Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Cercopagis pengoi
(fishhook waterflea)



Cercopagis pengoi (fishhook waterflea)


  • Last modified
  • 29 April 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cercopagis pengoi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fishhook waterflea
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Branchiopoda
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. pengoi is a predatory cladoceran. The species tolerates a broad range of salinity, temperature and eutrophication conditions and is highly invasive. In addition, the “resting eggs” of this water flea can be tr...

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Cercopagis pengoi; juvenile summer form stage 1.
CaptionCercopagis pengoi; juvenile summer form stage 1.
CopyrightJonne Kotta & Mart Simm
Cercopagis pengoi; juvenile summer form stage 1.
JuvenileCercopagis pengoi; juvenile summer form stage 1.Jonne Kotta & Mart Simm


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cercopagis pengoi Ostroumov, 1891

Preferred Common Name

  • fishhook waterflea

Other Scientific Names

  • Cercopagis (Apagis) ossiani Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, 1968

International Common Names

  • English: spiny water flea
  • Russian: cercopag

Local Common Names

  • Estonia: sabaloom
  • Finland: petovesikirppu
  • Germany: Kaspischer Wasserfloh
  • Latvia: angelhaken-cerkopagis
  • Lithuania: Cercopagis
  • Poland: wioslarka kaspijska
  • Sweden: rovvattenloppa

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. pengoi is a predatory cladoceran. The species tolerates a broad range of salinity, temperature and eutrophication conditions and is highly invasive. In addition, the “resting eggs” of this water flea can be transported over long distances, and can even survive cold winters on the sea bed. C. pengoi is native to the Ponto-Aralo-Caspian Basin. It has become invasive in eastern Europe, the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes of North America. The species was first time noted as invasive in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir in Russia in 1970 (Glamazda, 1971). In these new habitats the species has established quickly and increased in range and abundance.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Branchiopoda
  •                     Order: Cladocera
  •                         Suborder: Onychopoda
  •                             Family: Cercopagidae
  •                                 Genus: Cercopagis
  •                                     Species: Cercopagis pengoi


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C. pengoi is greyish white and almost transparent. The body is about 1-2 mm long which contrasts with its 10 mm long tail. The most pronounced parts of its body are the head, the second pair of antenna (containing two branches), four pairs of thoracic legs (the first leg is 3-4 times longer than other legs), abdomen, caudal process and a brood pouch in females. The head is essentially composed of a large single eye, where the amount of black pigment makes less than one half of the diameter of the eye. The length of the abdomen is about equal to that of the remaining body (the caudal process excluded). The long caudal process has a loop-like curvature at the end (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi and Rivier, 1987; Rivier 1998). Parthenogenic females of the first generation of C. pengoi that hatch from resting eggs are anatomically distinct from parthenogenic females of following generations. They have a short, straight caudal spine unlike the characteristically looped caudal spine of parthenogenically-produced individuals (Simm and Ojaveer, 1999).


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For a recent study of C. pengoi in the Gulf of Gdansk see Bielecka and Mudrak (2010).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NortheastLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Olenin et al., 2002Widespread in the Baltix Sea area especially in the Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Riga, the Gulf of Finland, Vistula Lagoon and the Gulf of Bothnia
Mediterranean and Black SeaLocalisedNative Not invasive Mordukhai-Boltovskoi and Rivier, 1987; Kane et al., 2003


KazakhstanLocalisedNative Not invasive Mordukhai-Boltovskoi and Rivier, 1987Aral Sea
TurkeyLocalisedNative Invasive Guher, 2004Lake Terkos

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioWidespreadIntroduced Invasive MacIsaac et al., 1999; Therriault et al., 2002
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-IllinoisWidespreadIntroduced Invasive MacIsaac et al., 1999Lake Michigan
-IndianaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive MacIsaac et al., 1999Lake Michigan
-MichiganWidespreadIntroduced Invasive MacIsaac et al., 1999; Therriault et al., 2002
-New YorkWidespreadIntroduced Invasive MacIsaac et al., 1999; Therriault et al., 2002; Laxson et al., 2003
-OhioWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Therriault et al., 2002Lake Erie
-WisconsinWidespreadIntroduced Invasive MacIsaac et al., 1999Lake Michigan


