Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Camelus dromedarius
(dromedary camel)

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Datasheet

Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Camelus dromedarius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dromedary camel
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Racing camels at Dubaï, UAE.
TitleCamel racing
CaptionRacing camels at Dubaï, UAE.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Racing camels at Dubaï, UAE.
Camel racingRacing camels at Dubaï, UAE.©Bernard Faye
Carrying peanut hay by camel at Maradi, Niger.
TitleDraught camel
CaptionCarrying peanut hay by camel at Maradi, Niger.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Carrying peanut hay by camel at Maradi, Niger.
Draught camelCarrying peanut hay by camel at Maradi, Niger.©Bernard Faye
Dromedary camels at rest, Dohoo, Ethiopia.
TitleCamel herd at rest
CaptionDromedary camels at rest, Dohoo, Ethiopia.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Dromedary camels at rest, Dohoo, Ethiopia.
Camel herd at restDromedary camels at rest, Dohoo, Ethiopia.©Bernard Faye
Camels at sunset, Dohoo, Ethiopia.
TitleCamels at sunset
CaptionCamels at sunset, Dohoo, Ethiopia.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Camels at sunset, Dohoo, Ethiopia.
Camels at sunsetCamels at sunset, Dohoo, Ethiopia.©Bernard Faye
Pack camel waiting on market at Bati, Ethiopia.
TitlePack camel
CaptionPack camel waiting on market at Bati, Ethiopia.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Pack camel waiting on market at Bati, Ethiopia.
Pack camelPack camel waiting on market at Bati, Ethiopia.©Bernard Faye
Racing camels at Aboureya, Niger.
TitleRacing camels
CaptionRacing camels at Aboureya, Niger.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Racing camels at Aboureya, Niger.
Racing camelsRacing camels at Aboureya, Niger.©Bernard Faye
Treatment of Bikaneri camel against mange with oil after shearing. Dollya, India.
TitleCamel husbandry|Mange treatment in camels
CaptionTreatment of Bikaneri camel against mange with oil after shearing. Dollya, India.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Treatment of Bikaneri camel against mange with oil after shearing. Dollya, India.
Camel husbandry|Mange treatment in camelsTreatment of Bikaneri camel against mange with oil after shearing. Dollya, India.©Bernard Faye
Copulation of dromedary camel. Bikaneri breed, Bikaner, India.|Copulation of dromedary camel. Bikaneri breed. Bikaner, India.
TitleCopulation
CaptionCopulation of dromedary camel. Bikaneri breed, Bikaner, India.|Copulation of dromedary camel. Bikaneri breed. Bikaner, India.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Copulation of dromedary camel. Bikaneri breed, Bikaner, India.|Copulation of dromedary camel. Bikaneri breed. Bikaner, India.
CopulationCopulation of dromedary camel. Bikaneri breed, Bikaner, India.|Copulation of dromedary camel. Bikaneri breed. Bikaner, India.©Bernard Faye
Carting camels on a road in Rajsathan, India.
TitleCarting camels
CaptionCarting camels on a road in Rajsathan, India.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Carting camels on a road in Rajsathan, India.
Carting camelsCarting camels on a road in Rajsathan, India.©Bernard Faye
'Schmell': a basket for protecting the camel udder to prevent suckling by calves, Laâyoune, Morocco.
TitleCamel husbandry
Caption'Schmell': a basket for protecting the camel udder to prevent suckling by calves, Laâyoune, Morocco.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
'Schmell': a basket for protecting the camel udder to prevent suckling by calves, Laâyoune, Morocco.
Camel husbandry'Schmell': a basket for protecting the camel udder to prevent suckling by calves, Laâyoune, Morocco.©Bernard Faye
Transport of racing camel by car in Dubaï, UAE.
TitleRacing camel being transported
CaptionTransport of racing camel by car in Dubaï, UAE.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Transport of racing camel by car in Dubaï, UAE.
Racing camel being transportedTransport of racing camel by car in Dubaï, UAE.©Bernard Faye
Rutting male evaginating its soft palate. Bulekalo, Ethiopia.
TitleRutting male
CaptionRutting male evaginating its soft palate. Bulekalo, Ethiopia.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Rutting male evaginating its soft palate. Bulekalo, Ethiopia.
Rutting maleRutting male evaginating its soft palate. Bulekalo, Ethiopia.©Bernard Faye
Collecting semen from a dromedary bull in Dubaï, UAE.
TitleSemen collection
CaptionCollecting semen from a dromedary bull in Dubaï, UAE.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Collecting semen from a dromedary bull in Dubaï, UAE.
Semen collectionCollecting semen from a dromedary bull in Dubaï, UAE.©Bernard Faye
Milking camel in Sudan.
TitleMilking camel
CaptionMilking camel in Sudan.
CopyrightCIRAD-EMVT
Milking camel in Sudan.
Milking camelMilking camel in Sudan.CIRAD-EMVT
Young Touareg boy playing with a camel calf. Bouzak, Niger.
TitleTouareg boy playing with a camel
CaptionYoung Touareg boy playing with a camel calf. Bouzak, Niger.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Young Touareg boy playing with a camel calf. Bouzak, Niger.
Touareg boy playing with a camelYoung Touareg boy playing with a camel calf. Bouzak, Niger.©Bernard Faye
Slaughtering of camel in a field at Awassa, Ethiopia.
TitleButchering a carcass
CaptionSlaughtering of camel in a field at Awassa, Ethiopia.
Copyright©Bernard Faye
Slaughtering of camel in a field at Awassa, Ethiopia.
Butchering a carcassSlaughtering of camel in a field at Awassa, Ethiopia.©Bernard Faye

