Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bemisia tabaci
(tobacco whitefly)

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Datasheet

Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bemisia tabaci
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tobacco whitefly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Bemisia tabaci complex is polyphagous and now attacks many crops, but without significant impact on land use. Any effects on biodiversity would result indirectly from an increased use of insecticides against this pest.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
TitleAdult
CaptionBemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
Copyright©John Innes Institute
Bemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).
AdultBemisia tabaci (B biotype) (silverleaf whitefly); adult (body length 1mm).©John Innes Institute
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
TitleAdults
CaptionBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.
AdultsBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); adults.©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
TitleAdults
CaptionBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Stephen Ausmus
Bemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.
AdultsBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly); two adults on a watermelon leaf.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS/original image by Stephen Ausmus
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
TitleAdults
CaptionTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).
AdultsTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); two adults, together with an adult of Bemisia tabaci (bottom right).©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
PupaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.©Ian D. Bedford
Squash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
TitleSilver leaf on squash
CaptionSquash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Squash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.
Silver leaf on squashSquash silver leaf BTFN. Phytotoxic damage of B biotype.©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
TitlePupa
CaptionBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.
PupaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly); scanning electron micrograph of pupa.©Ian D. Bedford
Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionHymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
Copyright©Ian D. Bedford
Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.
Natural enemy Hymenoptera: Family: Aphelinidae; Eretmocerus sp., an obligate parasite of Bemisia tabaci.©Ian D. Bedford

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889)

Preferred Common Name

  • tobacco whitefly

Other Scientific Names

  • Aleurodes inconspicua Quintance
  • Aleurodes tabaci Gennadius
  • Bemisia achyranthes Singh
  • Bemisia bahiana Bondar
  • Bemisia costa-limai Bondar
  • Bemisia emiliae Corbett
  • Bemisia goldingi Corbett
  • Bemisia gossypiperda Misra & Lamba
  • Bemisia gossypiperda mosaicivectura Ghesquiere
  • Bemisia hibisci Takahashi
  • Bemisia inconspicua (Quaintance)
  • Bemisia longispina Priesner & Hosny
  • Bemisia lonicerae Takahashi
  • Bemisia manihotis Frappa
  • Bemisia minima Danzig
  • Bemisia minuscula Danzig
  • Bemisia nigeriensis Corbett
  • Bemisia rhodesiaensis Corbett
  • Bemisia signata Bondar
  • Bemisia vayssieri Frappa

International Common Names

  • English: cassava whitefly; cotton whitefly; silver leaf whitefly; sweet potato whitefly
  • Spanish: mosca blanca; mosca blanca del algodonero; mosca blanca del camote; mosca blanca del tabaco; mosquita blanca del tabaco
  • French: aleurode de la patate douce; aleurode du cotonnier
  • Portuguese: mosca branca do feijao

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Baumwoll-Mottenschildlaus; Tabak-Mottenschildlaus; Weisse Fliege
  • Israel: knimat ash hatabak
  • Italy: aleirode delle solanacee; aleurode delle solanacee
  • Turkey: beyaz sinek

EPPO code

  • BEMIBA (Bemisia bahiana)
  • BEMIEM (Bemisia emiliae)
  • BEMIGO (Bemisia goldingi)
  • BEMIIN (Bemisia inconspicua)
  • BEMILO (Bemisia longispina)
  • BEMIMA (Bemisia manihotis)
  • BEMINI (Bemisia nigeriensis)
  • BEMIRH (Bemisia rhodesiaensis)
  • BEMITA (Bemisia tabaci)
  • BEMIVA (Bemisia vayssieri)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The Bemisia tabaci complex is polyphagous and now attacks many crops, but without significant impact on land use. Any effects on biodiversity would result indirectly from an increased use of insecticides against this pest.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aleyrodoidea
  •                                 Family: Aleyrodidae
  •                                     Genus: Bemisia
  •                                         Species: Bemisia tabaci

