Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Axis axis
(Indian spotted deer)

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Datasheet

Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Axis axis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian spotted deer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Axis axis is an introduced species of deer from India. It has historically been introduced to various locations because of its desirable qualities as a game species. When herd populations become too large they im...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stags sparring (in native range). Kanha, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. March 2008.
TitleStags
CaptionAxis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stags sparring (in native range). Kanha, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. March 2008.
Copyright©T.R. Shankar Raman-2008/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stags sparring (in native range). Kanha, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. March 2008.
StagsAxis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stags sparring (in native range). Kanha, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. March 2008.©T.R. Shankar Raman-2008/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer); deer herd, with two young bucks in velvet to the right. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2012.
TitleDeer herd
CaptionAxis axis (Indian spotted deer); deer herd, with two young bucks in velvet to the right. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer); deer herd, with two young bucks in velvet to the right. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2012.
Deer herdAxis axis (Indian spotted deer); deer herd, with two young bucks in velvet to the right. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stag (in native range) attempting to browse on a high branch. Nagarhole National Park, Karnataka, India. March 2010.
TitleStag
CaptionAxis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stag (in native range) attempting to browse on a high branch. Nagarhole National Park, Karnataka, India. March 2010.
Copyright©Yathin S. Krishnappa-2010/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stag (in native range) attempting to browse on a high branch. Nagarhole National Park, Karnataka, India. March 2010.
StagAxis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stag (in native range) attempting to browse on a high branch. Nagarhole National Park, Karnataka, India. March 2010.©Yathin S. Krishnappa-2010/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stag and doe (in native range). Note sexual dimorphism. India. April 2006.
TitleStag and doe
CaptionAxis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stag and doe (in native range). Note sexual dimorphism. India. April 2006.
Copyright©N.A. Naseer-2006, Ernakulam district, Kerala, India/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5 IN
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stag and doe (in native range). Note sexual dimorphism. India. April 2006.
Stag and doeAxis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stag and doe (in native range). Note sexual dimorphism. India. April 2006.©N.A. Naseer-2006, Ernakulam district, Kerala, India/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5 IN
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stags and does. Zoo Negara, Malaysia. September 2009.
TitleStags and does
CaptionAxis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stags and does. Zoo Negara, Malaysia. September 2009.
Copyright©Mahbob Yusof-2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stags and does. Zoo Negara, Malaysia. September 2009.
Stags and doesAxis axis (Indian spotted deer, or chital); stags and does. Zoo Negara, Malaysia. September 2009.©Mahbob Yusof-2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Axis axis

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian spotted deer

Other Scientific Names

  • Cervus axis
  • Cervus axis

International Common Names

  • English: axis deer; chital; spotted deer

Summary of Invasiveness

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Axis axis is an introduced species of deer from India. It has historically been introduced to various locations because of its desirable qualities as a game species. When herd populations become too large they impact local vegetation and increase erosion. They also forage on a variety of vegetation removing food sources for many native species and domestic cattle. They also carry transmissible diseases and pose an increased threat to human safety in and around highway corridors.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Artiodactyla
  •                         Suborder: Ruminantia
  •                             Family: Cervidae
  •                                 Genus: Axis
  •                                     Species: Axis axis

Description

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Axis axis is a moderately large deer standing 88-97cm at the shoulders. It has a rufous brown coat that is covered with white spots on the abdomen, rump, throat, insides of legs and ears and underside of tail that persist throughout the life of the animal. A dark stripe runs down the back from the nape to the tip of the tail. A gland-bearing cleft is present on the front of the pastern of the hind foot. A. axis dental formula is similar to elk, Cervus elaphus, but the upper canines (the so-called "elk teeth") are lacking. Males measure an average total length of 1.7m with a tail 200mm in length and their height at the shoulder can reach 90cm. Females are generally smaller. Weights can reach 66-113kg in males and 43-66kg in females (Mungall and Sheffield, 1994). Antlers are present only on bucks, and immediately upon shedding a set of antlers, growth begins on the next set. The larger the antlers, the longer the development period, from "velvet" through to "hard" antler. Antlers over 76cm take roughly five months to fully develop. Each antler has three tines; the brow tine forms at near right angle with the beam and the front (or outer) tine of the terminal fork is much longer than the hind (or inner) tine.