BulgariaLocalisedNative Invasive Guher, 2004Coastal Lakes
EstoniaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Kotta et al., 2004First recorded in Parnu Bay, the Gulf of Riga
FinlandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Uitto et al., 1999
GermanyLocalisedIntroduced Invasive ICES, 2005Pomeranian Bay
LatviaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Strake, 2002The Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea Proper
LithuaniaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive NOBANIS, 2007Curonian Lagoon
PolandLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Zmudzinski, 1999Gulf of Gdansk, Vistula Lagoon
RomaniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Cristescu et al., 2001Black Sea, Golovita Lake, Razelm Lake
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Northern RussiaWidespreadIntroduced1995 Invasive Bychenkov and Rodionova, 1996Neva Estuary
-Southern RussiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Cristescu et al., 2001Caspian Sea
SwedenWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Gorokhova et al., 2000Northern Baltic Proper, Gulf of Bothnia
UkrainePresentCristescu et al., 2001; Makarewicz et al., 2001

History of Introduction and Spread

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Introductions occur either due the construction of canals between river water basins (mainly those in Russia and the Ukraine), ballast water discharge (Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes) or boat traffic (within the region of the Great Lakes). All introductions are accidental.

Risk of Introduction

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Due to its broad environmental tolerance and ability to reproduce parthenogenetically the risk of introducing C. pengoi to new regions is high.


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C. pengoi inhabits lakes, estuaries and offshore marine habitats. C. pengoi has a wide tolerance to salinity (from freshwater to 17 practical salinity units (psu)) and temperature (3-38ºC) (Gorokhova et al., 2000). The highest population densities are usually found at temperatures of 16-26ºC and at salinities of up to 10 ‰ (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi and Rivier, 1987; Rivier, 1998). Both in the Caspian Sea (Rivier, 1998) and Lake Ontario (Ojaveer et al. 2001) the abundance of C. pengoi increases with distance from shore suggesting that this is a typical pelagic species. In the Caspian Sea, C. pengoi performs diurnal vertical migrations. During the daytime they sink down to 50-60 m and at night they move up to the surface. Newly-born individuals do not descend deeper than 20-30 m (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi and Rivier, 1987). However, there is no evidence of diurnal migrations of C. pengoi in the Baltic Sea (Krylov et al., 1999).

Habitat List

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Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Irrigation channels Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Estuaries Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Lagoons Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lagoons Principal habitat Natural
Inshore marine Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Inshore marine Principal habitat Natural
Pelagic zone (offshore) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Pelagic zone (offshore) Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

C. pengoi has extended its range over the past decade from the Ponto-Caspian Basin into the Baltic Sea and the Laurentian Great Lakes. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis was used to elucidate the invasion corridors exploited during this range expansion. The Caspian and Black Sea populations of C. pengoi exhibit marked genetic divergence, enabling their discrimination as potential sources of the Baltic and Great Lakes populations. The limited mtDNA haplotype diversity detected in the Baltic populations suggests they were founded by a small number of colonists from the Black Sea. The colonization of North America was apparently a result of the transfer of animals from the Baltic Sea in ballast water (Cristescu et al., 2001). 

Reproductive Biology 

C. pengoi generally reproduce asexually throughout most of the summer season. In the Caspian Sea, sexual reproduction occurs in late autumn, as water temperatures cool (Rivier, 1969, 1974). In the Baltic Sea sexual reproduction may occur also in summer (Krylov and Panov, 1998). The “resting eggs” of this water flea can be transported long distances, and can even survive cold winters on the sea bed, hatching only when the water is warmer and food is available. 

Physiology and Phenology 

C. pengoi is capable of hyperosmotic regulation, and its hemolymph is hyperosmotic to surrounding water (from freshwater up to 5-8 psu). The species is osmoconformer in the very short range from 5-8 up to 17 psu. From the point of view of osmotic regulation C. pengoi resembles freshwater organisms and clearly distinguished from marine and Caspian Podonidae. See also notes on habitat. 