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Bemisia contains 37 species and is thought to have originated from Asia (Mound and Halsey, 1978). Bemisia tabaci, being possibly of Indian origin (Fishpool and Burban, 1994), was described under numerous names before its morphological variability was recognised. For full synonyms, see Mound and Halsey (1978). Originally, three distinct groups of B. tabaci were identified by comparing their mitochondrial 16S ribosomal subunits: New World; India/Sudan; and remaining Old World (Frohlich and Brown, 1994). The pest status of B. tabaci insects has now become more complicated and through the comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene it is generally accepted that, rather than one complex species, B. tabaci is a complex of 11 genetic groups. These genetic groups are composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable species, which are merely separated by a minimum of 3.5% mtCOI nucleotide divergence (Dinsdale et al., 2010; De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). First reports of a newly-evolved biotype of B. tabaci, the B biotype (see separate datasheet, now widely accepted, and known as, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species (MEAM1)), appeared in the mid-1980s (Brown et al., 1995b). This species, commonly referred to as the silverleaf whitefly or poinsettia strain, is highly polyphagous and almost twice as fecund as previously recorded strains, and has been documented as being a separate species, B. argentifolii (Bellows et al., 1994). MEAM1 is able to cause phytotoxic disorders in certain plant species, for example, silverleaf in squashes (Cucurbita sp.) and this is an irrefutable method of identification (Bedford et al., 1992, 1994a). It can also can transfer and infect tomatoes with both Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and, depending on the timing of infection, losses can reach 100%.

A distinctive, non-specific esterase banding pattern is also helpful in identification (Brown et al., 1995a) but is not infallible (Byrne et al., 1995). A recent study by Rosell et al. (1997) which used SEM to examine the morphological characters documented by Bellows et al. (1994) for identifying the 'B biotype' showed that most Old World populations of B. tabaci were morphologically indistinguishable from the 'B biotype'. These Old World populations did not induce silverleaf disorders or produce similar esterase banding patterns to B. argentifolii. Several other 'biotypes' (up to S) have now been described (Brown et al., 1995b, 1999; Banks et al., 1999; Dinsdale et al., 2010; De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014) which supports the idea of a species complex, rather than of a number of distinct species, such as B. argentifolii. However, within the New World, MEAM1 has been readily accepted as a new species. Even though a recent study has irrefutably shown that MEAM1 can be crossed with a non-B biotype (Mediterranean species (formerly known as biotype Q) from Spain) (Adan et al., 1999).

Description

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Egg

Pear shaped with a pedicel spike at the base, approximately 0.2 mm long.

Larva

Yellow-white scales, 0.3-0.6 mm long.

Puparium

Flat, irregular oval shape, 0.7 mm long. On a smooth leaf the puparium lacks enlarged dorsal setae, but if the leaf is hairy, two to eight long dorsal setae are present.

Adult

About 1 mm long, the male slightly smaller than the female. The body and both pairs of wings are covered with a powdery, waxy secretion, white to slightly yellowish in colour.

Distribution

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B. tabaci has a global presence. However, certain areas within Europe are still Bemisia free, e.g. Finland, Sweden, Republic of Ireland and the UK (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

In Canada B. tabaci is a glasshouse pest; it is not established outdoors (Broadbent et al., 1989; Howard et al., 1994; CFIA, Canada, 2005, per J.A. Garland).

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 34).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 28 Jul 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
BurundiPresent
Cabo VerdePresent, Widespread
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
ChadPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent, Widespread
Equatorial GuineaPresent
EritreaPresent
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GabonAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MayottePresent
MoroccoPresent, Localized
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent, Few occurrences
SudanPresent, Widespread
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent, Localized
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Widespread

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BahrainPresent
BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent, Localized
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TianjinPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent, Localized1964
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-LakshadweepPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TelanganaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent, Localized
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
KuwaitPresent
LaosPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PalestinePresent
PhilippinesPresent
QatarAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent, Widespread1928
TurkmenistanPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent, Widespread

Europe

AustriaPresent, Localized1989
BelgiumPresent, Localized
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent, Few occurrences
CroatiaPresent, Few occurrences
CyprusPresent, Widespread
CzechiaPresent, Localized1988
DenmarkAbsent, Eradicated1988
EstoniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
FinlandPresent, Few occurrences
FrancePresent, Few occurrences
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent, Localized1987
GreecePresent, Widespread
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent, Few occurrences1990
IrelandAbsent, Eradicated1997
ItalyPresent, Widespread
-SardiniaPresent, Widespread
-SicilyPresent
LatviaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
MaltaPresent, Localized1993
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
NorwayPresent, Localized1987
PolandPresent, Localized1988
PortugalPresent, Localized1995
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresent, Few occurrences
-Southern RussiaPresent, Few occurrences
SlovakiaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaPresent, Few occurrences
SpainPresent, Localized
-Balearic IslandsPresent, Localized
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenAbsent, Eradicated
SwitzerlandPresent, Localized1989
UkrainePresent, Transient under eradication
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrences1987not established.
-Channel IslandsAbsent, Eradicated
-EnglandPresent, Few occurrences
-Northern IrelandAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
-ScotlandAbsent, Eradicated