Distribution

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Native range: India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka (Anderson, 1999).
Known introduced range: Australasia-Pacific. Europe, North America, and South America (Fox Free Task Force, Undated; Council of Europe, 2002; National Park Service, 2004; and Jaksic et al. 2002)

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
NepalPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
Sri LankaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011

North America

USAPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MichiganPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MississippiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-TennesseePresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-TexasPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Europe

CroatiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Habitat

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Axis axis are found almost exclusively at lower elevations (below ~ 1000m) throughout dry and mixed deciduous forest habitat and secondary forest lands broken by glades, with an understorey of grasses, forbs and tender shoots which supply adequate drinking water and shade. They are most commonly associated with a mixture of forest and more open grass-shrub, but they occupy a wide range of habitats throughout their native range, often avoiding rugged terrain. Their native range is characterised by significant seasonal changes in temperature and, more significantly, extreme swings in precipitation. The deer regularly encounter long periods of drought and poor forage availability, as well as widespread flooding and lush seasonal growth during the rainy season (Anderson, 1999; and Davis and Schmidly, 1997).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
Axis axis consume an extremely wide range of forage items throughout their native range and in introduced locales. They eat over 75 species of plants, as well as the full spectrum of plant parts including leaves, stems, fruits, seeds, flowers and bark. Their diet consists largely of grasses in all seasons, augmented with browse. Green grasses less than 10cm high are preferred. In Texas, they graze on grasses such as paspalum, switch grass and little bluestem. Sedges are favourite spring foods. Browse species include live oak, hackberry and sumac (Anderson, 1999; and Davis and Schmidly, 1997).

Reproduction
In the wild, Axis axis bucks are found throughout the year with hardened antlers and in rutting condition. The reproductive cycle of each individual is not synchronised with that of other males in the herd. Concurrently, throughout the year, some bucks are coming into rut, while others are going out of rut, or are in a non-breeding condition. Females also experience non-synchronised estrous cycles, with each cycle lasting about 3 weeks. Bucks do not retain harems of does, but instead mate with does in each herd as they become receptive. One fawn is typically produced per pregnancy and gestation lasts 210-238 days. Following parturition, females again mate during the subsequent breeding period. Adult females tend to produce one fawn each year (Davis and Schmidly, 1997).

Lifecycle stages
Davis and Schmidly (1997) report that Axis axis fawns begin eating green forage by 5½ weeks of age, but weaning is delayed until they reach 4-6 months of age. Permanent dentition is acquired when 2½-3 years of age and adult size is reached at 6 years for females and 4-5 years for males. The natural lifespan of A. axis is 9-13 years, although zoo animals may reach 18-22 years of age. A. axis are gregarious and found in herds ranging from a few animals to 100 or more. The leader is usually an old, experienced doe. Adult males are normally found living with herds of young and old animals of both sexes. Rutting males vocalise via a bugle-like bellow and both sexes have alarm calls or barks (Davis and Schmidly, 1997).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
1000

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Live food trade: Many game ranches receive upwards of $1000 for each trophy buck taken (Anderson, 1999).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Live food or feed trade Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Forestry production Negative
Human health Positive and negative
Livestock production Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Impact

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General Impacts
 
Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Axis axis often congregate in large groups and return to, and remain in, areas for long periods of time. When they occupy riparian areas, they heavily trample and browse vegetation. During the rut (reproductive season) significant impact to trees occurs when bucks rub and polish their antlers on bark, frequently leading to the death of the trees. This results in a loss of the stability that vegetation provides, with resulting destabilisation of stream banks, changes in stream flow and increased erosion and sedimentation of streams, ponds and rivers. When deer populations become too large, their trailing behaviour creates dirt pathways through even the thickest of vegetation. These trails can lead to significant erosion and, in wet forest areas, increase runoff by decreasing the mossy layer available that would normally retain water (Anderson, 1999; and the National Park Service, 2004).

