Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bemisia tabaci
(tobacco whitefly)

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Datasheet

Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 04 October 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bemisia tabaci
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tobacco whitefly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Bemisia tabaci complex is polyphagous and now attacks many crops, but without significant impact on land use. Any effects on biodiversity would result indirectly from an increased use of insecticides against this pest.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
TitleAdults
CaptionBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Stephen Ausmus
Bemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
AdultsBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Stephen Ausmus
Bemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
TitleAdult
CaptionBemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
Copyright©John Innes Institute
Bemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
AdultBemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).©John Innes Institute
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
TitleAdults
CaptionBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
AdultsBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci; Adults on underside of squash leaf (Cucurbita pepo).
TitleAdults
CaptionBemisia tabaci; Adults on underside of squash leaf (Cucurbita pepo).
Copyright©David Riley, University of Georgia/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Bemisia tabaci; Adults on underside of squash leaf (Cucurbita pepo).
AdultsBemisia tabaci; Adults on underside of squash leaf (Cucurbita pepo).©David Riley, University of Georgia/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Bemisia tabaci; Late instar nymphs on underside of squash leaf (Cucumis melo).
TitleLate instar nymphs
CaptionBemisia tabaci; Late instar nymphs on underside of squash leaf (Cucumis melo).
Copyright©David Riley, University of Georgia/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Bemisia tabaci; Late instar nymphs on underside of squash leaf (Cucumis melo).
Late instar nymphsBemisia tabaci; Late instar nymphs on underside of squash leaf (Cucumis melo).©David Riley, University of Georgia/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
PupaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
PupaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.©Ian D. Bedford
Squash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
TitleSilver leaf on squash
CaptionSquash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Squash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
Silver leaf on squashSquash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.©Ian D. Bedford
Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionHymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
Natural enemy Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
TitleAdults
CaptionTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
AdultsTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).©Ian D. Bedford

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889)

Preferred Common Name

  • tobacco whitefly

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleurodes inconspicua Quintance
  • Aleurodes tabaci Gennadius
  • Bemisia achyranthes Singh
  • Bemisia bahiana Bondar
  • Bemisia costa-limai Bondar
  • Bemisia emiliae Corbett
  • Bemisia goldingi Corbett
  • Bemisia gossypiperda Misra & Lamba
  • Bemisia gossypiperda mosaicivectura Ghesquiere
  • Bemisia hibisci Takahashi
  • Bemisia inconspicua (Quaintance)
  • Bemisia longispina Priesner & Hosny
  • Bemisia lonicerae Takahashi
  • Bemisia manihotis Frappa
  • Bemisia minima Danzig
  • Bemisia minuscula Danzig
  • Bemisia nigeriensis Corbett
  • Bemisia rhodesiaensis Corbett
  • Bemisia signata Bondar
  • Bemisia vayssieri Frappa

International Common Names

  • English: cassava whitefly; cotton whitefly; silver leaf whitefly; sweet potato whitefly
  • Spanish: mosca blanca; mosca blanca del algodonero; mosca blanca del camote; mosca blanca del tabaco; mosquita blanca del tabaco
  • French: aleurode de la patate douce; aleurode du cotonnier
  • Portuguese: mosca branca do feijao

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Baumwoll-Mottenschildlaus; Tabak-Mottenschildlaus; Weisse Fliege
  • Israel: knimat ash hatabak
  • Italy: aleirode delle solanacee; aleurode delle solanacee
  • Turkey: beyaz sinek

EPPO code

  • BEMIBA (Bemisia bahiana)
  • BEMIEM (Bemisia emiliae)
  • BEMIGO (Bemisia goldingi)
  • BEMIIN (Bemisia inconspicua)
  • BEMILO (Bemisia longispina)
  • BEMIMA (Bemisia manihotis)
  • BEMINI (Bemisia nigeriensis)
  • BEMIRH (Bemisia rhodesiaensis)
  • BEMITA (Bemisia tabaci)
  • BEMIVA (Bemisia vayssieri)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The Bemisia tabaci complex is polyphagous and now attacks many crops, but without significant impact on land use. Any effects on biodiversity would result indirectly from an increased use of insecticides against this pest.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Bemisia
  •                                         Species: Bemisia tabaci

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Bemisia contains 37 species and is thought to have originated from Asia (Mound and Halsey, 1978). Bemisia tabaci, being possibly of Indian origin (Fishpool and Burban, 1994), was described under numerous names before its morphological variability was recognised. For full synonyms, see Mound and Halsey (1978). Originally, three distinct groups of B. tabaci were identified by comparing their mitochondrial 16S ribosomal subunits: New World; India/Sudan; and remaining Old World (Frohlich and Brown, 1994). The pest status of B. tabaci insects has now become more complicated and through the comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene it is generally accepted that, rather than one complex species, B. tabaci is a complex of 11 genetic groups. These genetic groups are composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable species, which are merely separated by a minimum of 3.5% mtCOI nucleotide divergence (Dinsdale et al., 2010; De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). First reports of a newly-evolved biotype of B. tabaci, the B biotype (see separate datasheet, now widely accepted, and known as, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species (MEAM1)), appeared in the mid-1980s (Brown et al., 1995b). This species, commonly referred to as the silverleaf whitefly or poinsettia strain, is highly polyphagous and almost twice as fecund as previously recorded strains, and has been documented as being a separate species, B. argentifolii (Bellows et al., 1994). MEAM1 is able to cause phytotoxic disorders in certain plant species, for example, silverleaf in squashes (Cucurbita sp.) and this is an irrefutable method of identification (Bedford et al., 1992, 1994a). It can also can transfer and infect tomatoes with both Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and, depending on the timing of infection, losses can reach 100%.

A distinctive, non-specific esterase banding pattern is also helpful in identification (Brown et al., 1995a) but is not infallible (Byrne et al., 1995). A recent study by Rosell et al. (1997) which used SEM to examine the morphological characters documented by Bellows et al. (1994) for identifying the 'B biotype' showed that most Old World populations of B. tabaci were morphologically indistinguishable from the 'B biotype'. These Old World populations did not induce silverleaf disorders or produce similar esterase banding patterns to B. argentifolii. Several other 'biotypes' (up to S) have now been described (Brown et al., 1995b, 1999; Banks et al., 1999; Dinsdale et al., 2010; De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014) which supports the idea of a species complex, rather than of a number of distinct species, such as B. argentifolii. However, within the New World, MEAM1 has been readily accepted as a new species. Even though a recent study has irrefutably shown that MEAM1 can be crossed with a non-B biotype (Mediterranean species (formerly known as biotype Q) from Spain) (Adan et al., 1999).