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent, Widespread
BermudaPresent, Widespread
British Virgin IslandsPresent1993
CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
Costa RicaPresent, Localized
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent, Few occurrences1993
Dominican RepublicPresent, Localized
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresentFirst reported: 197*
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent, Widespread
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent, Localized
MartiniquePresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent, Widespread
MontserratPresent
Netherlands AntillesPresent, Localized1989
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint BarthélemyPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent, Localized
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VermontPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
-PohnpeiPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
NauruPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent, Localized1992
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent, Localized
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Localized
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent, Localized
-BahiaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent
SurinameAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent, Widespread

Risk of Introduction

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B. tabaci is regulated by the European Union (EU, 2000) and by other EPPO countries (Belarus, Russia). It is listed in the European Union (EU) Plant Health Directive 2000/29/EC under Annex 1AI (non-European populations) as a harmful organism, whose introduction from non-EU countries into, and spread within, all EU member states shall be banned. Some areas in the EU (British Isles, Nordic countries, parts of Portugal) are maintained as 'protected zones' (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015). B. tabaci also presents a risk to countries in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa and South America. It is already widespread in Asia and most tropical areas. The risk is primarily to the glasshouse industry in northern countries (Bedford et al., 1994b; Cuthbertson, 2013) and mainly concerns MEAM1 species. Since its recent introduction to several of these countries, the pest has proved particularly difficult to combat because of its polyphagy, its resistance to many insecticides and its disruption of biological control programmes (Della Giustina et al., 1989). Very few countries remain free from B. tabaci, illustrating the difficulty of preventing its movement in international trade. Furthermore, it is likely that various species of B. tabaci complex are already present, but unreported, as pests of field crops in other countries. In principle, the introduction of new biotypes into areas where the A biotype has long been present does present a risk, but it is one that is very difficult to manage.

In addition, because B. tabaci is the vector of a number of mainly tropical begomoviruses, temperate areas face the risk that these viruses, of which certain ones are listed, for example, in EU regulations (EU, 2000) will enter with their vector. The EU requires special measures to deal with this additional risk.

Hosts/Species Affected

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Until recently, B. tabaci was mainly known as a pest of field crops in tropical and sub-tropical countries, on cassava, cotton, sweet potatoes, tobacco and tomatoes. Non MEAM1 B. tabaci populations, in nearly all cases, have a narrow plant host range within the species shown in the tables and may include many obscure indigenous weed species. Some non MEAM1 species have been shown to be monophagous. However, a non-MEAM1 species within a country could have a composite host range of many plant and crop species.

