Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Cestrum diurnum
(day jessamine)

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Datasheet

Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cestrum diurnum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • day jessamine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. diurnum has been introduced as an ornamental shrub into most of tropical and subtropical America. The species has escaped from cultivation and naturalized in many regions where it grows as individual plants...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine); habit, showing foliage and flowers. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleFoliage and flowers
CaptionCestrum diurnum (day jessamine); habit, showing foliage and flowers. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine); habit, showing foliage and flowers. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Foliage and flowersCestrum diurnum (day jessamine); habit, showing foliage and flowers. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine); habit.  Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionCestrum diurnum (day jessamine); habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine); habit.  Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
HabitCestrum diurnum (day jessamine); habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine); foliage, flowers and fruits. Tonga. June, 2007.
TitleFoliage, flowers and fruits
CaptionCestrum diurnum (day jessamine); foliage, flowers and fruits. Tonga. June, 2007.
Copyright©Tauʻolunga/via wilkipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine); foliage, flowers and fruits. Tonga. June, 2007.
Foliage, flowers and fruitsCestrum diurnum (day jessamine); foliage, flowers and fruits. Tonga. June, 2007.©Tauʻolunga/via wilkipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cestrum diurnum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • day jessamine

Other Scientific Names

  • Cestrum album Ferrero ex Dun.
  • Cestrum diurnum var. fasciatiflorum Dunal
  • Cestrum diurnum var. marcianum Proctor
  • Cestrum diurnum var. odontospermum (Jacq.) O.E.Schulz
  • Cestrum diurnum var. portoricense O.E.Schulz
  • Cestrum diurnum var. tinctorium (Jacq.) M.Gómez
  • Cestrum diurnum var. venenatum (Mill.) O.E.Schulz
  • Cestrum elongatum Steud.
  • Cestrum fastigiatum Jacq.
  • Cestrum odontospermum Jacq.
  • Cestrum pallidum Lam.
  • Cestrum tinctorium Jacq.
  • Cestrum venenatum Mill.

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese inkberry; day cestrum; day queen; day-blooming cestrum; inkberry
  • Spanish: dama de día; galán de día; rufiana; saúco tintóreo

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: ariki-va‘ine; ariki-va‘ine
  • Cuba: amenoche; galán de día; jazmín de día
  • Dominican Republic: rufiana
  • Fiji: thauthau
  • Guam: tintanchina
  • India: China berry; day jasmine; din ka raja
  • Jamaica: wild jasmine
  • Pakistan: din-ka-raja
  • Puerto Rico: dama de día
  • Tonga: vaitohi
  • USA/Hawaii: makahala

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. diurnum has been introduced as an ornamental shrub into most of tropical and subtropical America. The species has escaped from cultivation and naturalized in many regions where it grows as individual plants or in thickets (Francis, 2002). It is included in the Global Compendium or Weeds as an environmental weed (Randall, 2012). It is also listed as invasive or potentially invasive in Florida, Hawaii, Marianas Islands, Guam, Tonga, South Africa, the Dominican Republic, Bahamas, and Mexico (Kairo et al., 2003; Foxcroft et al., 2008; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2014; PIER, 2014). Because C. diurnum is intolerant of heavy shade and quickly disappears when overtopped by forest, it can be inferred that it is an opportunist that invades disturbed areas and quickly completes its life cycle ahead of encroaching forest (Francis, 2002). This species is very flexible and has the ability to grow on soils of all textures, apparently from all parent materials. In areas receiving about 1400 to 2400 mm of precipitation it aggressively colonizes natural areas (Francis, 2002; Langeland et al., 2008; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2014). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Cestrum
  •                                 Species: Cestrum diurnum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Solanaceae is a family of flowering plants including 102 genera and 2460 species (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are characterized by solitary or clustered flowers with sepals and petals, five in number and fused; five stamens; and a superior ovary composed of two fused carpels. Flowers are usually conspicuous and are pollinated mainly by insects (Bombarely et al., 2011; Stevens, 2012). The genus Cestrum is now included in the subfamily Browallioideae and includes approximately 175 species with origin in the Americas and the West Indies (Stevens, 2012).