Description

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Egg

Pear shaped with a pedicel spike at the base, approximately 0.2 mm long.

Larva

Yellow-white scales, 0.3-0.6 mm long.

Puparium

Flat, irregular oval shape, 0.7 mm long. On a smooth leaf the puparium lacks enlarged dorsal setae, but if the leaf is hairy, two to eight long dorsal setae are present.

Adult

About 1 mm long, the male slightly smaller than the female. The body and both pairs of wings are covered with a powdery, waxy secretion, white to slightly yellowish in colour.

Distribution

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B. tabaci has a global presence. However, certain areas within Europe are still Bemisia free, e.g. Finland, Sweden, Republic of Ireland and the UK (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

In Canada B. tabaci is a glasshouse pest; it is not established outdoors (Broadbent et al., 1989; Howard et al., 1994; CFIA, Canada, 2005, per J.A. Garland).

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 34).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 22 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
BurundiPresent
Cabo VerdePresent, Widespread
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
ChadPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent, Widespread
Equatorial GuineaPresent
EritreaPresent
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GabonAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MayottePresent
MoroccoPresent, Localized
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent, Few occurrences
SudanPresent, Widespread
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent, Localized
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BahrainPresent
BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent, Localized
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TianjinPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent, Localized1964
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-LakshadweepPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TelanganaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent, Localized
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresentIntroduced1989
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
KuwaitPresent
LaosPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PalestinePresent
PhilippinesPresent
QatarAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent, Widespread1928
TurkmenistanPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent, Widespread

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroduced2001
AustriaPresent, Localized1989
BelgiumPresent, Localized
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent, Few occurrences
CroatiaPresent, Few occurrences
CyprusPresent, Widespread
CzechiaPresent, Localized1988
DenmarkAbsent, Eradicated1988
EstoniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
FinlandPresent, Few occurrences
FrancePresent, Few occurrences
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent, Localized1987
GreecePresent, Widespread
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences1990
IrelandAbsent, Eradicated1997
ItalyPresent, Widespread
-SardiniaPresent, Widespread
-SicilyPresent
LatviaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
MaltaPresent, Localized1993
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
NorwayPresent, Localized1987
PolandPresent, Localized1988
PortugalPresent, Localized1995
-MadeiraPresent
RomaniaPresentIntroduced1969
RussiaPresent, Few occurrences
-Southern RussiaPresent, Few occurrences
SlovakiaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaPresent, Few occurrences
SpainPresent, Localized
-Balearic IslandsPresent, Localized
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenAbsent, Eradicated
SwitzerlandPresent, Localized1989
UkrainePresent, Transient under eradication
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrences1987not established.
-Channel IslandsAbsent, Eradicated
-EnglandPresent, Few occurrences
-Northern IrelandAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
-ScotlandAbsent, Eradicated

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent, Widespread
BermudaPresent, Widespread
British Virgin IslandsPresent1993
CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
Costa RicaPresent, Localized
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent, Few occurrences1993
Dominican RepublicPresent, Localized
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresentFirst reported: 197*
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent, Widespread
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent, Localized
MartiniquePresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent, Widespread
MontserratPresent
Netherlands AntillesPresent, Localized1989
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint BarthélemyPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent, Localized
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1982
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VermontPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
-PohnpeiPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
NauruPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent, Localized1992
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent, Localized
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Localized
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Localized
-BahiaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
-TocantinsPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent
SurinameAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent, Widespread

Risk of Introduction

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B. tabaci is regulated by the European Union (EU, 2000) and by other EPPO countries (Belarus, Russia). It is listed in the European Union (EU) Plant Health Directive 2000/29/EC under Annex 1AI (non-European populations) as a harmful organism, whose introduction from non-EU countries into, and spread within, all EU member states shall be banned. Some areas in the EU (British Isles, Nordic countries, parts of Portugal) are maintained as 'protected zones' (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015). B. tabaci also presents a risk to countries in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa and South America. It is already widespread in Asia and most tropical areas. The risk is primarily to the glasshouse industry in northern countries (Bedford et al., 1994b; Cuthbertson, 2013) and mainly concerns MEAM1 species. Since its recent introduction to several of these countries, the pest has proved particularly difficult to combat because of its polyphagy, its resistance to many insecticides and its disruption of biological control programmes (Della Giustina et al., 1989). Very few countries remain free from B. tabaci, illustrating the difficulty of preventing its movement in international trade. Furthermore, it is likely that various species of B. tabaci complex are already present, but unreported, as pests of field crops in other countries. In principle, the introduction of new biotypes into areas where the A biotype has long been present does present a risk, but it is one that is very difficult to manage.

In addition, because B. tabaci is the vector of a number of mainly tropical begomoviruses, temperate areas face the risk that these viruses, of which certain ones are listed, for example, in EU regulations (EU, 2000) will enter with their vector. The EU requires special measures to deal with this additional risk.

Hosts/Species Affected

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Until recently, B. tabaci was mainly known as a pest of field crops in tropical and sub-tropical countries, on cassava, cotton, sweet potatoes, tobacco and tomatoes. Non MEAM1 B. tabaci populations, in nearly all cases, have a narrow plant host range within the species shown in the tables and may include many obscure indigenous weed species. Some non MEAM1 species have been shown to be monophagous. However, a non-MEAM1 species within a country could have a composite host range of many plant and crop species.

