Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bemisia tabaci
(tobacco whitefly)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bemisia tabaci
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tobacco whitefly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Bemisia tabaci complex is polyphagous and now attacks many crops, but without significant impact on land use. Any effects on biodiversity would result indirectly from an increased use of insecticides agai...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
TitleAdults
CaptionBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
AdultsBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
TitleAdults
CaptionBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Stephen Ausmus
Bemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
AdultsBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Stephen Ausmus
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
TitleAdults
CaptionTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
AdultsTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
PupaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.©Ian D. Bedford
Squash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
TitleSilver leaf on squash
CaptionSquash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Squash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
Silver leaf on squashSquash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
PupaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
TitleAdult
CaptionBemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
Copyright©John Innes Institute
Bemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
AdultBemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).©John Innes Institute
Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionHymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
Natural enemy Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.©Ian D. Bedford

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889)

Preferred Common Name

  • tobacco whitefly

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleurodes inconspicua Quintance
  • Aleurodes tabaci Gennadius
  • Bemisia achyranthes Singh
  • Bemisia bahiana Bondar
  • Bemisia costa-limai Bondar
  • Bemisia emiliae Corbett
  • Bemisia goldingi Corbett
  • Bemisia gossypiperda Misra & Lamba
  • Bemisia gossypiperda mosaicivectura Ghesquiere
  • Bemisia hibisci Takahashi
  • Bemisia inconspicua (Quaintance)
  • Bemisia longispina Priesner & Hosny
  • Bemisia lonicerae Takahashi
  • Bemisia manihotis Frappa
  • Bemisia minima Danzig
  • Bemisia minuscula Danzig
  • Bemisia nigeriensis Corbett
  • Bemisia rhodesiaensis Corbett
  • Bemisia signata Bondar
  • Bemisia vayssieri Frappa

International Common Names

  • English: cassava whitefly; cotton whitefly; silver leaf whitefly; sweet potato whitefly
  • Spanish: mosca blanca; mosca blanca del algodonero; mosca blanca del camote; mosca blanca del tabaco; mosquita blanca del tabaco
  • French: aleurode de la patate douce; aleurode du cotonnier
  • Portuguese: mosca branca do feijao

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Baumwoll-Mottenschildlaus; Tabak-Mottenschildlaus; Weisse Fliege
  • Israel: knimat ash hatabak
  • Italy: aleirode delle solanacee; aleurode delle solanacee
  • Turkey: beyaz sinek

EPPO code

  • BEMIBA (Bemisia bahiana)
  • BEMIEM (Bemisia emiliae)
  • BEMIGO (Bemisia goldingi)
  • BEMIIN (Bemisia inconspicua)
  • BEMILO (Bemisia longispina)
  • BEMIMA (Bemisia manihotis)
  • BEMINI (Bemisia nigeriensis)
  • BEMIRH (Bemisia rhodesiaensis)
  • BEMITA (Bemisia tabaci)
  • BEMIVA (Bemisia vayssieri)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

The Bemisia tabaci complex is polyphagous and now attacks many crops, but without significant impact on land use. Any effects on biodiversity would result indirectly from an increased use of insecticides against this pest.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Bemisia
  •                                         Species: Bemisia tabaci

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Bemisia contains 37 species and is thought to have originated from Asia (Mound and Halsey, 1978). Bemisia tabaci, being possibly of Indian origin (Fishpool and Burban, 1994), was described under numerous names before its morphological variability was recognised. For full synonyms, see Mound and Halsey (1978). Originally, three distinct groups of B. tabaci were identified by comparing their mitochondrial 16S ribosomal subunits: New World; India/Sudan; and remaining Old World (Frohlich and Brown, 1994). The pest status of B. tabaci insects has now become more complicated and through the comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene it is generally accepted that, rather than one complex species, B. tabaci is a complex of 11 genetic groups. These genetic groups are composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable species, which are merely separated by a minimum of 3.5% mtCOI nucleotide divergence (Dinsdale et al., 2010; De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). First reports of a newly-evolved biotype of B. tabaci, the B biotype (see separate datasheet, now widely accepted, and known as, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species (MEAM1)), appeared in the mid-1980s (Brown et al., 1995b). This species, commonly referred to as the silverleaf whitefly or poinsettia strain, is highly polyphagous and almost twice as fecund as previously recorded strains, and has been documented as being a separate species, B. argentifolii (Bellows et al., 1994). MEAM1 is able to cause phytotoxic disorders in certain plant species, for example, silverleaf in squashes (Cucurbita sp.) and this is an irrefutable method of identification (Bedford et al., 1992, 1994a). It can also can transfer and infect tomatoes with both Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and, depending on the timing of infection, losses can reach 100%.

A distinctive, non-specific esterase banding pattern is also helpful in identification (Brown et al., 1995a) but is not infallible (Byrne et al., 1995). A recent study by Rosell et al. (1997) which used SEM to examine the morphological characters documented by Bellows et al. (1994) for identifying the 'B biotype' showed that most Old World populations of B. tabaci were morphologically indistinguishable from the 'B biotype'. These Old World populations did not induce silverleaf disorders or produce similar esterase banding patterns to B. argentifolii. Several other 'biotypes' (up to S) have now been described (Brown et al., 1995b, 1999; Banks et al., 1999; Dinsdale et al., 2010; De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014) which supports the idea of a species complex, rather than of a number of distinct species, such as B. argentifolii. However, within the New World, MEAM1 has been readily accepted as a new species. Even though a recent study has irrefutably shown that MEAM1 can be crossed with a non-B biotype (Mediterranean species (formerly known as biotype Q) from Spain) (Adan et al., 1999).

Description

Top of page

Egg

Pear shaped with a pedicel spike at the base, approximately 0.2 mm long.

Larva

Yellow-white scales, 0.3-0.6 mm long.

Puparium

Flat, irregular oval shape, 0.7 mm long. On a smooth leaf the puparium lacks enlarged dorsal setae, but if the leaf is hairy, two to eight long dorsal setae are present.

Adult

About 1 mm long, the male slightly smaller than the female. The body and both pairs of wings are covered with a powdery, waxy secretion, white to slightly yellowish in colour.

Distribution

Top of page

B. tabaci has a global presence. However, certain areas within Europe are still Bemisia free, e.g. Finland, Sweden, Republic of Ireland and the UK (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

In Canada B. tabaci is a glasshouse pest; it is not established outdoors (Broadbent et al., 1989; Howard et al., 1994; CFIA, Canada, 2005, per J.A. Garland).