Description

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C. diurnum is an evergreen shrub to 2 m tall, with multiple trunks, often densely branched and branches arching. Leaves alternate, simple, short petioled (to 1.2 cm); blades smooth, leathery, entire, shiny green, oval to oblong, 5-11 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide. Flowers fragrant in daytime, creamy white, trumpet-shaped, in several-flowered, stalked clusters at upper leaf axils; corolla tube to 1.8 cm long, with tiny petal lobes curled back. Fruit an oval berry, to 7 mm long, green ripening through violet to shiny blue-black, with 4-14 seeds (Langeland et al., 2008). 

Distribution

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C. diurnum is native to Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. It has been introduced as an ornamental in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and now it can be found naturalized in India and South Africa, on many islands in the Pacific Ocean and across tropical and subtropical America (see distribution table for details). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity, 2014
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2014Cultivated
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009Only in cultivation

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Foxcroft et al., 2008Naturalized and invasive in the Kruger National Park

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedMartínez et al., 2001Campeche, Chiapas, Sinaloa, Yucatan
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
CubaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Potentially invasive
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedUS National Herbarium

South America

VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008Aragua, Carabobo, Falcón, Mérida, Miranda, Sucre, Táchira

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith, 1991Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Meyer, 2000
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2001
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. diurnum has been actively introduced as an ornamental. It was probably introduced to Florida from the West Indies before the 1930s (Langeland et al., 2008). In the West Indies, it was collected in 1871 in the Dominican Republic, 1915 in Haiti and in 1927 in Trinidad and Tobago (US National Herbarium). In Mexico it was collected in 1885 in Cozumel, Yucatan (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew Herbarium). In South Africa, it was first recorded in 1999 (Foxcroft et al., 2008). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. diurnum is high. This species is an aggressive shrub widely cultivated as an ornamental. Plants produce seeds which can be easily dispersed by birds. In addition, seeds are still sold by regional seed houses and ornamental seedlings are offered by nurseries (Francis, 2002). Consequently, the probability of colonizing new areas remains high principally in disturbed areas near cultivation. 

Habitat

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C. diurnum grows in disturbed sites, pastures, along roadsides and in secondary forests. In Guam it is common on abandoned fields, and in pastures as a secondary component of the northern limestone community. In Puerto Rico, this species can be found growing in gardens, roadsides, fence rows, pastures, vacant lots, and abandoned farmland (Liogier, 1995). In Florida (USA), C. diurnum is abundant in hammocks and open disturbed areas; it is considered a “serious threat” to natural areas in south Florida and it invades coastal strand hammocks where it can form dense thickets at the margins (Langeland et al., 2008). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. diurnum is 2n = 16 (Krishnakumar and Kuriachan, 1998).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

C. diurnum flowers and fruits year-round (Francis, 2002). Flowers are diurnal and visited by insects, mostly butterflies (Knapp, 2010).

C. diurnum rarely reaches more than 4.5 m in height and 8 cm in trunk diameter. Early growth is relatively fast and life spans are relatively short, ranging from 5 to 20 years (Francis, 2002).

Environmental Requirements

C. diurnum grows in areas receiving precipitations ranging from 800 to 3000 mm, but most aggressively colonizes areas that receive from about 1400 to 2400 mm of rainfall. It tolerates soils of all textures, apparently from all parent materials, but is most common in limestone areas (Francis, 2002). It does not prosper on exposed subsoil nor grow on swampy ground. The plant is salt tolerant if not exposed to heavy salt spray or over-wash from storms. In Florida, this species has been found growing under Australian pines, thus it can be inferred that it tolerates shade and dense allelopathic litter from these trees (Francis, 2002; Langeland et al., 2008). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3.8
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8003000mm; lower/upper limits

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. diurnum spreads by seeds. Fruits are fleshy berries dispersed by birds (Morton, 1982). In the West Indies, C. diurnum is particularly associated with pasture fence rows because its seeds are deposited there by birds, vegetative competition is controlled by grazing, and it is rarely eaten by cattle (Francis, 2002). 