Only MEAM1 species are presently documented as being almost polyphagous, although recent laboratory studies have indicated that only a small number of individuals within some  populations are able readily to change hosts. The progeny from these individuals have been shown to be highly polyphagous (Bedford et al., 1996).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)MalvaceaeUnknown
Abutilon (Indian mallow)MalvaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Abutilon pictumMalvaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf)MalvaceaeUnknown
Acalypha australisEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Acalypha hispida (Copperleaf)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Acalypha wilkesianaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Acer buergerianum (trident maple)AceraceaeUnknown
Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)AceraceaeUnknown
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Agave americana (century plant)AgavaceaeUnknown
AgeratumAsteraceaeWild host
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)AsteraceaeUnknown
Agonis flexuosa (willow myrtle)LithomyrtusUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Ajuga reptans (carpet bugle)LamiaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)FabaceaeUnknown
Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)MalvaceaeUnknown
Simón et al. (2003); Ghabeish et al. (2021)
Alchornea trewioidesUnknown
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)AraceaeUnknown
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Althaea officinalis (Marsh-mallow)MalvaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus caudatus (love-lies-bleeding)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus tricolor (edible amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Apium graveolens var. dulce (celery)ApiaceaeUnknown
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)PapaveraceaeUnknown
Asclepias (Silkweed)AsclepiadaceaeUnknown
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeUnknown
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)LiliaceaeUnknown
Aster squamatusAsteraceaeUnknown
Astragalus sinicus (chinese clover)FabaceaeUnknown
Aucuba japonica (Japanese aucuba)CornaceaeUnknown
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeUnknown
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)AcanthaceaeUnknown
Basella alba (malabar spinach)BasellaceaeUnknown
Begonia cucullataBegoniaceaeUnknown
Begonia raveniiUnknown
Bellis perennis (common daisy)AsteraceaeUnknown
Benincasa hispida (wax gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)BerberidaceaeUnknown
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)AsteraceaeUnknown
Boehmeria nivea (ramie)UrticaceaeUnknown
BrassicaBrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica juncea (mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (Chinese kale)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera (Brussels sprouts)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes (kohlrabi)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica rapa (field mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis (Chinese cabbage)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensisBrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeMain
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)MoraceaeUnknown
BrugmansiaSolanaceaeUnknown
Buxus harlandiiBuxaceaeUnknown
Buxus megistophyllaBuxaceaeUnknown
Buxus sinica (chinese box)BuxaceaeUnknown
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeMain
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)AraceaeUnknown
Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
Callicarpa bodinieriLamiaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Calystegia hederaceaUnknown
Camellia japonica (camellia)TheaceaeUnknown
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeUnknown
Campanula rapunculus (rampion)CampanulaceaeUnknown
Campsis grandifloraBignoniaceaeUnknown
Campsis radicans (trumpetcreeper)BignoniaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeUnknown
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeUnknown
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeUnknown
Caryocar brasilienseCaryocaraceaeUnknown
Cassia surattensisFabaceaeUnknown
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
Cayratia japonica (Sorrel vine)VitaceaeUnknown
Ceiba pentandra (kapok)BombacaceaeUnknown
Celosia argentea (celosia)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Cercis chinensisFabaceaeUnknown
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)SolanaceaeUnknown
Chenopodium (Goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Chlorophytum comosum (ribbon plant)LiliaceaeUnknown
Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)AsteraceaeUnknown
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeUnknown
Chrysanthemum chanetiiUnknown
Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum)AsteraceaeOther
Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeUnknown
Cichorium intybus (chicory)AsteraceaeUnknown
Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
Cirsium japonicumUnknown
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeOther
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeUnknown
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Citrus madurensis (calamondin)RutaceaeUnknown
Clausena lansium (wampi)RutaceaeUnknown
Cleome aculeataUnknown
Cleome spinosaCapparaceaeUnknown
Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)CapparaceaeUnknown
Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)LamiaceaeUnknown
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
ColeusLamiaceaeUnknown
Coleus blumei (common coleus)LamiaceaeUnknown
Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeUnknown
Columnea microcalyxUnknown
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)CombretaceaeUnknown
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
ConyzaAsteraceaeUnknown
Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)AsteraceaeUnknown
Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)AsteraceaeUnknown
Conyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)AsteraceaeUnknown
Corchorus olitorius (jute)TiliaceaeUnknown
Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeUnknown
Cosmos bipinnatus (garden cosmos)AsteraceaeUnknown
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)AsteraceaeUnknown
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)AsteraceaeUnknown
Crassula arborescensCrassulaceaeUnknown
Crepidiastrum lanceolatumUnknown
Crotalaria (rattlepods)FabaceaeUnknown
Cucumeropsis manniiUnknown
Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Cucurbita pepo var. melopepoUnknown
Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cuphea lanceolataLythraceaeUnknown
Cuscuta chinensisUnknown
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)AsteraceaeUnknown
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeUnknown
Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeUnknown
Daphne odora (Winter daphne)ThymelaeaceaeUnknown
Datura metel (Hindu datura)SolanaceaeUnknown
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeUnknown
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeUnknown
Dendrocnide urentissimaUnknown
Desmodium (tick clovers)FabaceaeUnknown
Dichondra repensConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeUnknown
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeUnknown
DipladeniaApocynaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Dischidia nummulariaUnknown
Dittrichia graveolens (stinkwort)AsteraceaeUnknown
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)AgavaceaeUnknown
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)VerbenaceaeUnknown
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Eclipta prostrata (eclipta)AsteraceaeUnknown
Ehretia microphyllaBoraginaceaeUnknown
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)AsteraceaeUnknown
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)AraceaeUnknown
Erigeron annuus (annual fleabane)AsteraceaeUnknown
Erigeron breviscapusUnknown
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
Eucalyptus gunnii (cider gum)LithomyrtusUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Eucalyptus urophylla (Timor mountain gum)LithomyrtusUnknown
Euonymus bungeanusCelastraceaeUnknown
Euphorbia (spurges)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Euphorbia bungeiUnknown
Euphorbia characiasEuphorbiaceaeOther
Simón et al. (2003)
Euphorbia cyathophoraEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Euphorbia humifusaUnknown
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Euphorbia hyssopifoliaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Li et al. (2011); Šimala et al. (2009)
Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain
Fatsia japonica (Japanese aralia)AraliaceaeUnknown
Fernaldia pandurataApocynaceaeOther
FicusMoraceaeUnknown
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)MoraceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeUnknown
Ficus hispidaMoraceaeUnknown
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)MoraceaeUnknown
Firmiana simplexSterculiaceaeUnknown
Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)RutaceaeUnknown
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeUnknown
Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)RubiaceaeUnknown
Geranium (cranesbill)GeraniaceaeUnknown
Geranium wilfordiiUnknown
Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy)AsteraceaeMain
Glebionis coronaria (crowndaisy)AsteraceaeUnknown
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Glycine sojaFabaceaeUnknown
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hamelia patensRubiaceaeUnknown
Hedera helix (ivy)AraliaceaeUnknown
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeUnknown
Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)AsteraceaeUnknown
Heliotropium europaeum (common heliotrope)BoraginaceaeUnknown
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeWild host
Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hibiscus mutabilis (cottonrose)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeUnknown
Li et al. (2011); Šimala et al. (2009)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hibiscus syriacus (shrubby althaea)MalvaceaeUnknown
Hippeastrum vittatum (Barbados lily)LiliaceaeUnknown
Hosta plantagineaLiliaceaeUnknown