Cercopagis capture their prey with the thoracopods I, retain it with thoracopods II-IV, crush it with its mandibles, and then suck the body contents (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi and Rivier, 1987; Rivier, 1998). The diet includes mainly small crustaceans, both micro- and meso-zooplankton (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, 1987; Rivier, 1998; Laxson et al., 2003; Gorokhova et al., 2005).


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BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0 60 Optimum
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 10 Optimum 0-17 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 16 26 Optimum 3-38 tolerated

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alburnus alburnus Predator Adult not specific
Alosa pseudoharengus Predator Adult not specific
Clupea harengus membras Predator Adult not specific
Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus Predator Adult not specific
Osmerus eperlanus Predator Adult not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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C. pengoi is preyed by a number of pelagic fish species. C. pengoi competes with a number of nectobenthic mysids and fish larvae for food (Kotta et al., 2004, 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic) 

The native distribution area of C. pengoi is restricted to the Ponto-Caspian region: the Caspian, Azov and Aral Seas together with lower reaches of the rivers entering to these waterbodies. As this species is pelagic it spreads mainly by means of currents. 

Accidental Introduction 

This species is largely dispersed by shipping via ballast water. Local dispersal is due to boat traffic. It also lives on fishing lines.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Interconnected waterwaysRussia, Ukraine Yes Glamazda, 1971

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Ship ballast water and sedimentadult or resting egg Yes Cristescu et al., 2001
Ship hull foulingadult or resting egg Yes Crosier and Molloy, 2007

Impact Summary

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Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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C. pengoi interferes with fisheries by clogging nets and fishing gears. Presence of the species results in economic losses at fish farms (intense clogging of nets).

Environmental Impact

Top of page Impact on Habitat 

C. pengoi is a voracious predator and may notably reduce the density of its prey e.g. small-sized cladocerans. If zooplankton abundance is markedly depleted, higher concentrations of phytoplankton may result (owing to reduced grazing by zooplankton), and ultimately this may aggravate problems of eutrophication.

Impact on Biodiversity 

Via competition for food C. pengoi has the potential to affect the abundance and condition of zooplanktivorous fish, fish larvae and mysids. In its invasive range the species become important food for the alewife, nine-spined stickleback, bleak, herring and smelt (Uitto et al., 1999; Benoit et al., 2002; Vanderploeg et al., 2002; Bushnoe et al., 2003; Kotta et al., 2004, 2006; Põllumäe and Kotta, 2007). 

Social Impact

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Fishermen have complained of allergic reactions after removing C. pengoi from their nets.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Antagonistic (micro-organisms)
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Fouling
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. pengoi may be confused with the Eurasian spiny water flea, Bythotrephes cederstroemii. Cercopagis is distinguished from Bythotrephes by the presence of the loop on the caudal process whereas Bythotrephes does not have such a loop.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Prevention

Prevention measures against the large scale dispersal of C. pengoi include the management of ballast waters and cleaning of ship hulls (Sea Grant, 2004). In order to prevent further spread of C. pengoi within a waterbody the following measures ahould be taken:

1) Do not release bait or bait water into water body or transport from one water body to another.

2) Following good containment measures is important in controlling the spread of adult C. pengoi, but resting eggs are capable of surviving desiccation and freezing (even for periods of several years).

3) Rinsing boat and equipment with hot water (>40°C) or high-pressure water sprays, or drying the boat and equipment for at least 5 days before re-entering water body will help to control the spread of adult C. pengoi.

4) Thoroughly draining and cleaning the motor, bilge, transom, live wells, bait buckets and fishing apparatus and gear will help to control the spread of adult C. pengoi and resting eggs (Crosier and Molloy, 2007).

Public Awareness 

In general, public awareness of the introduction of C. pengoi is low. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase the knowledge on the negative impacts associated with this species. The campaign should make available relevant information to the public, researchers and other interested bodies by the preparation of internet materials, posters and handouts to be displayed in relevant exhibitions and institutions.


No specific eradication and control efforts are known.