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 34).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Sep 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
AngolaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BeninPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Burkina FasoPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Cabo VerdePresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
CameroonPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Central African RepublicPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
ChadPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Republic of thePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Equatorial GuineaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
EritreaPresentNHM (1956); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
EthiopiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GabonAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GambiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GhanaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GuineaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
LibyaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MauritiusPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MayottePresentEPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
RéunionPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
RwandaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SeychellesPresentDelatte et al. (2005); EPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SomaliaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresent, Few occurrencesCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Esterhuizen et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
SudanPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
TogoPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
TunisiaPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
AzerbaijanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BahrainPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BangladeshPresentNHM (1984); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BruneiPresentNHM (1989); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
CambodiaPresentEPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresentLi Peng et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
-BeijingPresentEPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Sun XiuXin et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentEPPO (2020)
-HainanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO (2020); Fu Xue et al. (2011)
-HenanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentEPPO (2020)
-Inner MongoliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentEPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-ShandongPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-ShanghaiPresentWu et al. (2006); EPPO (2020)
-ShanxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-TianjinPresentEPPO (2020)
-XinjiangPresentEPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresent, Localized1964CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNHM (1990); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-ChhattisgarhPresentNetam et al. (2007)
-DelhiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-GujaratPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentEPPO (2020)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-LakshadweepPresentEPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-MeghalayaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-OdishaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-RajasthanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-UttarakhandPresentRashmi Pandey et al. (2008)
-West BengalPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentBarro et al. (2008)
-SulawesiPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-SumatraPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
IraqPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-ShikokuPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
JordanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
KuwaitPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
LaosPresentEPPO (2020); EPPO (2014)
LebanonPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNHM (1973); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentNHM (1978); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MaldivesPresentNHM (1995); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NepalPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
OmanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
QatarAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SingaporePresentWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentEPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SyriaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
TajikistanPresentEPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentWaterhouse (1993); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresent, Widespread1928CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Karut et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
TurkmenistanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
United Arab EmiratesPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
UzbekistanPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2020)
YemenPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresent, Localized1989CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentOstojić et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020); Šimala et al. (2015)
CyprusPresent, WidespreadNHM (1981); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresent, Localized1988CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
DenmarkAbsent, Eradicated1988CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
EstoniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
FinlandPresent, Few occurrencesCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Cuthbertson and Vänninen (2015); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, Few occurrencesCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-CorsicaPresentNHM (1986); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, Localized1987CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-CretePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences1990CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
IrelandAbsent, Eradicated1997CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Parrella et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
-SardiniaPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-SicilyPresentNHM (1981a); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
LatviaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); IPPC (2016); EPPO (2020)
MaltaPresent, Localized1993CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MontenegroPresentEPPO (2020)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
NorwayPresent, Localized1987CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
PolandPresent, Localized1988CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, Localized1995CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-MadeiraPresentEPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, Few occurrencesCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Southern RussiaPresent, Few occurrencesCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SlovakiaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SloveniaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998)
SpainPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Balearic IslandsPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Canary IslandsPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, Few occurrences1987CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresent, Localized1989CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresent, Transient under eradicationEPPO (2020); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); IPPC (2017)
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrences1987CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Cuthbertson and Vänninen (2015); EPPO (2020)not established.
-Channel IslandsAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BahamasPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BarbadosPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BelizePresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
BermudaPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
British Virgin IslandsPresent1993CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
CanadaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-AlbertaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-New BrunswickPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
DominicaPresent, Few occurrences1993CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Dominican RepublicPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
El SalvadorPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GrenadaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)First reported: 197*
GuatemalaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Bethke et al. (2009); EPPO (2020)
HaitiPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
MontserratPresentEPPO (2020)
Netherlands AntillesPresent, Localized1989CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
NicaraguaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHeileman (2007); Malumphy (2014); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentEPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentEPPO (2020)
-District of ColumbiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentEPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentEPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentEPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-MainePresentEPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentEPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentEPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-New HampshirePresentEPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentEPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentEPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-OregonPresentEPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-VermontPresentEPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
AustraliaPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); IPPC (2009); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-QueenslandPresentIPPC (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-South AustraliaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-VictoriaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Cook IslandsPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
French PolynesiaPresentEPPO (2020)
GuamPresentNHM (1990); EPPO (2020)
KiribatiPresentNHM (1976); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Marshall IslandsPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
NauruPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresent, Localized1992CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
NiuePresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
PalauPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
TongaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
TuvaluPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Grille et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresentEPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-BahiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-GoiasPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Oliveira et al. (2003); EPPO (2020)
-Mato GrossoPresentNHM (1974); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-ParanaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-PernambucoPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Barbosa et al. (2015); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
French GuianaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
ParaguayPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)
PeruPresentEPPO (2020)
SurinameAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
UruguayPresentDolores Rodríguez et al. (2003); Grille et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2020)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

B. tabaci is regulated by the European Union (EU, 2000) and by other EPPO countries (Belarus, Russia). It is listed in the European Union (EU) Plant Health Directive 2000/29/EC under Annex 1AI (non-European populations) as a harmful organism, whose introduction from non-EU countries into, and spread within, all EU member states shall be banned. Some areas in the EU (British Isles, Nordic countries, parts of Portugal) are maintained as 'protected zones' (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015). B. tabaci also presents a risk to countries in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa and South America. It is already widespread in Asia and most tropical areas. The risk is primarily to the glasshouse industry in northern countries (Bedford et al., 1994b; Cuthbertson, 2013) and mainly concerns MEAM1 species. Since its recent introduction to several of these countries, the pest has proved particularly difficult to combat because of its polyphagy, its resistance to many insecticides and its disruption of biological control programmes (Della Giustina et al., 1989). Very few countries remain free from B. tabaci, illustrating the difficulty of preventing its movement in international trade. Furthermore, it is likely that various species of B. tabaci complex are already present, but unreported, as pests of field crops in other countries. In principle, the introduction of new biotypes into areas where the A biotype has long been present does present a risk, but it is one that is very difficult to manage.

In addition, because B. tabaci is the vector of a number of mainly tropical begomoviruses, temperate areas face the risk that these viruses, of which certain ones are listed, for example, in EU regulations (EU, 2000) will enter with their vector. The EU requires special measures to deal with this additional risk.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Until recently, B. tabaci was mainly known as a pest of field crops in tropical and sub-tropical countries, on cassava, cotton, sweet potatoes, tobacco and tomatoes. Non MEAM1 B. tabaci populations, in nearly all cases, have a narrow plant host range within the species shown in the tables and may include many obscure indigenous weed species. Some non MEAM1 species have been shown to be monophagous. However, a non-MEAM1 species within a country could have a composite host range of many plant and crop species.

Only MEAM1 species are presently documented as being almost polyphagous, although recent laboratory studies have indicated that only a small number of individuals within some  populations are able readily to change hosts. The progeny from these individuals have been shown to be highly polyphagous (Bedford et al., 1996).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
AgeratumAsteraceaeWild host
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera (Brussels sprouts)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeMain
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeMain
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
Chenopodium (Goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum)AsteraceaeOther
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeOther
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
Euphorbia characiasEuphorbiaceaeOther
Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain
Fernaldia pandurataApocynaceaeOther
Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy)AsteraceaeMain
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeWild host
Impatiens (balsam)BalsaminaceaeOther
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeOther
Malva (mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
Nicotiana debneyiSolanaceaeOther
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Origanum majorana (sweet marjoram)LamiaceaeMain
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeMain
Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia)GesneriaceaeMain
Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum aethiopicum (african scarlet eggplant)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page

B. tabaci can acquire and transmit a range of plant viruses (see Economic Impact) which produce a variety of different symptoms on susceptible plant species. Although plants can become infected from migratory feeding of B. tabaci, plants infected with B. tabaci-transmitted viruses are often indicative of B. tabaci colonization.

Infected plants could exhibit any one or a combination of the following symptoms: vein yellowing, inter-vein yellowing, leaf yellowing, yellow blotching of leaves, yellow mosaic of leaves, leaf curling, leaf crumpling, leaf vein thickening, leaf enations, leaf cupping, stem twisting, plant stunting.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould

Species Vectored

Top of page Abutilon mosaic virus
African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)
Ageratum enation virus
Bean calico mosaic virus
Bean dwarf mosaic virus
Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV-type 1)
Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (bean golden yellow mosaic)
Bean yellow disorder virus
Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus
Cabbage leaf curl virus
Cassava brown streak viruses (cassava brown streak disease)
Chayote yellow mosaic virus
Chino del tomate virus
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (African cotton leaf curl begomovirus)
Cowpea golden mosaic virus
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Croton yellow vein mosaic virus
Cucumber vein yellowing virus (cucumber vein yellowing)
Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus
Dicliptera yellow mottle virus
Dolichos yellow mosaic virus
East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus
East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus
East African cassava mosaic virus
East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus
Euphorbia leaf curl virus
Euphorbia mosaic virus
Hollyhock leaf crumple virus
Honeysuckle yellow vein virus
Horsegram Yellow Mosaic Virus
Indian cassava mosaic virus (Indian cassava mosaic)
Ipomoea yellow vein virus
Lettuce chorosis virus
Lettuce infectious yellows virus (infectious yellows of lettuce)
Luffa yellow mosaic virus
Macroptilium mosaic Puerto Rico virus
Macroptilium yellow mosaic Florida virus
Macroptilium yellow mosaic virus
Malvastrum yellow vein virus
Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus
Melon yellowing-associated virus
Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus
Mungbean yellow mosaic virus
Okra yellow vein mosaic virus
Papaya leaf curl China virus
Papaya leaf curl Guandong virus
Papaya leaf curl virus
Pepper golden mosaic virus
Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus
Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus
Pepper leaf curl virus
Pepper yellow vein Mali virus
Potato yellow mosaic Panama virus
Potato yellow mosaic virus
Radish leaf curl virus
Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus
Sida golden mosaic Costa Rica virus
Sida golden mosaic Florida virus
Sida golden mosaic Honduras virus
Sida golden mosaic virus
Sida golden yellow vein virus
Sida micrantha mosaic virus
Sida mottle virus
Sida yellow mosaic virus
Sida yellow vein virus
South African cassava mosaic virus
Soybean crinkle leaf virus
Squash leaf curl China virus
Squash leaf curl Philippines virus
Squash leaf curl virus (leaf curl of squash)
Squash leaf curl Yunnan virus
Squash mild leaf curl virus
Squash vein yellowing virus
Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus
Stachytarpheta leaf curl virus
Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus
Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus
Sweet potato leaf curl virus
Sweet potato mild mottle virus (mild mottle of sweet potato)
Tobacco curly shoot virus
Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus
Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus
Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus
Tomato chino La Paz virus
Tomato chlorosis virus (yellow leaf disorder of tomato)
Tomato chlorotic mottle virus
Tomato curly stunt virus
Tomato golden mosaic virus
Tomato golden mottle virus
Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus
Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus
Tomato leaf curl China virus
Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus
Tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus
Tomato leaf curl Laos virus
Tomato leaf curl Malaysia virus
Tomato leaf curl Mali virus
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)
Tomato leaf curl Philippines virus
Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus
Tomato leaf curl Sri Lanka virus
Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus
Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus
Tomato leaf curl Vietnam virus
Tomato mild mottle virus
Tomato mosaic Havana virus
Tomato mottle virus
Tomato rugose mosaic virus
Tomato severe leaf curl virus
Tomato severe rugose virus
Tomato torrado virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl Malaga virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl Mali virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus - European strain)
Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)
Tomato yellow vein streak virus
Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Eggs are laid usually in circular groups, on the undersides of leaves, with the broad end touching the surface and the long axis perpendicular to the leaf. They are anchored by a pedicel inserted into a fine slit made by the female, and not into stomata as in the case of many other aleyrodids. Eggs are whitish in colour when first laid, but gradually turn brown. Each female lays up to 160 eggs. Hatching occurs after 5-9 days at 30°C depending on host species, temperature and humidity.

On hatching, the first instar or 'crawler' is flat, oval and scale-like, and is the only mobile larval stage. It moves to a suitable feeding location on the lower leaf surface where it moults and becomes sessile throughout the remaining nymphal stages. The first three nymphal stages last 2-4 days each (depending on temperature). The fourth nymphal stage is termed the puparium, and is approximately 0.7 mm long. True pupation within the whitefly life-cycle is debatable as it does not occur in other Homopterous families, although the last stage of the fourth nymphal instar after apolysis has been completed is typically referred to as a pupa. Pupation lasts for about 6 days and within the latter period, the metamorphosis to adult occurs.

The adult emerges through a 'T'-shaped rupture in the puparium and expands its wings before powdering itself with wax from glands on the abdomen. Copulation begins 12-20 hours after emergence and takes place several times throughout the life of the adult. A female may live for 60 days, although the life of the male is generally much shorter, being between 9 to 17 days. Some 11 to 15 generations can occur within one year.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agistemus exsertus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius aleyrodis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius limonicus Predator Nymphs Cuthbertson, 2014 UK poinsettia plants
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Nymphs Cuthbertson, 2014 UK poinsettia plants
Aschersonia aleyrodes Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Cuthbertson et al., 2012 UK poinsettia plants
Campylomma nicolasi Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysoperla exotera Predator
Chrysoperla rufilabris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coenosia attenuata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Collops vittatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cybocephalus micans Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cyrtopeltis luridus Predator
Delphastus pallidus Predator
Delphastus pusillus Predator Adults/Nymphs California
Deraeocoris pallens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Dicyphus tamaninii Predator
Enallagma civile Predator
Encarsia acaudaleyrodis Parasite
Encarsia adrianae Parasite Nymphs Pakistan beans; Lantana camara
Encarsia aleurochitonis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia bimaculata Parasite
Encarsia brevivena Parasite Nymphs
Encarsia cibcensis Parasite Nymphs Pakistan beans; Lantana camara
Encarsia davidi Parasite
Encarsia formosa Parasite Nymphs Israel; New Zealand; Norway ornamental plants
Encarsia inaron Parasite Nymphs
Encarsia japonica Parasite
Encarsia longifasciata Parasite
Encarsia lutea Parasite Nymphs Egypt soyabeans; tomatoes
Encarsia luteola Parasite Nymphs Israel cotton
Encarsia meritoria Parasite Nymphs
Encarsia mineoi Parasite
Encarsia mohyuddini Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia nigricephala Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia pergandiella Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia polaszeki Parasite
Encarsia porteri Parasite Nymphs
Encarsia protransvena Parasite
Encarsia quaintancei Parasite
Encarsia reticulata Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia sophia Parasite
Encarsia strenua Parasite Nymphs
Encarsia transvena Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia tricolor Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eretmocerus Pathogen Larvae/Nymphs
Eretmocerus aligarhensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eretmocerus corni Parasite Adults/Nymphs/Pupae Paraguay cotton
Eretmocerus diversiciliatus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eretmocerus eremicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eretmocerus haldemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eretmocerus mundus Parasite Adults/Nymphs/Pupae Egypt; Mali cotton; soyabeans; tomatoes
Eretmocerus sudanensis Parasite
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius hibisci Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius scutalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Morocco Citrus
Franklinothrips vespiformis Predator Adults/Nymphs Paraguay cotton
Geocoris ochropterus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Geocoris punctipes Predator Adults/Nymphs
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Labidura riparia Predator Adults/Nymphs
Laius venustus Predator Adults/Nymphs Sudan cotton
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Mallada boninensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Microlestes discoidalis Predator Adults/Nymphs Sudan cotton
Nabis alternatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Nabis capsiformis Predator Adults/Nymphs Sudan cotton
Nephaspis maesi Predator Adults/Nymphs Nicaragua Citrus; pawpaws
Orius albidipennis Predator Adults/Larvae/Nymphs Sudan cotton
Orius tristicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Paederus alfierii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Paragus compeditus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phidippus audax Predator Adults/Nymphs
Polyphagotarsonemus latus
Scymnus syriacus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Serangium parcesetosum Predator Eggs/Larvae/Pupae
Sinea confusa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria rueppellii Predator Adults/Nymphs
Theridula gonygaster Predator
Transeius montdorensis Predator Nymphs Cuthbertson, 2014 UK poinsettia plants
Typhlodromus athiasae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus sudanicus Predator Adults/Nymphs
virus-like particles Pathogen
Zelus renardii Predator Adults/Nymphs

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

The species of Encarsia recorded as parasitoids of B. tabaci were revised by Polaszek et al. (1992), and also summarized by Cock (1993). They recognised 18 species, one or more of which are usually found parasitizing B. tabaci wherever natural enemies have been studied. Four additional Encarsia spp. parasitoids were described by Evans and Polaszek (1997).

The other important parasitoids attacking B. tabaci belong to the genus Eretmocerus. In each region one or more species of each of these two genera cause heavy mortality. There are also numerous records of generalist predators of Homoptera recorded as attacking B. tabaci (Cock, 1986, 1993). However, the combined impact of these natural enemies is insufficient to prevent virus transmission, but may be adequate to prevent losses where direct feeding damage is important. These natural enemies are all susceptible to insecticides and injudicious application has caused devastating resurgence, notably on cotton, for example, in the Sudan (Eveleens, 1983).

An isolate of the parasitoid Isaria fumosorosea has shown potential to be further developed as a biopesticide for controlling B. tabaci  (Rahim Eslamizadeh et al., 2013).