Hosta ventricosaUnknown
Humulus scandens (Japanese hop)CannabaceaeUnknown
Hydrangea (hydrangeas)HydrangeaceaeUnknown
Hydrangea macrophylla (French hydrangea)HydrangeaceaeUnknown
Hylotelephium erythrostictumUnknown
Impatiens (balsam)BalsaminaceaeOther
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)BalsaminaceaeUnknown
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)BalsaminaceaeUnknown
Ipomoea (morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Ipomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Ipomoea bifloraConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Ipomoea coccinea (red morningglory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Iris tectorumIridaceaeUnknown
Jasminum mesnyiOleaceaeUnknown
Jasminum nudiflorum (Winter jasmine)OleaceaeUnknown
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)OleaceaeUnknown
Jatropha curcas (jatropha)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Jatropha podagrica (gout plant)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Justicia adhatoda (Malabar nut)AcanthaceaeUnknown
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)CrassulaceaeUnknown
Kerria japonica (Japanese kerria)KerriidaeUnknown
Koelreuteria paniculata (golden rain tree)SapindaceaeUnknown
Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Lactuca indica (Indian lettuce)AsteraceaeUnknown
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain
Lactuca sativa var. asparaginaUnknown
Lactuca sativa var. capitata (head lettuce)AsteraceaeUnknown
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeUnknown
Laggera pterodontaUnknown
Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeUnknown
Leonotis nepetifolia (Christmas candlestick)LamiaceaeUnknown
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)LamiaceaeUnknown
Lepidium draba (hoary cress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeOther
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)OleaceaeUnknown
Ligustrum quihouiOleaceaeUnknown
Ligustrum vicaryiUnknown
Liriodendron chinense (Chinese tulip tree)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeUnknown
Lonicera sempervirens (trumpet honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeUnknown
Ludwigia prostrataUnknown
Luffa acutangula (angled luffa)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Lycianthes rantonnetiiSolanaceaeUnknown
Lycium chinense (chinese wolfberry)SolanaceaeUnknown
Magnolia denudataMagnoliaceaeUnknown
Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeUnknown
Malus hallianaUnknown
Malva (mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
Malva sylvestrisMalvaceaeUnknown
Malva verticillataMalvaceaeUnknown
Malvastrum coromandelianumMalvaceaeUnknown
MandevillaApocynaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeUnknown
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeUnknown
MelampodiumUnknown
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
Mentha haplocalyxUnknown
Mentha spicata (Spear mint)LamiaceaeUnknown
Merremia peltataConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Merremia umbellata (hogvine)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Michelia maudiaeMagnoliaceaeUnknown
Millettia reticulataFabaceaeUnknown
Mimosa caesalpiniifoliaFabaceaeUnknown
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)FabaceaeUnknown
Mollugo pentaphyllaUnknown
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeUnknown
Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeUnknown
MyrciaLithomyrtusUnknown
Nandina domestica (Nandina)BerberidaceaeUnknown
Nasturtium officinale (watercress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Nepenthes mirabilisUnknown
Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Li et al. (2011); Šimala et al. (2009)
Nicotiana debneyiSolanaceaeOther
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Ocimum basilicum (basil)LamiaceaeUnknown
Ophiopogon japonicusLiliaceaeUnknown
Origanum majorana (sweet marjoram)LamiaceaeMain
Osmanthus fragransOleaceaeUnknown
Osteospermum ecklonisAsteraceaeUnknown
Oxalis acetosellaOxalidaceaeUnknown
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeUnknown
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)BombacaceaeUnknown
Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Pachystachys lutea (lollypops)AcanthaceaeUnknown
Paeonia lactiflora (Chinese peony)PaeoniaceaeUnknown
Panax notoginsengAraliaceaeUnknown
Papaver somniferum (Opium poppy)PapaveraceaeUnknown
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeUnknown
Parthenocissus heterophyllaUnknown
Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Boston ivy)VitaceaeUnknown
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeUnknown
PaulowniaScrophulariaceaeUnknown
Pelargonium hortorumGeraniaceaeUnknown
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)GeraniaceaeUnknown
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)RubiaceaeUnknown
Perilla frutescensLamiaceaeUnknown
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)PolygonaceaeUnknown
Persicaria orientalisUnknown
Persicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed)PolygonaceaeUnknown
Petunia hybridaSolanaceaeUnknown
Pharbitis nil (Japanese morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Philodendron bipinnatifidum (lacy tree philodendron)AraceaeUnknown
PhyllanthusEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Phyllanthus niruri (seed-under-the-leaf)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Physalis (Groundcherry)SolanaceaeUnknown
Physalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)SolanaceaeUnknown
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)PhytolaccaceaeUnknown
Picrasma quassioidesSimaroubaceaeUnknown
Pilea mollisUnknown
Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeMain
Pisum (pea)FabaceaeUnknown
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeUnknown
Platanus acerifolia (London planetree)PlatanaceaeUnknown
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Polyscias carolorumUnknown
Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeUnknown
Portulaca grandiflora (Rose moss)PortulacaceaeUnknown
Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeUnknown
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeUnknown
Psidium (guava)LithomyrtusUnknown
Psidium guajava (guava)LithomyrtusUnknown
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)FabaceaeUnknown
Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeUnknown
Pyracantha fortuneanaUnknown
Pyrus bretschneideri (yali pear)RosaceaeUnknown
Ranunculus asiaticus (garden crowfoot)RanunculaceaeUnknown
Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Rehmannia glutinosaOrobanchaceaeUnknown
Rhapis excelsaArecaceaeUnknown
Rheum palmatumPolygonaceaeUnknown
Rhododendron simsii (Sim's azalea)EricaceaeUnknown
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeUnknown
Rorippa dubiaUnknown
Rorippa indica (Indian marshcress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Rosa chinensis (China rose)RosaceaeUnknown
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeUnknown
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)RosaceaeUnknown
Sageretia theaRhamnaceaeUnknown
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage)LamiaceaeUnknown
Sargentodoxa cuneataUnknown
Sauropus macranthusUnknown
Scutellaria baicalensisLamiaceaeUnknown
Scutellaria barbataUnknown
Sechium edule (chayote)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Sedum adolphiiUnknown
Senna surattensis (golden senna)FabaceaeUnknown
Senna tora (sicklepod)FabaceaeUnknown
Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeUnknown
SidaMalvaceaeUnknown
Sida rhombifoliaMalvaceaeUnknown
Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia)GesneriaceaeMain
Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum aethiopicum (african scarlet eggplant)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum americanumSolanaceaeUnknown
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum muricatum (melon pear)SolanaceaeUnknown
Solanum pseudocapsicum (Jerusalem-cherry)SolanaceaeUnknown
Solanum torvum (turkey berry)SolanaceaeUnknown
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Sonchus (Sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
Sphagneticola calendulaceaAsteraceaeUnknown
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Spiraea japonica (Japanese spirea)RosaceaeUnknown
SynedrellaUnknown
Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella)AsteraceaeUnknown
Tagetes (marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
Tagetes patula (French marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
Talisia esculenta (pitomba)SapindaceaeUnknown
Taraxacum mongolicumUnknown
Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeUnknown
Telfairia occidentalisCucurbitaceaeUnknown
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)AsteraceaeUnknown
Toona sinensis (Chinese Toona)MeliaceaeUnknown
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)CommelinaceaeUnknown
Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)CommelinaceaeUnknown
Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Tridax procumbens (coat buttons)AsteraceaeUnknown
Trifolium repens (white clover)FabaceaeUnknown
Ulmus (elms)UlmaceaeUnknown
Šimala et al. (2009)
Urena lobata (caesar weed)MalvaceaeUnknown
Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf)AsteraceaeUnknown
Vicia faba (faba bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Vigna angularis (adzuki bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (asparagus bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Vinca major (Big periwinkle)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
Woodfordia fruticosaLythraceaeUnknown
Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)AsteraceaeUnknown
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)AraceaeUnknown
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)AsteraceaeUnknown
Zanthoxylum simulansRutaceaeUnknown
Zinnia elegans (zinnia)AsteraceaeUnknown
Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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B. tabaci can acquire and transmit a range of plant viruses (see Economic Impact) which produce a variety of different symptoms on susceptible plant species. Although plants can become infected from migratory feeding of B. tabaci, plants infected with B. tabaci-transmitted viruses are often indicative of B. tabaci colonization.