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Camelus dromedarius

Preferred Common Name

  • dromedary camel

International Common Names

  • English: Arabian camel; camels; dromedaries; dromedary camels; one-humped camel
  • French: dromadaires
  • Arabic: jmel

Local Common Names

  • Ethiopia: galli; gamel
  • Germany: Kamelen
  • Italy: dromedario

DADIS local name

  • Al-hurra
  • Chameau des arabes
  • Gabbra
  • Pied Camel
  • Shamia

DADIS main name

  • Arvana-Kazakh Type
  • Australian Feral Dromedary
  • Botswana Camel
  • Chaambi
  • Chameau De L'aftouh
  • Chameau De L'aftout
  • Chameau De L'azaouad
  • Dromedary
  • Dromedary-Bactrian Hybrid
  • Ethiopian Dromedary
  • Iraqi
  • Jebli
  • Khaouri
  • Kutchi
  • Le Chameau
  • Le Chameau du Kanem
  • Maghrabi
  • Maghrebi
  • Mahamid
  • Malvi
  • Marwari
  • Mewari
  • Mewati
  • Ouled Sid Cheikh
  • Red Sea Hills
  • Rendille
  • Saharan Camel
  • Sahraqui
  • Shamelia
  • Sindhi
  • Somali
  • Sudani
  • Turkmen Arvana

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Artiodactyla
  •                         Suborder: Tylopoda
  •                             Family: Camelidae
  •                                 Genus: Camelus
  •                                     Species: Camelus dromedarius

Distribution

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The Dromedary camel originated in 35 countries from Africa and Asia. The camel occupies the land area north of the Tropic of Cancer and the Horn of Africa where about 50% of the camel world population are living (Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya and Djibouti). In Africa the countries with the largest camel populations are Somalia (6 million heads), Sudan (3.15 million heads), Mauritania (1.185 million heads), Ethiopia (1.05 millions heads) and Kenya (830,000 heads). In Asia the dromedary camel is in all arid countries from the Mediterranean sea to India including the Arabic Peninsula. The most important camel population is found in Pakistan (1.2 million heads) and India (1.03 million heads). Outside the originated area, the dromedary camel is present in Australia (mainly feral population) and some camel herds are kept for leisure in developed counties (Western Europe, North-America). However the population outside the original area is quite marginal. The world population is estimated as 18 million animals. This number is probably under-estimated (Faye, 1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, LocalizedNative
Burkina FasoPresent, LocalizedNative
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
ChadPresent, WidespreadNative
DjiboutiPresent, WidespreadNative
EgyptPresent, WidespreadNative
EritreaPresent, WidespreadNative
EthiopiaPresent, WidespreadNative
KenyaPresent, LocalizedNative
LibyaPresent, WidespreadNative
MaliPresent, WidespreadNative
MauritaniaPresent, WidespreadNative
MoroccoPresent, LocalizedNative
NigerPresent, WidespreadNative
NigeriaPresent, Localized
SenegalPresent
SomaliaPresent, WidespreadNative
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent, WidespreadNative
TanzaniaPresent, Localized
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TunisiaPresent, WidespreadNative
UgandaPresent, Localized
Western SaharaPresent, WidespreadNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, WidespreadNative
BahrainPresent, WidespreadNative
IndiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-Andhra PradeshPresent, Localized
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-BiharPresent, Localized
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresent
-Daman and DiuPresent
-DelhiPresent, Localized
-GoaPresent
-GujaratPresent, Widespread
-HaryanaPresent, Widespread
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent, Localized
-KarnatakaPresent, Localized
-KeralaPresent, Localized
-LakshadweepPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent, Widespread
-MaharashtraPresent, Localized
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-MizoramPresent
-NagalandPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent, Widespread
-RajasthanPresent, Widespread
-Tamil NaduPresent, Localized
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent, Widespread
-West BengalPresent, Localized
IranPresent, WidespreadNative
IraqPresent, WidespreadNative
IsraelPresent, LocalizedNative
JapanPresent
JordanPresent, WidespreadNative
KazakhstanPresent, Localized
KuwaitPresent, WidespreadNative
LebanonPresentNative
OmanPresent, WidespreadNative
PakistanPresent, WidespreadNative
Palestine
-Gaza StripPresentNative
QatarPresent, WidespreadNative
Saudi ArabiaPresent, WidespreadNative
SyriaPresent, LocalizedNative
TurkeyPresent, LocalizedNativeOriginal recorded location: Turkey-in-Asia
TurkmenistanPresent, Localized
United Arab EmiratesPresent, WidespreadNative
YemenPresent, WidespreadNative