Various species of predatory mites have also been shown to be effective in reducing B. tabaci populations, including Amblyseius limonicus, A. swirskii and Transeius montdorensis (Cuthbertson, 2014). A large range of natural enemies of B. tabaci have been recorded in China (Li et al., 2011).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Adults of B. tabaci do not fly very efficiently but, once airborne, can be transported quite long distances by the wind. All stages of the pest are liable to be carried on planting material and cut flowers of host species. The international trade in poinsettia is considered to have been a major means of dissemination of MEAM1 species of B. tabaci within the EPPO region (Cuthbertson, 2013). 

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations Negative
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page

Introduction

The pest status of B. tabaci insects is complicated and through the comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene it is generally accepted that, rather than one complex species, B. tabaci is a complex of 11 genetic groups. These genetic groups are composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable species, which are merely separated by a minimum of 3.5% mtCOI nucleotide divergence (Dinsdale et al., 2010De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). Within the B. tabaci complex, the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cryptic species, formerly referred to as 'B' and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species, formerly referred to as 'Q' biotype that are the two most widely distributed, and as a result, best known of the species. These two species present the greatest threat to glasshouse crops worldwide (Bethke et al., 2009). The damaging MEAM1 is described as an aggressive coloniser and is an effective vector of many viruses, whereas the MED characteristically shows strong resistance to novel insecticides (Jones et al., 2008; McKenzie et al., 2009). 

B. tabaci has been recorded as a minor pest of cotton and other tropical or semi-tropical crops within the warmer parts of the world and, until recently has been successfully managed with a range of insecticides.

A few biotypes from certain areas have become major pests, often within large mono-cropping areas where they are regularly exposed to insecticides. In these cases, the biotypes have rapidly evolved resistance to almost all currently available insecticides (Cahill et al., 1996; Mushtaq Ahmad et al., 2002; Luo et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010). Exposure to sustained insecticide treatments may have promoted other characteristics of these 'pest' biotypes, such as increased fecundity and host adaptability. Populations of the cosmopolitan MEAM1 species [see datasheet on B. tabaci (MEAM1)], the Pakistan K biotype and the Mediterranean species are currently within this group. Other presently uncharacterized biotypes within Africa appear specifically adapted to cassava, causing severe losses to this important subsistence crop (Maruthi et al., 2000).

The feeding of B. tabaci adults and nymphs causes chlorotic spots to appear on the surface of the leaves. Depending on the level of infestation, these spots may coalesce until the whole of the leaf is yellow, apart from the area immediately around the veins. Such leaves are later shed. The honeydew produced by the feeding of the nymphs covers the surface of the leaves and can cause a reduction in photosynthetic potential when colonized by moulds. Honeydew can also disfigure flowers and, in the case of cotton, can cause problems in processing the lint. With heavy infestations, plant height, number of internodes and quality and quantity of yield can be affected (for example, in cotton).

Most biotypes of B. tabaci can vector over 60 plant viruses in the genera Geminivirus, Closterovirus, Nepovirus, Carlavirus, Potyvirus and a rod-shaped DNA virus (Markham et al., 1994; Alegbejo, 2000). Those biotypes that are poor vectors, appear so, due to their inability to feed on alternative host plant species (Bedford et al., 1994b). Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, now called begomoviruses, are by far the most important agriculturally, causing yield losses to crops of between 20 and 100% (Brown and Bird, 1992; Cathrin and Ghanim, 2014). Begomoviruses cause a range of different symptoms that include yellow mosaics, yellow veining, leaf curling, stunting and vein thickening. Presently a million ha of cotton is being decimated in Pakistan by cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuV) (Mansoor et al., 1993) and important African subsistence crops such as cassava are affected by begomoviruses such as African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV). Tomato crops throughout the world are particularly susceptible to many different begomoviruses, and in most cases exhibit yellow leaf curl symptoms. This has caused their initial characterization as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). TYLCV has also recently been recorded in the New World, as well as several other begomoviruses such as Tomato mottle virus (EPPO/CABI, 1996), Tobacco leaf curl virus (TLCV), Sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV), Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV), Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCV) and Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) some of which cause heavy yield losses in their respective hosts. Dual infections have also been shown to occur (Bedford et al., 1994c).

Europe presently has five known begomoviruses. Three have been shown to no longer be transmissible by B. tabaci: Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic (also known as Tobacco leaf curl virus), Abutilon mosaic virus (Bedford et al., 1994a) and Ipomea yellow vein virus (Banks et al., 1999), possibly through many years of vegetative propagation of their ornamental host plants. The others are two different transmissible TYLCVs that are causing major crop losses within the tomato industries of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Canary Islands. Indigenous weed species such as Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium have also been shown as field reservoirs for these tomato viruses (Bedford et al., 1998) and may be the source of others yet to be identified within Europe. Two B. tabaci-transmitted closteroviruses are also now affecting European crops, including those in the Canary Islands. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder, is causing severe damage to cucumbers and melons in southern Europe (Celix et al., 1996), along with Tomato chlorosis virus (Navas-Castillo et al., 2000). There are also reports of a third closterovirus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, in Europe (Duffus et al., 1996) although this virus currently appears not to be of economic significance. However, a Bemisia-transmitted potyvirus, Cucumber yellow vein virus, appeared in cucumber crops in southern Spain for the first time in 2000 (Cuadrado et al., 2001). Despite a crop destruction programme to eradicate this virus, it has recently spread to melon crops in the region. Protected Zones (e.g. UK and Finland) within Europe remain free from damaging begomoviruses (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

Biotype K

In Pakistan, the K biotype is responsible for the spread of a decimating viral disease of cotton, cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) (Briddon and Markham, 2000). This disease first became a serious problem in the early 1990s, rapidly affecting a million ha of cotton, which comprises 60% of the country's foreign exchange (Mansoor et al., 1993).

Mediterranean species (Biotype Q)

The Mediterranean species (formerly known as Q biotype) is found throughout the Iberian peninsula, around the Mediterranean basin (including Israel) and in the Canary Islands. It is widely thought that this is the indigenous biotype to these regions, although it co-exists with MEAM1 species  in Israel, Italy and the Canary Islands. A population of MEAM 1 was recorded within a Mediterranean species population around Almeria in southern Spain in 1995. It appears that this population failed to become established since recent surveys have only identified Mediterranean species. Mediterranean species was first recorded entering Guatemala in 2009 (Bethke et al., 2009) and the UK in 2012 (Powell et al., 2012). Mediterranean species has, over recent years, been exposed to extensive insecticide applications and within areas of intensive agriculture exhibits a high level of resistance (Dennehy et al., 2010). The use of IPM control programmes is presently restricted where crops are susceptible to viruses. This is particularly the case with Tomato yellow leaf curl viruses which are transmitted very efficiently by B. tabaci. Because of insecticide resistance, large numbers of Mediterranean species often infest crops within southern Europe, resulting in rapid spread of viruses to newly planted crops. Field grown tomato crops in areas of southern Spain and Morocco have recently suffered 100% losses and TYLCV has spread to Phaseolus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum crops.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

The impact of the B. tabaci multi-species complex has mainly been in glasshouses in temperate countries, where Trialeurodes vaporariorum already presented problems. Any additional problems caused by B. tabaci, in terms of changes in crops cultivated or in the use of new control measures, have been essentially in this protected environment and cannot be said to impact the natural environment.

B. tabaci has also proliferated on outdoor crops in warmer countries. There is no particular indication that it has changed the crops cultivated or land use, but its control with insecticides has added to the general pesticide load on the environment.

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Allactaga alasterNo Details

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Numerous chlorotic spots develop on the leaves of affected plants, which may also be disfigured by honeydew and associated sooty moulds. Leaf curling, yellowing, mosaics or yellow veining could also indicate the presence of whitefly-transmitted viruses.