Infected plants could exhibit any one or a combination of the following symptoms: vein yellowing, inter-vein yellowing, leaf yellowing, yellow blotching of leaves, yellow mosaic of leaves, leaf curling, leaf crumpling, leaf vein thickening, leaf enations, leaf cupping, stem twisting, plant stunting.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould

Species Vectored

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Abutilon mosaic virus
African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)
Ageratum enation virus
Bean calico mosaic virus
Bean dwarf mosaic virus
Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV-type 1)
Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (bean golden yellow mosaic)
Bean yellow disorder virus
Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus
Cabbage leaf curl virus
Cassava brown streak viruses (cassava brown streak disease)
Chayote yellow mosaic virus
Chino del tomate virus
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus
Cowpea golden mosaic virus
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Croton yellow vein mosaic virus
Cucumber vein yellowing virus (cucumber vein yellowing)
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus
Dicliptera yellow mottle virus
Dolichos yellow mosaic virus
East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus
East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus
East African cassava mosaic virus
East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus
Euphorbia leaf curl virus
Euphorbia mosaic virus
Hollyhock leaf crumple virus
Honeysuckle yellow vein virus
Horsegram Yellow Mosaic Virus
Indian cassava mosaic virus (Indian cassava mosaic)
Ipomoea yellow vein virus
Lettuce chorosis virus
Lettuce infectious yellows virus (infectious yellows of lettuce)
Luffa yellow mosaic virus
Macroptilium mosaic Puerto Rico virus
Macroptilium yellow mosaic Florida virus
Macroptilium yellow mosaic virus
Malvastrum yellow vein virus
Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus
Melon yellowing-associated virus
Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus
Mungbean yellow mosaic virus
Okra yellow vein mosaic virus
Papaya leaf curl China virus
Papaya leaf curl Guandong virus
Papaya leaf curl virus
Pepper golden mosaic virus
Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus
Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus
Pepper leaf curl virus
Pepper yellow vein Mali virus
Potato yellow mosaic Panama virus
Potato yellow mosaic virus
Radish leaf curl virus
Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus
Sida golden mosaic Costa Rica virus
Sida golden mosaic Florida virus
Sida golden mosaic Honduras virus
Sida golden mosaic virus
Sida golden yellow vein virus
Sida micrantha mosaic virus
Sida mottle virus
Sida yellow mosaic virus
Sida yellow vein virus
South African cassava mosaic virus
Soybean crinkle leaf virus
Squash leaf curl China virus
Squash leaf curl Philippines virus
Squash leaf curl virus (leaf curl of squash)
Squash leaf curl Yunnan virus
Squash mild leaf curl virus
Squash vein yellowing virus
Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus
Stachytarpheta leaf curl virus
Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus
Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus
Sweet potato leaf curl virus
Sweet potato mild mottle virus (mild mottle of sweet potato)
Tobacco curly shoot virus
Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus
Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus
Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus
Tomato chino La Paz virus
Tomato chlorosis virus (yellow leaf disorder of tomato)
Tomato chlorotic mottle virus
Tomato curly stunt virus
Tomato golden mosaic virus
Tomato golden mottle virus
Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus
Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus
Tomato leaf curl China virus
Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus
Tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus
Tomato leaf curl Laos virus
Tomato leaf curl Malaysia virus
Tomato leaf curl Mali virus
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)
Tomato leaf curl Philippines virus
Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus
Tomato leaf curl Sri Lanka virus
Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus
Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus
Tomato leaf curl Vietnam virus
Tomato mild mottle virus
Tomato mosaic Havana virus
Tomato mottle virus
Tomato rugose mosaic virus
Tomato severe leaf curl virus
Tomato severe rugose virus
Tomato torrado virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl Malaga virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl Mali virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus - European strain)
Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)
Tomato yellow vein streak virus
Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus

Biology and Ecology

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Eggs are laid usually in circular groups, on the undersides of leaves, with the broad end touching the surface and the long axis perpendicular to the leaf. They are anchored by a pedicel inserted into a fine slit made by the female, and not into stomata as in the case of many other aleyrodids. Eggs are whitish in colour when first laid, but gradually turn brown. Each female lays up to 160 eggs. Hatching occurs after 5-9 days at 30°C depending on host species, temperature and humidity.