Europe

BelgiumPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
PortugalPresent, Localized
SpainPresent

North America

United StatesPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

References

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Ali Hussein M, 1993. Traditional practices of camel husbandry and management in Somalia. In: Hjort af Ornäs A, ed., The multi-purpose camel: interdisciplinary studies on pastoral production in Somalia. EPOS, Uppsala University, Sweden, 123-140.

Arnautovic I, 1997. A contribution to the study of some structures and organs of camel (Camelus dromedarius). J. Camel Pract. Res., 4(2):287-293.

Bengoumi M, 1991. Besoins hydriques et minéraux. Rapport de synthèse. Publ. GERDEC, Rabat, Maroc, 57-64.

Beniwal G; Singh K; Joshi S, 1998. Microscopic study of uriniferous tubules and collecting ducts of kidney in camel (Camelus dromedarius). J. Camel Pract. Res., 5(1):107-109.

Chaudhary ZI; Saifuddin JA, 2000. The camel and its diseases. Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Al Bayan Press.

Epstein H, 1971. History and origin of the African camel. In: The origin of the domestic animals in Africa. New York, USA: African Publishing Corporation, 558-564.

Faye B, 1997. Le guide de l'élevage du dromadaire. Sanofi Publ., Libourne, France.

Faye B; Bengoumi M, 1997. Données nouvelles sur le métabolisme des principaux éléments-traces chez le dromadaire. Rev. Elev. Méd. Vét. Pays Trop., 50:47-53.

Faye B; Bengoumi M; Hidane K, 1998. Le développement de l'élevage laitier péri-urbain: l'exemple de Laâyoune (provinces sahariennes du Maroc). Actes de l'Atelier International sur la Production laitière péri-urbaine, Montpellier, CIRAD-EMVT.

Faye B; Meyer C; Marti A, 1999. Le dromadaire. CD-Rom. CIRAD Publ., Montpellier, France.

Faye B; Mulato C, 1991. Facteurs de variation des paramètres protéo-énergétiques, enzymatiques et minéraux dans le plasma chez le dromadaire de Djibouti. Rev. Elev. Méd. Vét. Pays Trop., 44:325-334.

Faye B; Saint-Martin G; Cherrier R; Ali Ruffa, 1992. The influence of high dietary protein, energy and mineral intake on deficient young camel: I. Changes in metabolic profiles and growth performance. Comp. Bioch. Physiol., 102A:409-416.

Faye B; Tisserand JL, 1989. Problèmes de la détermination de la valeur alimentaire des fourrages prélevés par les dromadaires. Options méditerranéennes. Séries séminaire No. 2:61-65.

Gee P, 1996. The camel in Australia. J. Camel Pract. Res., 3(2):139-140.