Close observation of the undersides of the leaves will show the tiny, yellow/white larval scales and in severe infestations, when the plant is shaken, numerous small, white adult whiteflies will flutter out and quickly resettle. These symptoms do not differ appreciably from those of Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the glasshouse whitefly, which is common throughout Europe and also occurs elsewhere.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

B. tabaci is now widely regarded to be a multi-species complex. Consisting of as many as 34 species that are morphologically indistinguishable from each other (De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). They can however, be distinguished molecularly. Differentiation of B. tabaci from other whitefly species by means of the adults is often difficult, although close observation of adult eye morphology may often show differences in ommatidial arrangements between some species. At rest, B. tabaci has wings more closely pressed to the body than Trialeurodes vaporariorum (greenhouse whitefly), which is a larger whitefly and more triangular in appearance.

The fourth instar or puparium can also be used to distinguish B. tabaci from T. vaporariorum as glasshouse pests. T. vaporariorum is 'pork-pie shaped', regularly ovoid, has straight sides (viewed laterally) and in most instances, 12 large, waxy setae. In B. tabaci, the puparium has an irregular, 'pancake-like', oval shape, with oblique sides and shorter, finer setae. Although the number of enlarged setae in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum can vary according to host plant morphology, the two caudal setae are always stout and nearly always as long as the vasiform orifice in B. tabaci.

For more information on the identification of B. tabaci from slide-mounted pupae, see Martin (1987).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Intercropping practices using non-hosts have been used in many countries aiming to reduce numbers of whiteflies on specific crops. However, intercropping with susceptible crops can promote whitefly populations, by offering more leaf area for feeding.

Weed species play an important role in harbouring whiteflies between crop plantings and attention should be paid to removing these in advance of planting susceptible crops. Weeds also often harbour whitefly-transmitted viruses (Bedford et al., 1998) and may be a major source of crop virus epidemics.

Biological Control

Conservation of natural enemies is important in field crops where feeding damage is the cause of losses, rather than virus transmission, for example, on cotton. Under these circumstances, attempts have been made in Israel to enhance natural enemy action on cotton by introduction of additional, hopefully more efficient parasitoids (Rivany and Gerling, 1987). This effort resulted in the establishment of two species from the USA, Encarsia luteola and a species of Eretmocerus. Similarly, parasitoids are being introduced in Florida, USA, from other regions for the control of B. tabaci on vegetables and ornamentals (Rosen et al., 1994). Predatory mites have been shown to be efficient against Mediterranean species (Cuthbertson, 2014). Entomopathogenic agents such as nematodes (Cuthbertson et al., 2003a, 2007a,b) and fungi (Cuthbertson et al., 2005a, 2012; Cuthbertson and Walters, 2005) have also been shown to be important biological tools in the control/eradication of B. tabaci.

Host-Plant Resistance

Plant and crop species that exhibit a high level of resistance to both vector and virus must also be considered when designing an IPM system. The development of transgenic resistant plant and crop species through genetic engineering must be considered and accepted as a future method of control where whitefly-transmitted viruses are already endemic and causing severe crop losses.

Chemical Control

B. tabaci appears to develop resistance to all groups of pesticides that have been developed for its control. A rotation of insecticides that offer no cross-resistance must therefore be used to control B. tabaci infestations (Cuthbertson et al., 2012).

Active ingredients that have already been reported to have an effect in controlling B. tabaci worldwide include bifenthrin, buprofezin, imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, amitraz, fenoxycarb, deltamethrin, azidirachtin and pymetrozine. However, development of resistance to the products is a continual problem (Dennehy et al., 2010).

Integrated Pest Management

Until recently, B. tabaci was readily controlled with insecticides in field and glasshouse situations. However, problems with its effective control on many crops are now being experienced worldwide due to insecticide resistance. It appears that no single control treatment can be used on a long-term basis against this pest, and that the integration of a number of different control agents needs implementing for an effective level of control.

IPM appears to offer the best option for controlling B. tabaci without causing contamination of the environment: beneficial insects are used alongside chemicals that offer a high level of selectivity such as insect growth regulators. However, the use of biological control agents alone, such as Encarsia formosa and Lecanicillium lecanii, although moderately successful (Nedstam, 1992), can never bring infestation levels down to a level that stops virus transmission, as B. tabaci is such an efficient virus vector. Cuthbertson et al. (2012) developed a series of chemical control programmes, including Beauveria bassiana (Naturalis-L) that offered complete control of Mediterranean species under laboratory conditions. Nematodes and fungi have also been shown to be successfully tank-mixed with several chemical products for use in eradication schemes against what is now known to be MEAM1 species (Cuthbertson et al., 2003b, 2005b, 2012; Cuthbertson and Collins, 2015).

Phytosanitary Control

In countries where B. tabaci is not already present, the enforcement of strict phytosanitary regulations should help reduce the risk of this whitefly becoming established (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015) . Because of the difficulty of detecting low levels of infestation in consignments, it is best to ensure that either the area or the place of production is free from the pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1990). If this cannot be obtained, a detailed treatment and inspection regime can be used to ensure that traded plants are free from the pest. Particular attention is needed for consignments from countries where certain B. tabaci-vectored viruses, now on the EPPO A1 or A2 quarantine lists, are present (see Risk of Introduction) (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

References

Top of page

Abd-Rabou S, Simmons AM, 2010. Survey of reproductive host plants of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt, including new host records. Entomological News, 121(5):456-465. http://www.bioone.org/loi/entn

Adan A, Ronda M, Cifuentes D, Cenis JL, Beitia F, 1999. Laboratory studies on the crossing of two biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) present in Spain. Proceedings of the 7th Spanish Congress of Entomology, Almeria (8-12th November, 1999)

Alegbejo MD, 2000. Whitefly transmitted plant viruses in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 17(2/3):99-109

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Banks GK, Bedford ID, Beitia FJ, Rodriquez-Cerezo E, Markham PG, 1999. A novel geminivirus of Ipomoea indica (Convolvulacae) from southern Spain. Plant Disease, 83(5):486; 3 ref

Banks GK, Colvin J, Chowda Reddy RV, Maruthi MN, Muniyappa V, Venkatesh HM, Kumar MK, Padmaja AS, Beitia FJ, Seal SE, 2001. First report of the Bemisia tabaci B biotype in India and an associated tomato leaf curl virus disease epidemic. Plant Disease, 85(2):231; 3 ref

Barbosa Lda F, Yuki VA, Marubayashi JM, Marchi BRde, Perini FL, Pavan MA, Barros DRde, Ghanim M, Moriones E, Navas-Castillo J, Krause-Sakate R, 2015. First report of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (Q biotype) species in Brazil. Pest Management Science, 71(4):501-504. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3909/full

Barro PJde, Hidayat SH, Frohlich D, Subandiyah S, Ueda S, 2008. A virus and its vector, pepper yellow leaf curl virus and Bemisia tabaci, two new invaders of Indonesia. Biological Invasions, 10(4):411-433. http://www.springerlink.com/content/267302114406v843/?p=c68023a8a21c4f999ce4ea16f6b8e0cc&pi=3

Barro PJde, Liu ShuSheng, Boykin LM, Dinsdale AB, 2011. Bemisia tabaci: a statement of species status. Annual Review of Entomology, 56:1-19. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085504

Bedford ID, Briddon RW, Brown JK, Rosell RC, Markham PG, 1994. Geminivirus transmission and biological characterisation of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotypes from different geographic regions. Annals of Applied Biology, 125(2):311-325

Bedford ID, Briddon RW, Jones P, Alkaff N, Markham PG, 1994. Differentiation of three whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses from the Republic of Yemen. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 100(3-4):243-257

Bedford ID, Briddon RW, Markham PG, Brown JK, Rosell RC, 1992. Bemisia tabaci - biotype characterisation and the threat of this whitefly species to agriculture. Proceedings - Brighton Crop Protection Conference Pests and Diseases, 1992. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 1235-1240

Bedford ID, Kelly A, Banks GK, Briddon RW, Cenis JL, Markham PG, 1998. Solanum nigrum: an indigenous weed reservoir for a tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus in southern Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(2):221-222; 12 ref