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Environmental Impact

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C. diurnum is an aggressive invasive shrub. This species is an opportunist that invades mostly disturbed areas and quickly completes its life cycle ahead of encroaching forest (Francis, 2002). It is a serious problem in open disturbed areas in Florida, Hawaii, and Guam where it is replacing native vegetation (Wagner et al., 1999; Langeland et al., 2008; PIER, 2014). It is also considered a “serious threat” to natural areas in south Florida (USA). C. diurnum also invades coastal strand hammocks in Florida where it grows forming dense thickets at the margins (Langeland et al., 2008). 

Social Impact

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Fruits of C. diurnum are poisonous to humans and other mammals, affecting the nervous system (Morton, 1982). The leaves of this species contain a calcinogenic glycoside called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol that leads to a vitamin D toxicity that results in elevated serum calcium and deposition of calcium in soft tissues. Analytical tests have shown that 15% to 30% of leaves of this species in an animal’s diet is sufficient to cause symptoms (Francis, 2002). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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C. diurnum has been widely used as an ornamental for its pleasing appearance, moderate size, ease of establishment, and fragrant flowers (Francis, 2002). Leaves are reported as a source of vitamin D3 and aerial parts are also reported to have cytotoxic and thrombolytic activities (Chennaiah et al., 2004; Khatun et al., 2014). 

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In Florida (USA), C. diurnum can be confused with the native marlberry, Ardisia escallonioides, but leaves of A. escallonioides are larger, 10-15 cm long, and its flower clusters terminal (Langeland et al., 2008). 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Small infestations as well as seedlings and saplings can be hand pulled or dug out (PIER, 2014).

Chemical Control

Larger plants and large infestations must be cut and the cut stumps must be treated with herbicide. Effective herbicides are picloram, triclopyr plus imazapyr, or 2,4-D plus picloram. Triclopyr can be used as a basal stem treatment (Weber, 2003).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bombarely A; Menda N; Tecle IY; Buels RM; Strickler S; Fischer-York T; Pujar A; Leto J; Gosselin J; Mueller LA, 2011. The Sol Genomics Network (solgenomics.net): growing tomatoes using Perl. Nucleic Acids Research, 39(Suppl. 1):D1149-D1155. http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/

Chennaiah S; Qadri SSYH; Rao SVR; Shyamsunder G; Raghuramulu N, 2004. Cestrum diurnum leaf as a source of 1,25(OH)<sub></sub>2</sub)> Vitamin D<sub></sub>3</sub)> improves egg shell thickness. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology [Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Vitamin D, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 6-10 July 2003.], 89/90(1/5):589-594.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2014. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, Cestrum diurnum L. datasheet. 2 pp. http://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/cestrum%20diurnum.pdf

Foxcroft LC; Richardson DM; Wilson JRU, 2008. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4t141834077205r7/?p=a7991ef465134e6885054af1f7117adf&pi=3

Francis JK, 2002. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its Territories: thamnic descriptions: volume 1. [General Technical Report - International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service.] http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/iitf_gtr026.pdf

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

India Biodiversity, 2014. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Khatun A; Chowdhury UK; Jahan A; Rahman M, 2014. Cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity of the aerial part of Cestrum diurnum L. (Solanaceae). Pharmacology Online, 1:109-113.

Knapp S, 2010. On 'various contrivances': pollination, phylogeny and flower form in the Solanaceae. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 365(1539):449-460. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk

Krishnakumar K; Kuriachan P, 1998. Karyomorphological studies in Cestrum (Solanaceae). Journal of Cytology and Genetics, 33(2):121-124.

Langeland KA; Cherry HM; McCormick CM; Craddock Burks KA, 2008. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension.

Liogier HA, 1995. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: Spermatophyta, Volume IV. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, UPR.

Martínez EM; Sousa M; Ramos CH, 2001. [English title not available]. (Región de Calakmul, Campeche.) Listados Florísticos de México, 22:1-55.

Meyer JY, 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley G, tech. ed. Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa.

Morton JJ, 1982. Plants poisonous to people in Florida and other warm areas. Plants poisonous to people in Florida and other warm areas. Stuart, Florida, USA: Southeastern Printing Co., Inc., unpaginated.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Smith AC, 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawai`i. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Volume 5, 626 pp.

Space J; Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 146.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Weber E, 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areashttp://www.fleppc.org/id_book.htm
Solanaceae Sourcehttp://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/solanaceaesource/

Contributors

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25/11/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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