Anderson (1999) reports that A. axis cause crop damage when natural forage is scarce. In their introduced range, they can also compete directly with cattle for forage. Although they prefer to graze grass, it is clear that the deer will respond to available forage conditions and eat what is available to them, which causes damage to local native species. A. axis can also graze forage grasses and other plants much closer to the ground than domesticated species. In extreme drought conditions, A. axis will eat bark off trees (Anderson, 1999).

A. axis have been found to carry and transmit bovine tuberculosis and several other diseases. They carry common parasites that can directly affect humans if and when droppings enter freshwater systems. Parasitic zoonoses harbored by A. axis include: leptospirosis, cryptosporidiosis, and strains of Escherichia coli (Anderson, 1999).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Pleomele fernaldii (hala pepe)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Bidens campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Bidens conjuncta (ko`oko`olau)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Calamagrostis hillebrandii (Hillegrands reedgrass)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Canavalia pubescens (jack bean)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea asplenifolia (haha)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea duvalliorumUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea horrida (prickly cyanea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea magnicalyxCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea maritaeUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea mauiensisEX (IUCN red list: Extinct) EX (IUCN red list: Extinct)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea munroiUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea obtusa (bluntlobe cyanea)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyanea profuga (Mapulehu Valley cyanea)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Cyrtandra filipesNatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Gardenia remyi (Remy's gardenia)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014a
Huperzia stemmermanniae (Stemmermann's clubmoss)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014b
Hylaeus assimulans (assimulans yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014c
Hylaeus facilis (easy yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014d
Hylaeus hilaris (hilaris yellow-faced bee)USA ESA species proposed for listing USA ESA species proposed for listingHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014e
Hylaeus kuakea (Hawaiian yellow-faced bee)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014f
Hylaeus longicepsUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014g
Hylaeus manaUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014h
Nothocestrum latifolium (broadleaf aiea)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Partulina semicarinata (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Partulina variabilis (Lanai tree snail)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
Pritchardia munroi (Kamalo pritchardia)No DetailsHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996
Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense (enaena)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014i
Pterodroma sandwichensisVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)HawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011c
Remya mauiensis (Maui remya)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaienseNo DetailsHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011d
Schiedea jacobii (Jacobi's schiedea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Schiedea salicariaNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Solanum nelsonii (popolo)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014j
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995
Tetramolopium rockii (dune tetramolopium)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996
Viola lanaiensis (Hawaii violet)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alteration; Herbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Trampling

Uses

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The meat of Axis axis (venison) is highly regarded as it is extremely lean. As a result, there is an economic value for the meat. Poaching and blackmarket sales are common wherever A. axis occur. The axis deer is a prized hunting quarry, owing to its beauty, especially bucks with antlers > 76cm. Many game ranches receive upwards of US$1000 for each trophy buck taken (Anderson, 1999).

Uses List

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General

  • Game animal

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)

Prevention and Control

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Management Information
 
Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Preventative measures: Risk Assessment models for assessing the risk that exotic vertebrates could establish in Australia have been further explored by the Western Australia Department of Agriculture & Food (DAFWA) to confirm that they reasonably predict public safety, establishment and pest risks across a full range of exotic species and risk levels.

The Risk assessment for the Axis deer (Axis axis), has been assigned a VPC Threat Category of EXTREME.
 
Mammals and birds were assessed for the pest risk they pose if introduced to Australia, by calculating Vertebrate Pests Committee (VPC) Threat Categories. These categories incorporate risk of establishing populations in the wild, risk of causing public harm, and risk of becoming a pest (eg causing agricultural damage, competing with native fauna, etc). The 7-factor Australian Bird and Mammal Model was used for these assessments.

Physical: The most successful control strategies for A. axis has been a combination of fencing and hunting. Control by fencing is not 100% and deer often escape. A. axis are able to jump over 2m fencing and studies show that 3m or higher fencing is required to adequately keep A. axis out of, or inside, an area.