Bedford ID, Pinner M, Liu S, Markham PG, 1994b. Bemisia tabaci - potential infestation, phytotoxicity and virus transmission within European agriculture. In: Proceedings Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, vol. 2. Bracknell, UK: British Crop Protection Council, BCPC Publications, 911-916

Bellows TS Jr, Perring TM, Gill RJ, Headrick DH, 1994. Description of a species of Bemisia (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87(2):195-206

Bethke JA, Byrne FJ, Hodges GS, McKenzie CL, Shatters RG Jr, 2009. First record of the Q biotype of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in Guatemala. Phytoparasitica, 37(1):61-64. http://www.springerlink.com/content/92863p0348210288/?p=cea56ccc28c947e8bb15586e5a7b2e10&pi=8

Boykin LM, Barro PJDe, 2014. A practical guide to identifying members of the Bemisia tabaci species complex: And other morphologically identical species. Frontiers of Ecology and Evolution, 45:1-5

Briddon RW, Markham PG, 2000. Cotton leaf curl virus disease. Virus Research, 71(1/2):151-159; 35 ref

Broadbent AB, Foottit RG, Murphy GD, 1989. Sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), a potential insect pest in Canada. Canadian Entomologist, 121(11):1027-1028

Brown JK, Bird J, 1992. Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses and associated disorders in the Americas and the Caribbean Basin. Plant Disease, 76(3):220-225

Brown JK, Coats SA, Bedford ID, Markham PG, Bird J, Frohlich DR, 1995. Characterization and distribution of esterase electromorphs in the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Biochemical Genetics, 33(7/8):205-14; 22 ref

Brown JK, Frohlich DR, Rosell RC, 1995. The sweetpotato or silverleaf whiteflies: biotypes of Bemisia tabaci or a species complex? Annual Review of Entomology, 40:511-534

Brown JK, Perring TM, Cooper AD, Bedford ID, Markham PG, 2000. Genetic analysis of Bemisia (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Biochemical Genetics, 38(1/2):13-25; 32 ref

Byrne FJ, Bedford ID, Devonshire AL, Markham PG, 1995. Esterase variation and squash induction in B-type Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 85(2):175-179; 15 ref

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

CABI/EPPO, 1999. Bemisia tabaci. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June (1st revision). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 284

Cahill M, Denholm I, Bryne FJ, Devonshire AL, 1996. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci - current status and implications for management. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1996: Volume 1: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 18-21 November 1996., 75-80; 21 ref

Castillo JA, Stansly PA, 2011. Biology of Eretmocerus sudanensis n. sp. Zolnerowich and Rose, parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius. BioControl, 56(6):843-850. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102853

Cathrin PB, Ghanim M, 2014. Recent advances on interactions between the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and begomoviruses, with emphasis on Tomato yellow leaf curl virus. In: Plant Virus-Host Interaction: Molecular Approaches and Viral Evolution. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 79-103

Célix A, López-Sesé A, Almarza N, Gómez-Guillamón ML, Rodríguez-Cerezo E, 1996. Characterization of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, a Bemisia tabaci-transmitted Closterovirus. Phytopathology, 86(12):1370-1376; 27 ref

Cervera MT, Cabezas JA, Sim=n B, Martfnez-Zapater JM, Beitia F, Cenis JL, 2000. Genetic relationships among biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) based on AFLP analysis. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 90(5):391-396; 29 ref

Chu Dong, Pan HuiPeng, Li XianChun, Guo Dong, Tao YunLi, Liu BaiMing, Zhang YouJun, 2013. Spatial genetic heterogeneity in populations of a newly invasive whitefly in China revealed by a nation-wide field survey. PLoS ONE, 8(11):e79997. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0079997

Cock MJW (ed.), 1986. Bemisia tabaci - a literature survey on the cotton whitefly with an annotated bibliography. Ascot, UK; CAB International Institute of Biological Control.

Cuadrado IM, Janssen D, Velasco L, Ruiz L, Segundo E, 2001. First report of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Spain. Plant Disease, 85(3):336; 2 ref

Cuthbertson AGS, 2013. Update on the status of Bemisia tabaci in the UK and the use of entomopathogenic fungi within eradication programmes. Insects, 4(2):198-205. http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/4/2/198

Cuthbertson AGS, 2014. The feeding rate of predatory mites on life stages of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean species. Insects, 5(3):609-614. http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/5/3/609/htm

Cuthbertson AGS, Buxton JH, Blackburn LF, Mathers JJ, Robinson KA, Powell ME, Fleming DA, Bell HA, 2012. Eradicating Bemisia tabaci Q biotype on poinsettia plants in the UK. Crop Protection, 42:42-48. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Cuthbertson AGS, Collins DA, 2015. Tri-Tek (petroleum horticultural oil) and Beauveria bassiana: use in eradication strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean species in UK glasshouses. Insects, 6(1):133-140. http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/6/1/133/htm

Cuthbertson AGS, Head J, Walters KFA, Gregory SA, 2003. The efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, against the immature stages of Bemisia tabaci. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 83(3):267-269

Cuthbertson AGS, Head J, Walters KFA, Murray AWA, 2003. The integrated use of chemical insecticides and the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, for the control of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Nematology, 5(5):713-720

Cuthbertson AGS, Mathers JJ, Northing P, Luo WeiQi, Walters KFA, 2007. The susceptibility of immature stages of Bemisia tabaci to infection by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. Russian Journal of Nematology, 15(2):153-156. HTTP://www.russjnematology.com

Cuthbertson AGS, Vänninen I, 2015. The importance of maintaining Protected Zone status against Bemisia tabaci. Insects, 6(2):432-441. http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/6/2/432/htm

Cuthbertson AGS, Walters KFA, 2005. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium muscarium, against the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Mycopathologia, 160(4):315-319. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102966

Cuthbertson AGS, Walters KFA, Deppe C, 2005. Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium and insecticides for eradication of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Mycopathologia, 160(1):35-41. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102966

Cuthbertson AGS, Walters KFA, Northing P, 2005. The susceptibility of immature stages of Bemisia tabaci to the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium on tomato and verbena foliage. Mycopathologia, 159(1):23-29. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102966

Cuthbertson AGS, Walters KFA, Northing P, Luo W, 2007. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, against sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 97(1):9-14. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=ber

De Courcy Williams M, Bedford ID, Kelly A, Markham PG, 1996. Bemisia tabaci: potential infestation and virus transmission within the ornamental plant industry. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1996: Volume 1: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 18-21 November 1996., 63-68; 19 ref

Delatte H, Reynaud B, Granier M, Thornary L, Lett JM, Goldbach R, Peterschmitt M, 2005. A new silverleaf-inducing biotype Ms of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) indigenous to the islands of the south-west Indian Ocean. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 95(1):29-35. http://www.ingenta.com/journals/browse/cabi/ber

Della Giustina W, Martinez M, Bertaux F, 1989. Bemisia tabaci: le nouvel ennemi des cultures sous serres en Europe. Phytoma No. 406:48-52

Dennehy TJ, Degain BA, Harpold VS, Zaborac M, Morin S, Fabrick JA, Nichols RL, Brown JK, Byrne FJ, Li XianChun, 2010. Extraordinary resistance to insecticides reveals exotic Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci in the new world. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103(6):2174-2186. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2010/00000103/00000006/art00031

Dinsdale A, Cook L, Riginos C, Buckley YM, Barro Pde, 2010. Refined global analysis of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidae) mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 to identify species level genetic boundaries. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 103(2):196-208. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/aesa/2010/00000103/00000002/art00007

Dolores Rodríguez M, Paullier J, Buenahora J, Maeso D, 2003. Mosca blanca: importante plaga de los cultivos horticolas en Uruguay [ed. by Rodríguez, M. D.\Paullier, J.\Buenahora, J.\Maeso, D. ]. Montevideo, Uruguay: Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria (INIA), 19 pp. http://www.inia.org.uy