On hatching, the first instar or 'crawler' is flat, oval and scale-like, and is the only mobile larval stage. It moves to a suitable feeding location on the lower leaf surface where it moults and becomes sessile throughout the remaining nymphal stages. The first three nymphal stages last 2-4 days each (depending on temperature). The fourth nymphal stage is termed the puparium, and is approximately 0.7 mm long. True pupation within the whitefly life-cycle is debatable as it does not occur in other Homopterous families, although the last stage of the fourth nymphal instar after apolysis has been completed is typically referred to as a pupa. Pupation lasts for about 6 days and within the latter period, the metamorphosis to adult occurs.

The adult emerges through a 'T'-shaped rupture in the puparium and expands its wings before powdering itself with wax from glands on the abdomen. Copulation begins 12-20 hours after emergence and takes place several times throughout the life of the adult. A female may live for 60 days, although the life of the male is generally much shorter, being between 9 to 17 days. Some 11 to 15 generations can occur within one year.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agistemus exsertus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Amblyseius aleyrodis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Amblyseius limonicus Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Cuthbertson (2014) UK poinsettia plants
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Cuthbertson (2014) UK poinsettia plants
Aschersonia aleyrodes Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Cuthbertson et al. (2012) UK poinsettia plants
Campylomma nicolasi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chrysoperla exotera Predator
Chrysoperla rufilabris Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coenosia attenuata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Collops vittatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cybocephalus micans Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cyrtopeltis luridus Predator
Delphastus pallidus Predator
Delphastus pusillus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs California
Deraeocoris pallens Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Dicyphus tamaninii Predator
Enallagma civile Predator
Encarsia acaudaleyrodis Parasite
Encarsia adrianae Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Pakistan beans; Lantana camara
Encarsia aleurochitonis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia bimaculata Parasite
Encarsia brevivena Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia cibcensis Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Pakistan beans; Lantana camara
Encarsia davidi Parasite
Encarsia formosa Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Israel; New Zealand; Norway ornamental plants
Encarsia inaron Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia japonica Parasite
Encarsia longifasciata Parasite
Encarsia lutea Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Egypt soyabeans; tomatoes
Encarsia luteola Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Israel cotton
Encarsia meritoria Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia mineoi Parasite
Encarsia mohyuddini Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia nigricephala Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia pergandiella Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia polaszeki Parasite
Encarsia porteri Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia protransvena Parasite
Encarsia quaintancei Parasite
Encarsia reticulata Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia sophia Parasite
Encarsia strenua Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia transvena Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia tricolor Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eretmocerus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eretmocerus aligarhensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eretmocerus corni Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Pupae Paraguay cotton
Eretmocerus diversiciliatus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eretmocerus eremicus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eretmocerus haldemani Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eretmocerus mundus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Pupae Egypt; Mali cotton; soyabeans; tomatoes
Eretmocerus sudanensis Parasite
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Euseius hibisci Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Euseius scutalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Morocco Citrus
Franklinothrips vespiformis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Paraguay cotton
Geocoris ochropterus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Geocoris punctipes Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Labidura riparia Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Laius venustus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Sudan cotton
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Mallada boninensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microlestes discoidalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Sudan cotton
Nabis alternatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Nabis capsiformis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Sudan cotton
Nephaspis maesi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Nicaragua Citrus; pawpaws
Orius albidipennis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs Sudan cotton
Orius tristicolor Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Paederus alfierii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Paragus compeditus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Phidippus audax Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Polyphagotarsonemus latus
Scymnus syriacus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Serangium parcesetosum Predator Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Sinea confusa Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Sphaerophoria rueppellii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Theridula gonygaster Predator
Transeius montdorensis Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Cuthbertson (2014) UK poinsettia plants
Typhlodromus athiasae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Typhlodromus sudanicus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
virus-like particles Pathogen
Zelus renardii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The species of Encarsia recorded as parasitoids of B. tabaci were revised by Polaszek et al. (1992), and also summarized by Cock (1993). They recognised 18 species, one or more of which are usually found parasitizing B. tabaci wherever natural enemies have been studied. Four additional Encarsia spp. parasitoids were described by Evans and Polaszek (1997).

The other important parasitoids attacking B. tabaci belong to the genus Eretmocerus. In each region one or more species of each of these two genera cause heavy mortality. There are also numerous records of generalist predators of Homoptera recorded as attacking B. tabaci (Cock, 1986, 1993). However, the combined impact of these natural enemies is insufficient to prevent virus transmission, but may be adequate to prevent losses where direct feeding damage is important. These natural enemies are all susceptible to insecticides and injudicious application has caused devastating resurgence, notably on cotton, for example, in the Sudan (Eveleens, 1983).

An isolate of the parasitoid Isaria fumosorosea has shown potential to be further developed as a biopesticide for controlling B. tabaci  (Rahim Eslamizadeh et al., 2013).

Various species of predatory mites have also been shown to be effective in reducing B. tabaci populations, including Amblyseius limonicus, A. swirskii and Transeius montdorensis (Cuthbertson, 2014). A large range of natural enemies of B. tabaci have been recorded in China (Li et al., 2011).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Adults of B. tabaci do not fly very efficiently but, once airborne, can be transported quite long distances by the wind. All stages of the pest are liable to be carried on planting material and cut flowers of host species. The international trade in poinsettia is considered to have been a major means of dissemination of MEAM1 species of B. tabaci within the EPPO region (Cuthbertson, 2013). 