Once A. axis become established in urban and suburban areas, hunting does not remain a practical method of control, therefore it is best to gain control of A. axis populations before they become established in suburban areas (Anderson, 1999; and the University of Hawai‘I, Undated).

Biological: Reproductive control using such techniques as contraception and sterilisation are possibilities for management but are expensive and time-consuming, requiring many man hours of labor intensive field work. New Zealand controls its exotic deer populations through recreational and commercial hunting, which have been very effective.

Bibliography

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Anderson, S. B. 1999. Axis Deer Overview & Profile. Following the "Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in Hawaii" Questionnaire. http://www.hear.org/hnis/reports/HNIS-AxiAxiV01.pdf

Asher, G. W., D. S. Gallagher, M. L. Tate, and C. Tedford. . 1999. Hybridization between Sika Deer (Cervus Nippon) and Axis Deer (Axis axis). The Journal of Heredity 90(1):236-240.

Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

Council of Europe. 2002. Report on the activities related to the implementation of the Recommendations No. 57 (1997) and No. 77 (1999) of the Bern Convention. Republic of Croatia: Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning : T-PVS (2002) 11.

Davis, W. B., and D. J. Schmidly. 1997. The Mammals of Texas . Texas Tech University & Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/tmot1/cervaxis.htm

Fox Free Task Force. Undated. Selected ecologically significant invasive species extent and impact: Vertebrate pests( indicator status: for advice). Parks and Wildlife Service.

IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

Jaksic, F.M., J. A. Iriarte, J. E. Jimenez, and D. R. Martinez. 2002. Invaders without frontiers: cross-border invasions of exotic mammals. Biological Invasions 4: 157-173, 2002.

Kravets, J. 2005. National Seashore wants rid of 'un-American deer'. Point Reyes Light. http://www.ptreyeslight.com/stories/feb10_05/deer.html

Maui Axis Deer Group. 2002. Initial Findings and Recommendations For A Maui Deer Management Plan. Developed by the Subcommittee of Public Information and Deer Management Planning. http://www.nps.gov/applications/parks/hale/ppdocuments/ACF214.doc

Micol and Jouventin, 2002. Eradication of rats and rabbits from Saint-Paul Island. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 199-205. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

National Park Service. 2004. Chapter 1: Purpose and Need. Non-native deer Management plan draft Environmental Impact Assessment: Point Reyes National Seashore.

University of Hawaii. UNDATED. Axis Deer in Hawaii.

Vazquez, D. P. 2002. Multiple effects of introduced mammalian herbivores in a temperate forest. Biological Invasions 4: 175-191, 2002.

References

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ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. In: Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.138 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster. In: Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster : US Fish and Wildlife Service.143 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.15 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia munroi (lo'ulu). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia munroi (lo'ulu) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.11 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species. In: Federal Register , 76(148) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.46362-46593. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-02/pdf/2011-17162.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense, Lanai sandalwood ('iliahi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense, Lanai sandalwood ('iliahi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.19 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui; Final Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(102) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32014-32065. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12105.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions. In: Federal Register , 78(226) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.70104-70162. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-22/pdf/2013-27391.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gardenia remyi. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gardenia remyi : US Fish and Wildlife Service.17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q33N_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/S02B_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GQ_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis : US Fish and Wildlife Service.32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GY_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris : US Fish and Wildlife Service.31 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HT_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VM_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps : US Fish and Wildlife Service.33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HC_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana : US Fish and Wildlife Service.30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VL_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium var. molokaiense : US Fish and Wildlife Service.13 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q1WN_P01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Solanum nelsonii. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Solanum nelsonii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q21R_P01.pdf

Contributors

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 Reviewed by: Tyler A. Campbell, PhD. Research Wildlife Biologist Field Station Leader USDA-APHIS-WS National Wildlife Research Center Texas Field Station USA

Principal sources:Anderson, 1999. Axis Deer Overview & Profile
Davis and Schmidly, 1997. The Mammals of Texas.

    Compiled by: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Last Modified: Monday, January 25, 2010


 

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