Duffus JE, Caciagli P, Liu H-Y, Wisler GC, Li R, 1996. Occurrence of Tomato Infectious Chlorosis in Europe. Fourth Annual Progress Review of the 5-Year National Research and Action Plan for the Development of Management and Control Methodology for Silverleaf Whitefly, San Antonio, Texas, February 4-6, 1996, p. 30

EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. EFSA Journal, 11(4). 3162. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/3162.pdf

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Esterhuizen LL, Mabasa KG, Heerden SWvan, Czosnek H, Brown JK, Heerden Hvan, Rey MEC, 2013. Genetic identification of members of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex from South Africa reveals native and introduced haplotypes. Journal of Applied Entomology, 137(1/2):122-135. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418

EU, 2000. Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 July 2000 on protective measures against the introduction into the Member States of organisms harmful to plant or plant products. Official Journal of the European Communities, No L169, 1-112

Evans GA, Polaszek A, 1997. Additions to the Encarsia parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of the Bemisia tabaci-complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(6):563-571; 15 ref

Eveleens KG, 1983. Cotton-insect control in the Sudan Gezira: analysis of a crisis. Crop Protection, 2(3):273-287

Fishpool LDC, Burban C, 1994. Bemisia tabaci: the whitefly vector of African cassava mosaic geminivirus. Tropical Science, 34(1):55-72

Frohlich DR, Brown JK, 1994. Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal subunit as a molecular marker in Bemisia tabaci and implications for population variability. Bemisia Newsletter, 8:3

Grille G, Gauthier N, Buenahora J, Basso C, Bonato O, 2011. First report of the Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci in Argentina and Uruguay. Phytoparasitica, 39(3):235-238. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u88356258231p488/

Heileman S, 2007. Thematic Report for the Insular Caribbean Sub-Region, CLME Project Implementation Unit. Thematic Report for the Insular Caribbean Sub-Region, CLME Project Implementation Unit. Cave Hill Campus, Barbados: CERMES, University of the West Indies. http://ioc3.unesco.org/iocaribe/files/clme/Final%20Preliminary%20TDA%20for%20the%20Insular%20%20Caribbean%20Subregion.pdf

Howard RJ, Garland JA, Seaman WL, 1994. Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Canada., Canada: Canadian Phytopathological Society and Entomological Society of Canada, 554 pp

IAPSC, 1985. Distribution Maps of Major Crop Pests and Diseases in Africa No. 188. Yaoundu, Cameroon: Inter-African Phytosanitary Council

IPPC, 2009. Detection of whitefly biotype Q in Queensland and New South Wales. IPPC Official Pest Report, AUS-23/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/index.php?id=1110520&no_cache=1&type=pestreport&L=0

IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2017. Eradication of Bemisia tabaci Gen. outbreaks in Ukraine. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. UKR-01/2. FAO, Rome, Italy. https://www.ippc.int/

Jones CM, Gorman K, Denholm I, Williamson MS, 2008. High-throughput allelic discrimination of B and Q biotypes of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, using TaqMan allele-selective PCR. Pest Management Science, 64(1):12-15. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/pestmanagementscience

Karut K, Kaydan MB, Tok B, Döker I, Kazak C, 2015. A new record for Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex of Turkey. Journal of Applied Entomology, 139(1/2):158-160. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418

Lee WonHoon, Park JongSun, Lee GwanSeok, Lee SeungHwan, Akimoto S, 2013. Taxonomic status of the Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and reassessment of the number of its constituent species. PLoS ONE, 8(5):e63817. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0063817

Li Peng, Li GuiTing, Zhang XinCai, Jiang JunQi, Wang XiangYang, 2007. Dynamics of insect pests and predatory enemy communities in cotton fields in north of the Huaihe River, Anhui Province. Zhongguo Shengtai Nongye Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 15(4):124-129

Li ShaoJian, Xue Xia, Ahmed MZ, Ren ShunXiang, Du YuZhou, Wu JianHui, Cuthbertson AGS, Qiu BaoLi, 2011. Host plants and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China. Insect Science, 18(1):101-120. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1744-7917

Luo C, Jones CM, Devine G, Zhang F, Denholm I, Gorman K, 2010. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci biotype Q (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from China. Crop Protection, 29(5):429-434. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Malumphy C, 2014. Seven species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) new to Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 150(1805-1807):201-207. http://www.pemberleybooks.com

Mansoor S, Bedford I, Pinner M, Stanley J, Markham P, 1993. A whitefly transmitted geminivirus associated with cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 25:105-107

Markham PG, Bedford ID, Liu SJ, Pinner MS, 1994. The transmission of geminiviruses by Bemisia tabaci. Pesticide Science, 42(2):123-128

Martin JH, 1987. An identification guide to common whitefly pest species of the world (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Tropical Pest Management, 33(4):298-322

Maruthi MN, Colvin J, Seal S, 2000. Virus-vector co-adaptation in the cassava mosaic pathosystem. European Whitefly Studies Network newsletter. Issue 7 (November 2000)

McKenzie CI, Hodges G, Osborne L, Byrne FJ, Shatters RG, 2009. Distribution of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotypes in Florida-Investigating the Q Invasion. Horticulture Entomology, 102:670-676

McKenzie CL, Bethke JA, Byrne FJ, Chamberlin JR, Dennehy TJ, Dickey AM, Gilrein D, Hall PM, Ludwig S, Oetting RD, Osborne LS, Schmale L, Shatters RG Jr, 2012. Distribution of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in North America after the Q invasion. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(3):753-766. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2012/00000105/00000003/art00002

Mound LA, Halsey SH, 1978. Whitefly of the world. A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons

Mushtaq Ahmad, Arif MI, Zahoor Ahmad, Denholm I, 2002. Cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides in Pakistan. Pest Management Science, 58(2):203-208

Navas-Castillo J, Camero R, Bueno M, Moriones E, 2000. Severe yellowing outbreaks in tomato in Spain associated with infections of tomato chlorosis virus. Plant Disease, 84(8):835-837; 15 ref

Nedstam B, 1992. Report on biological control of pests in Swedish pot plant production. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO, 22:417-420

Netam PK, Ganguli RN, Dubey AK, 2007. Insect pest succession in okra. Environment and Ecology, 25(1):177-180

Oliveira MRVde, Amancio E, Laumann RA, Gomes Lde O, 2003. Natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brasília, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 32(1):151-154

Ostojic I, Zovko M, Petrovic D, Sabljo A, 2010. Tobacco whitefly - Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) - a new pest in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Duhanov stitasti moljac - Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), novi stetnik u Bosni i Hercegovini.) Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Works of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Sarajevo), 55(60(1)):113-121

Parrella G, Cozzolino A, Manco E, Stinca A, Formisano G, Giorgini M, 2016. A population of the Italy species (=biotype T) of the Bemisia tabaci species complex discovered for the first time in Campania region (southern Italy). (Identificata in Campania la specie Italy (=biotipo T) del complesso di specie Bemisia tabaci.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:28-30

Perring TM, Cooper AD, Rodriguez RJ, Farrar CA, Bellows TS Jr, 1993. Identification of a whitefly species by genomic and behavioral studies. Science (Washington), 259(5091):74-77

Polaszek A, Evans GA, Bennett FD, 1992. Encarsia parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): a preliminary guide to identification. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(3):375-392

Polston JE, Barro Pde, Boykin LM, 2014. Transmission specificities of plant viruses with the newly identified species of the Bemisia tabaci species complex. Pest Management Science, 70(10):1547-1552. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3738/full

Powell ME, Cuthbertson AGS, Bell HA, Boonham N, Morris J, Northing P, 2012. First record of the Q Biotype of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, intercepted in the UK. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 133(4):797-801. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Rahim Eslamizadeh, Ahmad Said Sajap, Dzolkhifli Omar, Nur Azura Adam, 2013. First record of Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) infecting Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Malaysia. Journal of Entomology, 10(4):182-190. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=je.2013.182.190&org=10

Rashmi Pandey, Kuldeep Sharma, Deepti Chaudhari, Mayank Rai, 2008. Effect of weather parameters on incidence of Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae on potato. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 16(1):78-80. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Rivnay T, Gerling D, 1987. Aphelinidae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Israel, with description of three new species. Entomophaga, 32(5):463-475