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations Negative
Transport/travel None

Impact

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Introduction

The pest status of B. tabaci insects is complicated and through the comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene it is generally accepted that, rather than one complex species, B. tabaci is a complex of 11 genetic groups. These genetic groups are composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable species, which are merely separated by a minimum of 3.5% mtCOI nucleotide divergence (Dinsdale et al., 2010De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). Within the B. tabaci complex, the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cryptic species, formerly referred to as 'B' and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species, formerly referred to as 'Q' biotype that are the two most widely distributed, and as a result, best known of the species. These two species present the greatest threat to glasshouse crops worldwide (Bethke et al., 2009). The damaging MEAM1 is described as an aggressive coloniser and is an effective vector of many viruses, whereas the MED characteristically shows strong resistance to novel insecticides (Jones et al., 2008; McKenzie et al., 2009). 

B. tabaci has been recorded as a minor pest of cotton and other tropical or semi-tropical crops within the warmer parts of the world and, until recently has been successfully managed with a range of insecticides.

A few biotypes from certain areas have become major pests, often within large mono-cropping areas where they are regularly exposed to insecticides. In these cases, the biotypes have rapidly evolved resistance to almost all currently available insecticides (Cahill et al., 1996; Mushtaq Ahmad et al., 2002; Luo et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010). Exposure to sustained insecticide treatments may have promoted other characteristics of these 'pest' biotypes, such as increased fecundity and host adaptability. Populations of the cosmopolitan MEAM1 species [see datasheet on B. tabaci (MEAM1)], the Pakistan K biotype and the Mediterranean species are currently within this group. Other presently uncharacterized biotypes within Africa appear specifically adapted to cassava, causing severe losses to this important subsistence crop (Maruthi et al., 2000).

The feeding of B. tabaci adults and nymphs causes chlorotic spots to appear on the surface of the leaves. Depending on the level of infestation, these spots may coalesce until the whole of the leaf is yellow, apart from the area immediately around the veins. Such leaves are later shed. The honeydew produced by the feeding of the nymphs covers the surface of the leaves and can cause a reduction in photosynthetic potential when colonized by moulds. Honeydew can also disfigure flowers and, in the case of cotton, can cause problems in processing the lint. With heavy infestations, plant height, number of internodes and quality and quantity of yield can be affected (for example, in cotton).

Most biotypes of B. tabaci can vector over 60 plant viruses in the genera Geminivirus, Closterovirus, Nepovirus, Carlavirus, Potyvirus and a rod-shaped DNA virus (Markham et al., 1994; Alegbejo, 2000). Those biotypes that are poor vectors, appear so, due to their inability to feed on alternative host plant species (Bedford et al., 1994b). Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, now called begomoviruses, are by far the most important agriculturally, causing yield losses to crops of between 20 and 100% (Brown and Bird, 1992; Cathrin and Ghanim, 2014). Begomoviruses cause a range of different symptoms that include yellow mosaics, yellow veining, leaf curling, stunting and vein thickening. Presently a million ha of cotton is being decimated in Pakistan by cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuV) (Mansoor et al., 1993) and important African subsistence crops such as cassava are affected by begomoviruses such as African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV). Tomato crops throughout the world are particularly susceptible to many different begomoviruses, and in most cases exhibit yellow leaf curl symptoms. This has caused their initial characterization as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). TYLCV has also recently been recorded in the New World, as well as several other begomoviruses such as Tomato mottle virus (EPPO/CABI, 1996), Tobacco leaf curl virus (TLCV), Sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV), Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV), Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCV) and Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) some of which cause heavy yield losses in their respective hosts. Dual infections have also been shown to occur (Bedford et al., 1994c).

Europe presently has five known begomoviruses. Three have been shown to no longer be transmissible by B. tabaci: Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic (also known as Tobacco leaf curl virus), Abutilon mosaic virus (Bedford et al., 1994a) and Ipomea yellow vein virus (Banks et al., 1999), possibly through many years of vegetative propagation of their ornamental host plants. The others are two different transmissible TYLCVs that are causing major crop losses within the tomato industries of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Canary Islands. Indigenous weed species such as Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium have also been shown as field reservoirs for these tomato viruses (Bedford et al., 1998) and may be the source of others yet to be identified within Europe. Two B. tabaci-transmitted closteroviruses are also now affecting European crops, including those in the Canary Islands. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder, is causing severe damage to cucumbers and melons in southern Europe (Celix et al., 1996), along with Tomato chlorosis virus (Navas-Castillo et al., 2000). There are also reports of a third closterovirus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, in Europe (Duffus et al., 1996) although this virus currently appears not to be of economic significance. However, a Bemisia-transmitted potyvirus, Cucumber yellow vein virus, appeared in cucumber crops in southern Spain for the first time in 2000 (Cuadrado et al., 2001). Despite a crop destruction programme to eradicate this virus, it has recently spread to melon crops in the region. Protected Zones (e.g. UK and Finland) within Europe remain free from damaging begomoviruses (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

Biotype K

In Pakistan, the K biotype is responsible for the spread of a decimating viral disease of cotton, cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) (Briddon and Markham, 2000). This disease first became a serious problem in the early 1990s, rapidly affecting a million ha of cotton, which comprises 60% of the country's foreign exchange (Mansoor et al., 1993).

Mediterranean species (Biotype Q)

The Mediterranean species (formerly known as Q biotype) is found throughout the Iberian peninsula, around the Mediterranean basin (including Israel) and in the Canary Islands. It is widely thought that this is the indigenous biotype to these regions, although it co-exists with MEAM1 species  in Israel, Italy and the Canary Islands. A population of MEAM 1 was recorded within a Mediterranean species population around Almeria in southern Spain in 1995. It appears that this population failed to become established since recent surveys have only identified Mediterranean species. Mediterranean species was first recorded entering Guatemala in 2009 (Bethke et al., 2009) and the UK in 2012 (Powell et al., 2012). Mediterranean species has, over recent years, been exposed to extensive insecticide applications and within areas of intensive agriculture exhibits a high level of resistance (Dennehy et al., 2010). The use of IPM control programmes is presently restricted where crops are susceptible to viruses. This is particularly the case with Tomato yellow leaf curl viruses which are transmitted very efficiently by B. tabaci. Because of insecticide resistance, large numbers of Mediterranean species often infest crops within southern Europe, resulting in rapid spread of viruses to newly planted crops. Field grown tomato crops in areas of southern Spain and Morocco have recently suffered 100% losses and TYLCV has spread to Phaseolus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum crops.

