata (hawksbill turtle)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesBritish Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; Alabama; Connecticut; Delaware; Florida; Georgia; Hawaii; Louisiana; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; Mississippi; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New York; North Carolina; Rhode Island; Texas; Virginia; American Samoa; Guam; Northern Mariana Islands; PalauPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007b
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland crested penguin)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew ZealandPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Eudyptula albosignata (white-flippered penguin)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew ZealandPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizona; California; Nevada; UtahPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Gopherus morafkai (Sonoran desert tortoise)No DetailsArizonaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013c
Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale (Sonoyta mud turtle)USA ESA species proposed for listing USA ESA species proposed for listingArizonaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014
Lepidochelys olivacea (olive ridley sea turtle)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesMexico; California; Hawaii; OregonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998; Andrews et al., 2006; Abreu-Grobois and Plotkin, 2008
Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus (Alameda whipsnake)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Megadyptes antipodes (yellow-eyed penguin)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew ZealandPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Monachus schauinslandi (Hawaiian monk seal)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiInteraction with other invasive speciesNational Marine Fisheries Service, 2007
Odocoileus virginianus clavium (Key deer)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d; NatureServe, 2006; Lopez et al., 2003
Peltophryne lemur (Puerto Rican crested toad)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992
Perognathus longimembris pacificus (Pacific pocket mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010f
Pterodroma phaeopygia (Galapagos dark-rumped petrel)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGalapagos IslandsPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010c
Puffinus heinrothi (Heinroth's shearwater)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPapua New Guinea; Solomon IslandsPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007a
Sterna antillarum (least tern)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUSAPredationNatureServe, 2011
Sterna antillarum browni (California least tern)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Sylvilagus bachmani riparius (riparian brush rabbit)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000
Sylvilagus transitionalis (New England cottontail)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)Connecticut; Maine; Massachusetts; New Hampshire; New York; Rhode IslandPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013d
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus' murrelet)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Canada; Mexico; California; OregonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Tympanuchus cupido attwateri (Attwater's greater prairie chicken)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesLouisiana; TexasPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004
Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition (unspecified); PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010g
Zapus hudsoniusUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesColorado; WyomingPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Predation

Uses

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Domesticated dogs have been bred to assist humans in a wide range of activites including farming, hunting and companionship.

Uses List

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General

  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)
  • Working animals (miscellaneous)

Prevention and Control

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Management Information

Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

The principal techniques to control wild dogs are exclusion fencing, shooting, trapping and poisoning. Poisoning using 1080 is the most cost-effective means of reducing populations of wild dogs over large areas of remote or inaccessible country. New techniques such as the use of livestock guarding dogs, poison ejecting devices and toxic collars have been suggested as alternatives to current methods.

The Australian Bureau of Rural Sciences (BRS) in cooperation with the Vertebrate Pests Committee of the Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management (SCARM) has published guidelines for managing the impacts of dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and other wild dogs (C.l. familiaris) as part of the Managing Vertebrate Pests series. Please follow this link to view and download Fleming, P., Corbett, L., Harden, R. and Thomson, P. (2001) Managing the Impacts of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.

 

Bibliography

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Anderson, A. J. 1990. Kuri. In King, C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Oxford University Press, Auckland: 281–287.

Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.

Barnett, B. D. 1982. Feral dogs of southern Isabela. Noticias Galapagos 35: 15–16.

Bauer, H. & Nowell, K. 2004. Panthera leo. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/15951/all

BirdLife International 2004. Apteryx australis. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

BirdLife International 2004. Apteryx haastii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/141094/0

BirdLife International 2004. Apteryx mantelli. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/150471/0

BirdLife International 2004. Apteryx owenii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/141093/0

Blank, D.A. 2003. Gazella gazella ssp. gazella. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/8970/0

Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

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Dickman, C.R. 1996. Impact of exotic generalist predators on the native fauna of Australia..Wildlife Biology 2: 185-195

Fleming P, Corbett L, Harden R and Thomson P., 2001. Managing the Impacts of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs. Bureau of Rural Sciences Canberra Australia http://www.feral.org.au/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.ReferenceDetails&ID=1485&fer_ref_type=Book

Gargominy, O., Bouchet, P., Pascal, M., Jaffre, T. and Tourneu, J. C. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie.. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51: 375-401.

Glen, A.S., Gentle, M.N. and Dickman, C.R. 2007. Non-target impacts of poison baiting for predator control in Australia. Mammal Review Volume 37 Issue 3 Page 191-205, July 2007

Hunt, G.R., Hay R., Veltman, C. 1996. Multiple kagu Rhynochetos jubatus deaths caused by dogs attacks at a high altitude site on Pic Ningua, New Caledonia. International Bird Conservation, 6 : 295-306.

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Körtner, G. 2007. 1080 aerial baiting for the control of wild dogs and its impacts on spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus). Wildlife Research 34: 48-53

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Macdonald, D. W. and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2004. Biology and conservation of wild canids. Oxford University Press, UK.