Rosell RC, Bedford ID, Frohlich DR, Gill RJ, Brown JK, Markham PG, 1997. Analysis of morphological variation in distinct populations of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 90(5):575-589; 39 ref

Rosen D, Bennett FD, Capinera JL, 1994. Pest management in the subtropics: biological control - a Florida perspective. Pest management in the subtropics: biological control - a Florida perspective., xiv + 737 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters]

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

Simala M, Milek TM, Pintar M, 2015. Alien whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of Europe recorded in Croatia [Conference poster]. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 12. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udelezbo, 3.-4. marec 2015, Ptuj, Slovenija [ed. by Trdan, S.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Drustvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije, 267-271

Sun XiuXin, Xue Xia, Ren SuLi, Ren ShunXiang, Qiu BaoLi, 2013. The first record of a cryptic Bemisia tabaci MED species in Guangdong. Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology, 50(2):505-512

Thomas A, Rahul Chaubey, Naveen NC, Anand Kar, Ramamurthy VV, 2011. Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae): a new host record from India and a comparative study with a population from cotton. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 31(4):235-241. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

Villevieille M, Lecoq H, 1992. Silver leaf of courgette. A new disease in France associated with an aleyrode. Phytoma, 440:35-36

Wang Z, Yan H, Yang Y, Wu Y, 2010. Biotype and insecticide resistance status of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in China. Pest Management Science, 66:1360-1366

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Wu JB, Dai FM, Zhou XP, 2006. First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China. Plant Disease, 90(10):1359. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Distribution References

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Barbosa L da F, Yuki V A, Marubayashi J M, Marchi B R de, Perini F L, Pavan M A, Barros D R de, Ghanim M, Moriones E, Navas-Castillo J, Krause-Sakate R, 2015. First report of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (Q biotype) species in Brazil. Pest Management Science. 71 (4), 501-504. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3909/full DOI:10.1002/ps.3909

Barro P J de, Hidayat S H, Frohlich D, Subandiyah S, Ueda S, 2008. A virus and its vector, pepper yellow leaf curl virus and Bemisia tabaci, two new invaders of Indonesia. Biological Invasions. 10 (4), 411-433. http://www.springerlink.com/content/267302114406v843/?p=c68023a8a21c4f999ce4ea16f6b8e0cc&pi=3 DOI:10.1007/s10530-007-9141-x

Bethke J A, Byrne F J, Hodges G S, McKenzie C L, Shatters R G Jr, 2009. First record of the Q biotype of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in Guatemala. Phytoparasitica. 37 (1), 61-64. http://www.springerlink.com/content/92863p0348210288/?p=cea56ccc28c947e8bb15586e5a7b2e10&pi=8

CAB International, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith, I. M. and Charles, L. M. F.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. xviii + 768 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cuthbertson A G S, Vänninen I, 2015. The importance of maintaining Protected Zone status against Bemisia tabaci. Insects. 6 (2), 432-441. http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/6/2/432/htm DOI:10.3390/insects6020432

Delatte H, Reynaud B, Granier M, Thornary L, Lett J M, Goldbach R, Peterschmitt M, 2005. A new silverleaf-inducing biotype Ms of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) indigenous to the islands of the south-west Indian Ocean. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 95 (1), 29-35. http://www.ingenta.com/journals/browse/cabi/ber DOI:10.1079/BER2004337

Dolores Rodríguez M, Paullier J, Buenahora J, Maeso D, 2003. Mosca blanca: importante plaga de los cultivos horticolas en Uruguay. [ed. by Rodríguez M D, Paullier J, Buenahora J, Maeso D]. Montevideo, Uruguay: Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria (INIA). 19 pp.

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Esterhuizen L L, Mabasa K G, Heerden S W van, Czosnek H, Brown J K, Heerden H van, Rey M E C, 2013. Genetic identification of members of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex from South Africa reveals native and introduced haplotypes. Journal of Applied Entomology. 137 (1/2), 122-135. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418 DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2012.01720.x

Fu Xue, Ye LeFu, Wang GuiQiang, Ge Feng, 2011. Occurrence and development for Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum in Heilongjiang Province. Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology. 48 (1), 32-37.

Grille G, Gauthier N, Buenahora J, Basso C, Bonato O, 2011. First report of the Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci in Argentina and Uruguay. Phytoparasitica. 39 (3), 235-238. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u88356258231p488/ DOI:10.1007/s12600-011-0155-7

Heileman S, 2007. Thematic Report for the Insular Caribbean Sub-Region, CLME Project Implementation Unit. In: Thematic Report for the Insular Caribbean Sub-Region, CLME Project Implementation Unit, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados: CERMES, University of the West Indies. http://ioc3.unesco.org/iocaribe/files/clme/Final%20Preliminary%20TDA%20for%20the%20Insular%20%20Caribbean%20Subregion.pdf

IPPC, 2009. Detection of whitefly biotype Q in Queensland and New South Wales. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/index.php?id=1110520&no_cache=1&type=pestreport&L=0

IPPC, 2016. Information on Pest Status in the Republic of Lithuania in 2015. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. LTU-01/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

IPPC, 2017. Eradication of Bemisia tabaci Gen. outbreaks in Ukraine.

Karut K, Kaydan M B, Tok B, Döker İ, Kazak C, 2015. A new record for Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex of Turkey. Journal of Applied Entomology. 139 (1/2), 158-160. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418 DOI:10.1111/jen.12169

Li Peng, Li GuiTing, Zhang XinCai, Jiang JunQi, Wang XiangYang, 2007. Dynamics of insect pests and predatory enemy communities in cotton fields in north of the Huaihe River, Anhui Province. Zhongguo Shengtai Nongye Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture. 15 (4), 124-129.

Malumphy C, 2014. Seven species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) new to Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 150 (1805-1807), 201-207. http://www.pemberleybooks.com

Netam P K, Ganguli R N, Dubey A K, 2007. Insect pest succession in okra. Environment and Ecology. 25 (1), 177-180.

NHM, 1956. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1973. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1974. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1976. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1978. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1981. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1981a. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1984. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1986. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1995. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Oliveira M R V de, Amancio E, Laumann R A, Gomes L de O, 2003. Natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brasília, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology. 32 (1), 151-154. DOI:10.1590/S1519-566X2003000100023

Ostojić I, Zovko M, Petrović D, Sabljo A, 2010. Tobacco whitefly - Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) - a new pest in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Duhanov štitasti moljac - Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), novi štetnik u Bosni i Hercegovini.). Radovi Poljoprivrednog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Works of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Sarajevo). 55 (60(1)), 113-121.

Parrella G, Cozzolino A, Manco E, Stinca A, Formisano G, Giorgini M, 2016. A population of the Italy species (=biotype T) of the Bemisia tabaci species complex discovered for the first time in Campania region (southern Italy). (Identificata in Campania la specie Italy (=biotipo T) del complesso di specie Bemisia tabaci.). Protezione delle Colture. 28-30.

Rashmi Pandey, Kuldeep Sharma, Deepti Chaudhari, Mayank Rai, 2008. Effect of weather parameters on incidence of Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae on potato. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 16 (1), 78-80. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Šimala M, Milek T M, Pintar M, 2015. Alien whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of Europe recorded in Croatia [Conference poster]. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 12. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udeležbo, 3.-4. marec 2015, Ptuj, Slovenija [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 12. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udeležbo, 3.-4. marec 2015, Ptuj, Slovenija.], [ed. by Trdan S]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 267-271.

Sun XiuXin, Xue Xia, Ren SuLi, Ren ShunXiang, Qiu BaoLi, 2013. The first record of a cryptic Bemisia tabaci MED species in Guangdong. Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology. 50 (2), 505-512.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Wu J B, Dai F M, Zhou X P, 2006. First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China. Plant Disease. 90 (10), 1359. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PD-90-1359C

Contributors

Top of page

25/07/15 Reviewed by:

Andrew Cuthbertson, Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map