Environmental Impact

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The impact of the B. tabaci multi-species complex has mainly been in glasshouses in temperate countries, where Trialeurodes vaporariorum already presented problems. Any additional problems caused by B. tabaci, in terms of changes in crops cultivated or in the use of new control measures, have been essentially in this protected environment and cannot be said to impact the natural environment.

B. tabaci has also proliferated on outdoor crops in warmer countries. There is no particular indication that it has changed the crops cultivated or land use, but its control with insecticides has added to the general pesticide load on the environment.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Allactaga alasterNo Details

Detection and Inspection

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Numerous chlorotic spots develop on the leaves of affected plants, which may also be disfigured by honeydew and associated sooty moulds. Leaf curling, yellowing, mosaics or yellow veining could also indicate the presence of whitefly-transmitted viruses.

Close observation of the undersides of the leaves will show the tiny, yellow/white larval scales and in severe infestations, when the plant is shaken, numerous small, white adult whiteflies will flutter out and quickly resettle. These symptoms do not differ appreciably from those of Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the glasshouse whitefly, which is common throughout Europe and also occurs elsewhere.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. tabaci is now widely regarded to be a multi-species complex. Consisting of as many as 34 species that are morphologically indistinguishable from each other (De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). They can however, be distinguished molecularly. Differentiation of B. tabaci from other whitefly species by means of the adults is often difficult, although close observation of adult eye morphology may often show differences in ommatidial arrangements between some species. At rest, B. tabaci has wings more closely pressed to the body than Trialeurodes vaporariorum (greenhouse whitefly), which is a larger whitefly and more triangular in appearance.

The fourth instar or puparium can also be used to distinguish B. tabaci from T. vaporariorum as glasshouse pests. T. vaporariorum is 'pork-pie shaped', regularly ovoid, has straight sides (viewed laterally) and in most instances, 12 large, waxy setae. In B. tabaci, the puparium has an irregular, 'pancake-like', oval shape, with oblique sides and shorter, finer setae. Although the number of enlarged setae in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum can vary according to host plant morphology, the two caudal setae are always stout and nearly always as long as the vasiform orifice in B. tabaci.

For more information on the identification of B. tabaci from slide-mounted pupae, see Martin (1987).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Intercropping practices using non-hosts have been used in many countries aiming to reduce numbers of whiteflies on specific crops. However, intercropping with susceptible crops can promote whitefly populations, by offering more leaf area for feeding.

Weed species play an important role in harbouring whiteflies between crop plantings and attention should be paid to removing these in advance of planting susceptible crops. Weeds also often harbour whitefly-transmitted viruses (Bedford et al., 1998) and may be a major source of crop virus epidemics.

Biological Control

Conservation of natural enemies is important in field crops where feeding damage is the cause of losses, rather than virus transmission, for example, on cotton. Under these circumstances, attempts have been made in Israel to enhance natural enemy action on cotton by introduction of additional, hopefully more efficient parasitoids (Rivany and Gerling, 1987). This effort resulted in the establishment of two species from the USA, Encarsia luteola and a species of Eretmocerus. Similarly, parasitoids are being introduced in Florida, USA, from other regions for the control of B. tabaci on vegetables and ornamentals (Rosen et al., 1994). Predatory mites have been shown to be efficient against Mediterranean species (Cuthbertson, 2014). Entomopathogenic agents such as nematodes (Cuthbertson et al., 2003a, 2007a,b) and fungi (Cuthbertson et al., 2005a, 2012; Cuthbertson and Walters, 2005) have also been shown to be important biological tools in the control/eradication of B. tabaci.

Host-Plant Resistance

Plant and crop species that exhibit a high level of resistance to both vector and virus must also be considered when designing an IPM system. The development of transgenic resistant plant and crop species through genetic engineering must be considered and accepted as a future method of control where whitefly-transmitted viruses are already endemic and causing severe crop losses.

Chemical Control

B. tabaci appears to develop resistance to all groups of pesticides that have been developed for its control. A rotation of insecticides that offer no cross-resistance must therefore be used to control B. tabaci infestations (Cuthbertson et al., 2012).

Active ingredients that have already been reported to have an effect in controlling B. tabaci worldwide include bifenthrin, buprofezin, imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, amitraz, fenoxycarb, deltamethrin, azidirachtin and pymetrozine. However, development of resistance to the products is a continual problem (Dennehy et al., 2010).

Integrated Pest Management

Until recently, B. tabaci was readily controlled with insecticides in field and glasshouse situations. However, problems with its effective control on many crops are now being experienced worldwide due to insecticide resistance. It appears that no single control treatment can be used on a long-term basis against this pest, and that the integration of a number of different control agents needs implementing for an effective level of control.

IPM appears to offer the best option for controlling B. tabaci without causing contamination of the environment: beneficial insects are used alongside chemicals that offer a high level of selectivity such as insect growth regulators. However, the use of biological control agents alone, such as Encarsia formosa and Lecanicillium lecanii, although moderately successful (Nedstam, 1992), can never bring infestation levels down to a level that stops virus transmission, as B. tabaci is such an efficient virus vector. Cuthbertson et al. (2012) developed a series of chemical control programmes, including Beauveria bassiana (Naturalis-L) that offered complete control of Mediterranean species under laboratory conditions. Nematodes and fungi have also been shown to be successfully tank-mixed with several chemical products for use in eradication schemes against what is now known to be MEAM1 species (Cuthbertson et al., 2003b, 2005b, 2012; Cuthbertson and Collins, 2015).

Phytosanitary Control

In countries where B. tabaci is not already present, the enforcement of strict phytosanitary regulations should help reduce the risk of this whitefly becoming established (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015) . Because of the difficulty of detecting low levels of infestation in consignments, it is best to ensure that either the area or the place of production is free from the pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1990). If this cannot be obtained, a detailed treatment and inspection regime can be used to ensure that traded plants are free from the pest. Particular attention is needed for consignments from countries where certain B. tabaci-vectored viruses, now on the EPPO A1 or A2 quarantine lists, are present (see Risk of Introduction) (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

References

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25/07/15 Reviewed by:

Andrew Cuthbertson, Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York, UK

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