Manor, M. and Saltz, D. 2004. The impact of free-roaming dogs on gazelle kid/female ratio in a fragmented area. Biologocal Conservation 119:231-236.

Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Canis familiaris. Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel, site Web : http://inpn.mnhn.fr. Document téléchargé le 28 mars 2008 . http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=162663

Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006. Mont Panié Mammal Control ‘Proof-of-Concept’ Project http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/mtPanie.html

Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006a. Viwa Island Restoration Project http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/viwa.html

Pascal, M., Barré, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Frétey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements néo-calédoniens de vertébébrés : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les espèces envahissantes dans l’archipel néo-calédonien, Paris, IRD Éditions, 260 p.+ cédérom

Roelke-Parker, M.E.; Munson, L.; Packer, C.; Kock, R.; Cleaveland, S.; Carpenter, M.; O'Brien, S.J.; Pospischil, A.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Lutz, H.; Mwamengele, G.L.M.; Mgasa, M.N.; Machange, G.A.; Summers, B.; Appel, M.J.G., 1996. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature [0028-0836]:1996 vol:379 iss:6564 pg:441

Sillero-Zubiri, C., M. Hoffman, and D. W. Macdonald (eds.). 2004. Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Sillero-Zubiri, C., M. Hoffman, and D. W. Macdonald (eds.). 2004. Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. http://www.canids.org/cap/COVER.pdf

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Vila, C., Savolainen, P., Maldonado, J.E., Amorim, I.R., Rice, J.E., Honeycutt, R.L., Crandall, K.A., Lundeberg, J. and Wayne, R.K. 1997. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science 276: 1687-1689

References

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Abreu-Grobois, A, Plotkin, P, 2008. Lepidochelys olivacea. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1 www.iucnredlist.org

Andrews HV, Tripathy A, Aghue S, Glen S, John S, Naveen K, 2006. The status of sea turtle populations in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In: Towards An Integrated And Collaborative Sea Turtle Conservation Programme in India: a UNEP/CMS-IOSEA Project Report [ed. by Shanker K, Andrews HV]. Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu, India: Centre for Herpetology/Madras Crocodile Bank Trust, Post Bag 4,

Caribbean Conservation Association, 1991. St. Lucia Country Environmental Profile. St. Lucia Country Environmental Profile. Castries, Saint Lucia 335 pp.

ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Lopez RR, Silvy NJ, Frank PA, Pierce BL, 2003. Effects of supplemental feeding on Key deer behavior in urban areas, Florida Scientist, 66267-272.

National Marine Fisheries Service, 2007. In: Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi). Second Revision. National Marine Fisheries Service, 165 pp.

NatureServe, 2011. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia, USA: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, 2012. Management Plan for the Millet Nature Trail, St. Lucia. The OECS Protecting the Eastern Caribbean Region's Biodiversity Project Inception Report. Unpublished Draft. Castries, Saint Lucia: OECS, 31 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984. In: Mona Iguana Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 26 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/840419b.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992. In: Recovery Plan for the Puerto Rican Crested Toad (Peltophryne lemur). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 43 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/920807a.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. In: Recovery Plan for U.S. Pacific Populations of the Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 63 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/981201a.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to List the Riparian Brush Rabbit and the Riparian, or San Joaquin Valley, Woodrat as Endangered. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. In: California least tern (Sternula antillarum browni). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 32 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To List Six Foreign Bird Species Under the Endangered Species Act. 72(241) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 71298-71315. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2007-12-17/pdf/E7-24347.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 90 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Recovery Plan for the Pacific Coast Population of the Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 292 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/070924.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Attwater's Prairie-Chicken Recovery Plan, Second Revision. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 107 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Threatened Status for Five Penguin Species. 75(148) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 45497-45527. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-03/pdf/2010-18884.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule To List the Galapagos Petrel and Heinroth's Shearwater as Threatened Throughout Their Ranges. 75(2) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 235-249. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-05/pdf/E9-31308.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 29 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Mojave Population of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 123 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3572.DT%205Year%20Review_FINAL.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Pacific Pocket Mouse (Perognathus longimembris pacificus). 5-Year review: summary and evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 86 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 121 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. In: Alameda Whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 34 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3886.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. In: Endangered and Threatened Species; Determination of Nine Distinct Population Segments of Loggerhead Sea Turtles as Endangered or Threatened. 76(184) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 58868-58952. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-22/pdf/2011-23960.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2012/r8/B098_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Two Petitions to Delist the Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse. 78(101) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 31680-31712. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-24/pdf/2013-12387.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Taylor's Checkerspot Butterfly and Threatened Status for the Streaked Horned Lark; Final Rule. 78(192) US Fish and Wildlife Service, 61452-61503. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-03/pdf/2013-23567.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gopherus morafkai. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 98 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r2/C07G_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Sylvilagus transitionalis. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 31 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2013/r5/A09B_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r2/C067_V01.pdf

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    Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
Last Modified: Wednesday, September 15, 2010

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