Monitoring and Surveillance 

Standard zooplankton monitoring methods can be used in order to survey the presence/absence/density of C. pengoi. The species can be sampled by vertical tows of zooplankton net with mesh size equal or less than 150 microns.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is little experimental data on growth, production, feeding and ecosystem effects of C. pengoi. The paucity of ecological studies on C. pengoi is in part due to the difficulty in handling the species in experiments.


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Benoit HP; Johannsson OE; Warner DM; Sprules WG; Rudstam LG, 2002. Assessing the impact of a recent predatory invader: The population dynamics, vertical distribution, and potential prey of Cercopagis pengoi in Lake Ontario. Limnology and Oceanography, 47:626-635.

Bielecka L; Mudrak S, 2010. New data on the non-indigenous cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov 1891) in the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea). Oceanologia, 52(1):147-151.

Bushnoe TM; Warner DM; Rudstam LG; Mills EL, 2003. Cercopagis pengoi as a new prey item for alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29:205-212.

Bychenkov DE; Rodionova RV, 1996. Some results of the observations on the crustacean and rotifer plankton of the Neva Bay and the Gulf of Finland. Problems of Hydrobiology of Continental Waters and Their Malakofauna. Abstracts. St Petersburg, Russia: Zoological Institute RAS, 13-14.

Cristescu MEA; Hebert PDN; Witt JDS; MacIsaac HJ; Grigorovich IA, 2001. An invasion history for Cercopagis pengoi based on mitochondrial gene sequences. Limnology and Oceanography, 46:224-229.

Crosier DM; Molloy DP, 2007. Cercopagis pengoi - Fishhook Waterflea. Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program.

Glamazda VV, 1971. On finding of Cercopagis pengoi (Ostr.) in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir. Gidrobiologicheskii Zurnal, 7:70-71.

Gorokhova E; Aladin N; Dumont HJ, 2000. Further expansion of the genus Cercopagis (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Onychopoda) in the Baltic sea, with notes on the taxa present and their ecology. Hydrobiologia, 429(1/3):207-218.

Gorokhova E; Hansson S; Höglander H; Andersen CM, 2005. Stable isotopes show food web changes after invasion by the predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi in a Baltic Sea bay. Oecologia, 143:251-259.

Guher H, 2004. A study on morphological characters, spatial, and seasonal densitites, and co-existence of two predatory cladocera, Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov, 1891) and Cornigerius meaticus (Pengo, 1879) in Lake Terkos, Turkey. Crustaceana, 77(6):669-681.

ICES, 2005. Report of the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms (WGITMO). By correspondence. ICES CM 2005/ACME: 05 Ref E., 1-173.

Kane DD; Haas EM; Culver DA, 2003. The characteristics and potential ecological effects of the exotic crustacean zooplankter Cercopagis pengoi (Cladocera: Cercopagidae), a recent invader of Lake Erie. Ohio Journal of Science, 103(4):79-83.

Kotta J; Kotta I; Simm M; Lankov A; Lauringson V; Põllumäe A; Ojaveer H, 2006. Ecological consequences of biological invasions: three invertebrate case studies in the north-eastern Baltic Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 60(2):106-112.,6,13;journal,2,169;linkingpublicationresults,1:103796,1

Kotta J; Simm M; Kotta I; Kano?ina I; Kallaste K; Raid T, 2004. Factors controlling long-term changes of the eutrophicated ecosystem of Pärnu Bay, Gulf of Riga. Hydrobiologia, 514:259-268.

Krylov PI; Bychenkov DE; Panov VE; Rodionova NV; Telesh IV, 1999. Distribution and seasonal dynamics of the Ponto-Caspian invader Cercopagis pengoi (Crustacea, Cladocera) in the Neva Estuary (Gulf of Finland). Hydrobiologia, 393:227-232.

Krylov PI; Panov VE, 1998. Resting eggs in the life cycle of Cercopagis pengoi, a recent invader of the Baltic Sea. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Special Issues Advanced Limnology, 52:383-392.

Laxson CL; Mcphedran KN; Makarewicz JC; Telesh IV; MacIssac HJ, 2003. Effects of the non-indigenous cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi on the lower food web of Lake Ontario. Freshwater Biology, 48:2094-2106.