Only MEAM1 species are presently documented as being almost polyphagous, although recent laboratory studies have indicated that only a small number of individuals within some  populations are able readily to change hosts. The progeny from these individuals have been shown to be highly polyphagous (Bedford et al., 1996).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)MalvaceaeUnknown
Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf)MalvaceaeUnknown
Acalypha australisEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Acalypha wilkesianaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Acer buergerianum (trident maple)AceraceaeUnknown
Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)AceraceaeUnknown
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Agave americana (century plant)AgavaceaeUnknown
AgeratumAsteraceaeWild host
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)AsteraceaeUnknown
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)FabaceaeUnknown
Alchornea trewioidesUnknown
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)AraceaeUnknown
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Althaea officinalis (Marsh-mallow)MalvaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus caudatus (love-lies-bleeding)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus tricolor (edible amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
Apium graveolens var. dulce (celery)ApiaceaeUnknown
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeUnknown
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)LiliaceaeUnknown
Astragalus sinicus (chinese clover)FabaceaeUnknown
Aucuba japonica (Japanese aucuba)CornaceaeUnknown
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeUnknown
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)AcanthaceaeUnknown
Basella alba (malabar spinach)BasellaceaeUnknown
Begonia cucullataBegoniaceaeUnknown
Begonia raveniiUnknown
Bellis perennis (common daisy)AsteraceaeUnknown
Benincasa hispida (wax gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)BerberidaceaeUnknown
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)AsteraceaeUnknown
Boehmeria nivea (ramie)UrticaceaeUnknown
BrassicaBrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica juncea (mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (Chinese kale)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera (Brussels sprouts)BrassicaceaeMain
    Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes (kohlrabi)BrassicaceaeUnknown
    Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli)BrassicaceaeMain
    Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeOther
    Brassica rapa (field mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
    Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis (Chinese cabbage)BrassicaceaeUnknown
    Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensisBrassicaceaeUnknown
    Brassicaceae (cruciferous crops)BrassicaceaeMain
      Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)MoraceaeUnknown
      Buxus harlandiiBuxaceaeUnknown
      Buxus megistophyllaBuxaceaeUnknown
      Buxus sinica (chinese box)BuxaceaeUnknown
      Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeMain
      Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)AraceaeUnknown
      Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
      Calystegia hederaceaUnknown
      Camellia japonica (camellia)TheaceaeUnknown
      Campanula rapunculusCampanulaceaeUnknown
      Campsis grandifloraBignoniaceaeUnknown
      Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)BrassicaceaeUnknown
      Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeUnknown
      Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
      Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeUnknown
      Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeUnknown
      Cassia surattensisFabaceaeUnknown
      Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
      Cayratia japonica (Sorrel vine)VitaceaeUnknown
      Ceiba pentandra (kapok)BombacaceaeUnknown
      Celosia argentea (celosia)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
      Cercis chinensisFabaceaeUnknown
      Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)SolanaceaeUnknown
      Chenopodium (Goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
        Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
        Chlorophytum comosum (ribbon plant)LiliaceaeUnknown
        Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)AsteraceaeUnknown
        Chrysanthemum chanetiiUnknown
        Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum)AsteraceaeOther
        Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeUnknown
        Cichorium intybus (chicory)AsteraceaeUnknown
        Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
        Cirsium japonicumUnknown
        Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
        Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeOther
          Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeUnknown
          Citrus madurensis (calamondin)RutaceaeUnknown
          Clausena lansium (wampi)RutaceaeUnknown
          Cleome spinosaCapparaceaeUnknown
          Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)CapparaceaeUnknown
          Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)LamiaceaeUnknown
          Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
          ColeusLamiaceaeUnknown
          Coleus blumei (common coleus)LamiaceaeUnknown
          Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeUnknown
          Columnea microcalyxUnknown
          Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)CombretaceaeUnknown
          Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)AsteraceaeUnknown
          Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)AsteraceaeUnknown
          Corchorus olitorius (jute)TiliaceaeUnknown
          Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeUnknown
          Cosmos bipinnatus (garden cosmos)AsteraceaeUnknown
          Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)AsteraceaeUnknown
          Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)AsteraceaeUnknown
          Crassula arborescensCrassulaceaeUnknown
          CrotalariaFabaceaeUnknown
          Cucumeropsis manniiUnknown
          Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
          Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
          Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
          Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
          Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
          Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
          Cucurbitaceae (cucurbits)CucurbitaceaeMain
            Cuphea lanceolataLythraceaeUnknown
            Cuscuta chinensisUnknown
            Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)AsteraceaeUnknown
            Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeUnknown
            Daphne odora (Winter daphne)ThymelaeaceaeUnknown
            Datura metel (Hindu datura)SolanaceaeUnknown
            Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeUnknown
            Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeUnknown
            Dendrocnide urentissimaUnknown
            Desmodium (tick clovers)FabaceaeUnknown
            Dichondra repensConvolvulaceaeUnknown
            Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam)DioscoreaceaeUnknown
            Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeUnknown
            Dischidia nummulariaUnknown
            Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)AgavaceaeUnknown
            Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop)VerbenaceaeUnknown
            Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
            Eclipta prostrata (eclipta)AsteraceaeUnknown
            Ehretia microphyllaBoraginaceaeUnknown
            Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)AsteraceaeUnknown
            Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)AraceaeUnknown
            Erigeron breviscapusUnknown
            Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
            Eucalyptus urophylla (Timor mountain gum)MyrtaceaeUnknown
            Euonymus bungeanusCelastraceaeUnknown
            Euphorbia (spurges)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
            Euphorbia bungeiUnknown
            Euphorbia characiasEuphorbiaceaeOther
              Euphorbia cyathophoraEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
              Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
              Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
              Euphorbia humifusaUnknown
              Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
              Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
              Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeMain
              Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain
                Fatsia japonica (Japanese aralia)AraliaceaeUnknown
                Fernaldia pandurataApocynaceaeOther
                  FicusMoraceaeUnknown
                  Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeUnknown
                  Ficus hispidaMoraceaeUnknown
                  Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)MoraceaeUnknown
                  Firmiana simplexSterculiaceaeUnknown
                  Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)RutaceaeUnknown
                  Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeUnknown
                  Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)RubiaceaeUnknown
                  Geranium wilfordiiUnknown
                  Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy)AsteraceaeMain
                    Glebionis coronaria (crowndaisy)AsteraceaeUnknown
                    Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
                    Glycine sojaFabaceaeUnknown
                    Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
                    Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
                    Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeUnknown
                    Hamelia patensRubiaceaeUnknown
                    Hedera helix (ivy)AraliaceaeUnknown
                    Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeUnknown
                    Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)AsteraceaeUnknown
                    Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeWild host
                      Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeUnknown
                      Hibiscus mutabilis (cottonrose)MalvaceaeUnknown
                      Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeUnknown
                      Hibiscus syriacus (shrubby althaea)MalvaceaeUnknown
                      Hippeastrum vittatum (Barbados lily)LiliaceaeUnknown
                      Hosta plantagineaLiliaceaeUnknown
                      Hosta ventricosaUnknown
                      Humulus scandens (Japanese hop)CannabaceaeUnknown
                      Hydrangea macrophylla (French hydrangea)HydrangeaceaeUnknown
                      Hylotelephium erythrostictumUnknown
                      Impatiens (balsam)BalsaminaceaeOther
                        Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)BalsaminaceaeUnknown
                        Ipomoea (morning glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                        Ipomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                        Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
                        Ipomoea coccinea (red morningglory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                        Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                        Iris tectorumIridaceaeUnknown
                        Jasminum mesnyiOleaceaeUnknown
                        Jasminum nudiflorum (Winter jasmine)OleaceaeUnknown
                        Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)OleaceaeUnknown
                        Jatropha curcas (jatropha)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                        Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                        Jatropha podagrica (gout plant)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                        Justicia adhatoda (Malabar nut)AcanthaceaeUnknown
                        Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)CrassulaceaeUnknown
                        Kerria japonica (Japanese kerria)KerriidaeUnknown
                        Koelreuteria paniculata (golden rain tree)SapindaceaeUnknown
                        Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                        Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain
                        Lactuca sativa var. asparaginaUnknown
                        Lactuca sativa var. capitata (head lettuce)AsteraceaeUnknown
                        Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                        Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeUnknown
                        Laggera pterodontaUnknown
                        Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeUnknown
                        Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)LamiaceaeUnknown
                        Lepidium draba (hoary cress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                        Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeOther
                          Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)OleaceaeUnknown
                          Ligustrum quihouiOleaceaeUnknown
                          Ligustrum vicaryiUnknown
                          Liriodendron chinense (Chinese tulip tree)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
                          Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                          Lonicera sempervirens (trumpet honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                          Ludwigia prostrataUnknown
                          Luffa acutangula (angled luffa)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                          Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                          Lycium chinense (chinese wolfberry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                          Magnolia denudataMagnoliaceaeUnknown
                          Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
                          Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeUnknown
                          Malus hallianaUnknown
                          Malva (mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
                            Malva verticillataMalvaceaeUnknown
                            Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
                            Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeUnknown
                            Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeUnknown
                            MelampodiumUnknown
                            Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
                            Mentha haplocalyxUnknown
                            Merremia peltataConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                            Merremia umbellata (hogvine)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                            Michelia maudiaeMagnoliaceaeUnknown
                            Millettia reticulataFabaceaeUnknown
                            Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)FabaceaeUnknown
                            Mollugo pentaphyllaUnknown
                            Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                            Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
                            Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeUnknown
                            Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeUnknown
                            Nandina domestica (Nandina)BerberidaceaeUnknown
                            Nasturtium officinale (watercress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Nepenthes mirabilisUnknown
                            Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                            Nicotiana debneyiSolanaceaeOther
                              Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
                              Ocimum basilicum (basil)LamiaceaeUnknown
                              Ophiopogon japonicusLiliaceaeUnknown
                              Origanum majorana (sweet marjoram)LamiaceaeMain
                                Osmanthus fragransOleaceaeUnknown
                                Osteospermum ecklonisAsteraceaeUnknown
                                Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeUnknown
                                Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)BombacaceaeUnknown
                                Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                Pachystachys lutea (lollypops)AcanthaceaeUnknown
                                Paeonia lactiflora (Chinese peony)PaeoniaceaeUnknown
                                Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                Parthenocissus heterophyllaUnknown
                                Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Boston ivy)VitaceaeUnknown
                                Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeUnknown
                                Pelargonium hortorumGeraniaceaeUnknown
                                Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)GeraniaceaeUnknown
                                Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)RubiaceaeUnknown
                                Perilla frutescensLamiaceaeUnknown
                                Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)PolygonaceaeUnknown
                                Persicaria orientalisUnknown
                                Persicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed)PolygonaceaeUnknown
                                Petunia hybridaSolanaceaeUnknown
                                Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeMain
                                Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
                                Philodendron bipinnatifidum (lacy tree philodendron)AraceaeUnknown
                                PhyllanthusEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                Phyllanthus niruri (seed-under-the-leaf)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                Physalis (Groundcherry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                Physalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)PhytolaccaceaeUnknown
                                Picrasma quassioidesSimaroubaceaeUnknown
                                Pilea mollisUnknown
                                Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeMain
                                  Pisum (pea)FabaceaeUnknown
                                  Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeUnknown
                                  Platanus acerifolia (London planetree)PlatanaceaeUnknown
                                  Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                  Polyscias carolorumUnknown
                                  Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeUnknown
                                  Portulaca grandiflora (Rose moss)PortulacaceaeUnknown
                                  Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeUnknown
                                  Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                  Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                  Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)FabaceaeUnknown
                                  Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeUnknown
                                  Pyracantha fortuneanaUnknown
                                  Pyrus bretschneideri (yali pear)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Ranunculus asiaticus (garden crowfoot)RanunculaceaeUnknown
                                  Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                                  Rehmannia glutinosaOrobanchaceaeUnknown
                                  Rhapis excelsaArecaceaeUnknown
                                  Rheum palmatumPolygonaceaeUnknown
                                  Rhododendron simsii (Sim's azalea)EricaceaeUnknown
                                  Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                  Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeUnknown
                                  Rorippa dubiaUnknown
                                  Rorippa indica (Indian marshcress)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                                  Rosa chinensis (China rose)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)RosaceaeUnknown
                                  Sageretia theaRhamnaceaeUnknown
                                  Salvia splendens (scarlet sage)LamiaceaeUnknown
                                  Sargentodoxa cuneataUnknown
                                  Sauropus macranthusUnknown
                                  Scutellaria baicalensisLamiaceaeUnknown
                                  Scutellaria barbataUnknown
                                  Sechium edule (chayote)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                  Sedum adolphiiUnknown
                                  Senna surattensis (golden senna)FabaceaeUnknown
                                  Senna tora (sicklepod)FabaceaeUnknown
                                  Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeUnknown
                                  SidaMalvaceaeUnknown
                                  Sida rhombifoliaMalvaceaeUnknown
                                  Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia)GesneriaceaeMain
                                    Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
                                      Solanum aethiopicum (african scarlet eggplant)SolanaceaeOther
                                      Solanum americanumSolanaceaeUnknown
                                      Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                      Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
                                      Solanum muricatum (melon pear)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                      Solanum pseudocapsicum (Jerusalem-cherry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                      Solanum torvum (turkey berry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                      Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                      Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Sphagneticola calendulaceaAsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
                                      Spiraea japonica (Japanese spirea)RosaceaeUnknown
                                      SynedrellaUnknown
                                      Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Tagetes (marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Tagetes patula (French marigold)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Taraxacum mongolicumUnknown
                                      Telfairia occidentalisCucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                      Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Toona sinensis (Chinese Toona)MeliaceaeUnknown
                                      Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)CommelinaceaeUnknown
                                      Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)CommelinaceaeUnknown
                                      Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                                      Tridax procumbens (coat buttons)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Trifolium repens (white clover)FabaceaeUnknown
                                      Urena lobata (caesar weed)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                      Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Vicia faba (faba bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                      Vigna angularis (adzuki bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                      Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                      Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
                                      Vinca major (Big periwinkle)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                      Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
                                      Woodfordia fruticosaLythraceaeUnknown
                                      Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)AraceaeUnknown
                                      Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Zanthoxylum simulansRutaceaeUnknown
                                      Zinnia elegans (zinnia)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown

                                      Growth Stages

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                                      Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                      Symptoms

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                                      B. tabaci can acquire and transmit a range of plant viruses (see Economic Impact) which produce a variety of different symptoms on susceptible plant species. Although plants can become infected from migratory feeding of B. tabaci, plants infected with B. tabaci-transmitted viruses are often indicative of B. tabaci colonization.

                                      Infected plants could exhibit any one or a combination of the following symptoms: vein yellowing, inter-vein yellowing, leaf yellowing, yellow blotching of leaves, yellow mosaic of leaves, leaf curling, leaf crumpling, leaf vein thickening, leaf enations, leaf cupping, stem twisting, plant stunting.

                                      List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                      SignLife StagesType
                                      Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould

                                      Species Vectored

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                                      Abutilon mosaic virus
                                      African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)
                                      Ageratum enation virus
                                      Bean calico mosaic virus
                                      Bean dwarf mosaic virus
                                      Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV-type 1)
                                      Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (bean golden yellow mosaic)
                                      Bean yellow disorder virus
                                      Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus
                                      Cabbage leaf curl virus
                                      Cassava brown streak viruses (cassava brown streak disease)
                                      Chayote yellow mosaic virus
                                      Chino del tomate virus
                                      Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
                                      Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus
                                      Cowpea golden mosaic virus
                                      Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
                                      Croton yellow vein mosaic virus
                                      Cucumber vein yellowing virus (cucumber vein yellowing)
                                      Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus
                                      Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus
                                      Dicliptera yellow mottle virus
                                      Dolichos yellow mosaic virus
                                      East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus
                                      East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus
                                      East African cassava mosaic virus
                                      East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus
                                      Euphorbia leaf curl virus
                                      Euphorbia mosaic virus
                                      Hollyhock leaf crumple virus
                                      Honeysuckle yellow vein virus
                                      Horsegram Yellow Mosaic Virus
                                      Indian cassava mosaic virus (Indian cassava mosaic)
                                      Ipomoea yellow vein virus
                                      Lettuce chorosis virus
                                      Lettuce infectious yellows virus (infectious yellows of lettuce)
                                      Luffa yellow mosaic virus
                                      Macroptilium mosaic Puerto Rico virus
                                      Macroptilium yellow mosaic Florida virus
                                      Macroptilium yellow mosaic virus
                                      Malvastrum yellow vein virus
                                      Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus
                                      Melon yellowing-associated virus
                                      Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus
                                      Mungbean yellow mosaic virus
                                      Okra yellow vein mosaic virus
                                      Papaya leaf curl China virus
                                      Papaya leaf curl Guandong virus
                                      Papaya leaf curl virus
                                      Pepper golden mosaic virus
                                      Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus
                                      Pepper leaf curl Bangladesh virus
                                      Pepper leaf curl virus
                                      Pepper yellow vein Mali virus
                                      Potato yellow mosaic Panama virus
                                      Potato yellow mosaic virus
                                      Radish leaf curl virus
                                      Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus
                                      Sida golden mosaic Costa Rica virus
                                      Sida golden mosaic Florida virus
                                      Sida golden mosaic Honduras virus
                                      Sida golden mosaic virus
                                      Sida golden yellow vein virus
                                      Sida micrantha mosaic virus
                                      Sida mottle virus
                                      Sida yellow mosaic virus
                                      Sida yellow vein virus
                                      South African cassava mosaic virus
                                      Soybean crinkle leaf virus
                                      Squash leaf curl China virus
                                      Squash leaf curl Philippines virus
                                      Squash leaf curl virus (leaf curl of squash)
                                      Squash leaf curl Yunnan virus
                                      Squash mild leaf curl virus
                                      Squash vein yellowing virus
                                      Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus
                                      Stachytarpheta leaf curl virus
                                      Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus
                                      Sweet potato leaf curl Georgia virus
                                      Sweet potato leaf curl virus
                                      Sweet potato mild mottle virus (mild mottle of sweet potato)
                                      Tobacco curly shoot virus
                                      Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus
                                      Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus
                                      Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus
                                      Tomato chino La Paz virus
                                      Tomato chlorosis virus (yellow leaf disorder of tomato)
                                      Tomato chlorotic mottle virus
                                      Tomato curly stunt virus
                                      Tomato golden mosaic virus
                                      Tomato golden mottle virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl China virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Laos virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Malaysia virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Mali virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)
                                      Tomato leaf curl Philippines virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Sri Lanka virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus
                                      Tomato leaf curl Vietnam virus
                                      Tomato mild mottle virus
                                      Tomato mosaic Havana virus
                                      Tomato mottle virus
                                      Tomato rugose mosaic virus
                                      Tomato severe leaf curl virus
                                      Tomato severe rugose virus
                                      Tomato torrado virus
                                      Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus
                                      Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus
                                      Tomato yellow leaf curl Malaga virus
                                      Tomato yellow leaf curl Mali virus
                                      Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus - European strain)
                                      Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus
                                      Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)
                                      Tomato yellow vein streak virus
                                      Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus

                                      Biology and Ecology

                                      Top of page

                                      Eggs are laid usually in circular groups, on the undersides of leaves, with the broad end touching the surface and the long axis perpendicular to the leaf. They are anchored by a pedicel inserted into a fine slit made by the female, and not into stomata as in the case of many other aleyrodids. Eggs are whitish in colour when first laid, but gradually turn brown. Each female lays up to 160 eggs. Hatching occurs after 5-9 days at 30°C depending on host species, temperature and humidity.