Guerouali A, 1991. Détermination des besoins nutritionnels du dromadaire pour l'entretien, la croissance, la gestation et la lactation. In: Etudes et Recherches appliquées sur l'élevage camelin. Rapport de synthèse. Publ. GERDEC, Rabat, Maroc, 49-56.

Hamliri A; Khallaayoune K; Johnson DW; Kessabi M, 1990. The relationship between the concentration of selenium in the blood and the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the erythrocytes of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Vet. Res. Comm., 14:27-30.

Hjort af Ornäs A; Hussein MA, 1993. Camel herd dynamics in southern Somalia: long-term development and milk production implications. The multi-purpose camel: interdisciplinary studies on pastoral production in Somalia., 31-41; 8 ref.

Jouany JP, 2000. La digestion chez les camélidés: comparaison avec les riuminants. INRA Prod. Anim., 13:165-176.

Jöchle W; Merkt H; Sieme H; Musa BE; Badreldin H, 1990. Sedation and analgesia with detomidine hydrochloride (Domosedan R) in camelids for camelids for rectal examinations and electro-ejaculation. In: Saint-Martin G, ed. Proc. of the Workshop "Is it possible to improve the reproductive performance of the camel?", Paris, 10-12 Sept, 1990. France, CIRAD-UCEC publ., 263-272.

Kaufmann B, 1998. Analysis of pastoral camel husbandry in Northern Kenya. Analysis of pastoral camel husbandry in Northern Kenya., 194 pp.; 361 ref.

Lhote H, 1953. Le cheval et le chameau dans les peintures et gravures rupestres du Sahara. Bull. IFAN, 15:1212-1225.

Pacholek X; Vias G; Faye B; Faugère O, 2000. Elevage camelin au Niger. Référentiel zootechnique et sanitaire. Publ. Coopération Française, Niamey, Niger.

Rathore GS, 1985. Camels and their management. ICAR Publ., New Dehli.

Riad F, Bengoumi M et al. , 1994. Influence of the hydroxycholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel milk. J. Dairy Sci., 61:567-571.

Richard D, 1985. Le dromadaire et son élevage. Publ. IEMVT, Coll 3etudes et synthèses", CIRAD-Montpellier, France.

Rutagwenda T; Lechner-Doll M; Schwartz HJ; Schultka W; Engelhardt Wvon, 1990. Dietary preference and degradability of forage on a semiarid thornbush savannah by indigenous ruminants, camels and donkeys. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 31(3-4):179-192; 26 ref.

Saint-Martin G, 1994. Proceedings of the International workshop, Paris: "Comment peut-on améliorer les performances de reproduction des camelins ?" CIRAD-EMVT Publ., Coll. "Etudes et synthèses de l'IEMVT", Montpellier, France.

Schwartz H; Dioli M, 1992. The One-Humped camel in eastern-Africa. Weikersheim, Germany; Verlag.

Tana AAM; Abdel Magied EM, 1998. Anatomy of the pancreas of the one-humped camel. J. Camel Pract. Res., 5(1):57-60.

Tibary A; Anouassi A, 1997. Theriogenology in camelidae. Anatomy, physiology, pathology and artificial breeding. Actes Editions Publ., IAV Hassan II, Rabat, Maroc.

Vyas S; Ravault JP; Faye B; Chemineau P, 1997. The circadium rhythm of melatonin secretion in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Rev. Elev. Med. Vét. Pays Trop., 50:261-263.

Wardeh M, 1997. The nutrients requirements of the dromedary camels. The camel Applied Research and Development Network. ACSAD/CARDN Publ. Damas, Syria.

Wernery U; Kaaden OR, 1995. Infectious diseases of camelids. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Publ.

Wilson RT, 1984. The camel. London, UK: Longman Publ.

Yadav B; Mishra BP; Bhakat C; Sahani MS, 2000. Hair quality attributes if Camelus dromedarius. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 70:211-212.

Yagil R, 1985. The desert camel. Comparative physiological adaptation. London, UK: Karger Publ.

Zamil El-Faer M; Rawdah TN; Attar KM; Dawson MV, 1991. Mineral and proximate composition of the meat of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Food Chem., 42:139-143.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Australian Camel News- A journal of camel ownershttp://www.austcamel.com.au/acn_home.htm
Camel Lorehttp://www.llamaweb.com/Camel
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Museum of Camels and Dromedarieshttp://www.windblossom.com/buttrfly/camel.html
The A-Z of camelshttp://www.arab.net/camels

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