MacIsaac HJ; Grigorovich IA; Hoyle JA; Yan ND; Panov V, 1999. Invasion of Lake Ontario by the Ponto-Caspian predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 56:1-5.

Makarewicz JC; Grigorovich IA; Mills E; Damaske E; Cristescu ME; Pearsall W; LaVoie MJ; Keats R; Rudstam L; Hebert P; Halbritter H; Kelly T; Matkovich C; MacIsaac HJ, 2001. Distribution, fecundity, and genetics of Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov) (Crustacea, Cladocera) in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 27(1):19-32.

Mordukhai-Boltovskoi FD; Rivier IK, 1987. Khishchnye Vetvistousye (Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae i Leptodoridae) Fauny Mira. Nauka, Leningrad.

New York Sea Grant, 2004. Guidelines for reducing the spread of 'fishhook waterfleas' (Cercopagis pengoi). Fact sheet. New York Sea Grant Communications [ed. by MacNeill D, Snyder M, Schultz K, Makarevicz J]. Stony Brook, USA: Stony Brook University.

NOBANIS, 2007. Fact sheets on invasive alien species. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species., unpaginated.

Ojaveer H; Kuhns LA; Barbiero RP; Tuchman ML, 2001. Distribution and population characteristics of Cercopagis pengoi in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 27:10-18.

Olenin S; Leppäkoski E; Gollasch S; Gruszka P; Skora K; Hoppe K; Ojaveer H; Orlova M, 2002. HELCOM. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings., 173-175.

Põllumäe A; Kotta J, 2007. Factors affecting zooplankton community of the Gulf of Finland, with respect to native and introduced predatory cladoceran interactions. Oceanologia, 49:277-290.

Rivier IK, 1969. Reproduction of the cercopagids (Cladocera, Polyphemidae) in the Caspian Sea. Trudy Instituta biologii vnutrennykh vod AN SSSR, 19(22):119-128.

Rivier IK, 1974. Brood pouch and the egg development in Cladocera. Trudy Instituta biologii vnutrennykh vod AN SSSR, 25(28):119-128.

Rivier IK, 1998. The predatory Cladocera (Onychopoda: Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae) and Leptodorida of the World. In: Guides to the identification of the micro-invertebrates of the continental waters of the world [ed. by Dumont HJF] Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishing, 13.

Simm M; Ojaveer H, 1999. Occurrence of different morphological forms of Cercopagis in the Baltic Sea. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences Biology Ecology, 48:169-170.

Strake S, 2002. The contribution of nonindigenous Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov) in the mesozooplankton community and its population structure in the Gulf of Riga. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences Biology Ecology, 51:91-102.

Therriault TW; Grigorovich IA; Kane DD; Haas EM; Culver DA; MacIsaac HJ, 2002. Range expansion of the exotic zooplankter Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov, 1891) into western Lake Erie and Muskegon Lake. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 28:698-701.

Uitto A; Gorokhova E; Välipakka P, 1999. Distribution of the non-indigenous Cercopagis pengoi in the coastal waters of the eastern Gulf of Finland. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56:49-57.

Vanderploeg HA; Nalepa TF; Jude DJ; Mills EL; Holeck KT; Liebig JR; Grigorovich IA; Ojaveer H, 2002. Dispersal and emerging ecological impacts of Ponto-Caspian species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59:1209-1228.

Zmudzinski L, 1999. Cercopagis pengoi (Cladocera) conquered the southern Baltic Sea. Baltic Coastal Zone, 2:95-96.

Links to Websites

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Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program
Baltic Sea Alien Species Database
Caspian Environment Programme
European Nature Information System (EUNIS)
Hugh MacIsaac's Invasion Biology Laboratory
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant
Institute for Biological Invasions, University of Tennessee
Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters: Invading Species Awareness Programme
Regional Biological Invasions Centre
SeaGrant: Nab the aquatic invader
US Environment Protection Agency
Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources: Invasive Species


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10/12/07 Original text by:

Jonne Kotta, Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, M Mäealuse 10a, Tallinn 12618, Estonia

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