                                      On hatching, the first instar or 'crawler' is flat, oval and scale-like, and is the only mobile larval stage. It moves to a suitable feeding location on the lower leaf surface where it moults and becomes sessile throughout the remaining nymphal stages. The first three nymphal stages last 2-4 days each (depending on temperature). The fourth nymphal stage is termed the puparium, and is approximately 0.7 mm long. True pupation within the whitefly life-cycle is debatable as it does not occur in other Homopterous families, although the last stage of the fourth nymphal instar after apolysis has been completed is typically referred to as a pupa. Pupation lasts for about 6 days and within the latter period, the metamorphosis to adult occurs.

                                      The adult emerges through a 'T'-shaped rupture in the puparium and expands its wings before powdering itself with wax from glands on the abdomen. Copulation begins 12-20 hours after emergence and takes place several times throughout the life of the adult. A female may live for 60 days, although the life of the male is generally much shorter, being between 9 to 17 days. Some 11 to 15 generations can occur within one year.

                                      Natural enemies

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                                      Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                      Agistemus exsertus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Amblyseius aleyrodis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Amblyseius limonicus Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Cuthbertson (2014) UK poinsettia plants
                                      Amblyseius swirskii Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Cuthbertson (2014) UK poinsettia plants
                                      Aschersonia aleyrodes Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Cuthbertson et al. (2012) UK poinsettia plants
                                      Campylomma nicolasi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Chrysoperla exotera Predator
                                      Chrysoperla rufilabris Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Coenosia attenuata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Collops vittatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Cybocephalus micans Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Cyrtopeltis luridus Predator
                                      Delphastus pallidus Predator
                                      Delphastus pusillus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs California
                                      Deraeocoris pallens Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Dicyphus tamaninii Predator
                                      Enallagma civile Predator
                                      Encarsia acaudaleyrodis Parasite
                                      Encarsia adrianae Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Pakistan beans; Lantana camara
                                      Encarsia aleurochitonis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia bimaculata Parasite
                                      Encarsia brevivena Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia cibcensis Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Pakistan beans; Lantana camara
                                      Encarsia davidi Parasite
                                      Encarsia formosa Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Israel; New Zealand; Norway ornamental plants
                                      Encarsia inaron Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia japonica Parasite
                                      Encarsia longifasciata Parasite
                                      Encarsia lutea Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Egypt soyabeans; tomatoes
                                      Encarsia luteola Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Israel cotton
                                      Encarsia meritoria Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia mineoi Parasite
                                      Encarsia mohyuddini Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia nigricephala Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia pergandiella Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia polaszeki Parasite
                                      Encarsia porteri Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia protransvena Parasite
                                      Encarsia quaintancei Parasite
                                      Encarsia reticulata Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia sophia Parasite
                                      Encarsia strenua Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia transvena Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Encarsia tricolor Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Eretmocerus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Eretmocerus aligarhensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Eretmocerus corni Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Pupae Paraguay cotton
                                      Eretmocerus diversiciliatus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Eretmocerus eremicus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Eretmocerus haldemani Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Eretmocerus mundus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Pupae Egypt; Mali cotton; soyabeans; tomatoes
                                      Eretmocerus sudanensis Parasite
                                      Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Euseius hibisci Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Euseius scutalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Morocco Citrus
                                      Franklinothrips vespiformis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Paraguay cotton
                                      Geocoris ochropterus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Geocoris punctipes Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Labidura riparia Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Laius venustus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Sudan cotton
                                      Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Mallada boninensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Microlestes discoidalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Sudan cotton
                                      Nabis alternatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Nabis capsiformis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Sudan cotton
                                      Nephaspis maesi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Nicaragua Citrus; pawpaws
                                      Orius albidipennis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs Sudan cotton
                                      Orius tristicolor Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
                                      Paederus alfierii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Paragus compeditus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Phidippus audax Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Polyphagotarsonemus latus
                                      Scymnus syriacus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Serangium parcesetosum Predator Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
                                      Sinea confusa Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Sphaerophoria rueppellii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Theridula gonygaster Predator
                                      Transeius montdorensis Predator Arthropods|Nymphs Cuthbertson (2014) UK poinsettia plants
                                      Typhlodromus athiasae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      Typhlodromus sudanicus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
                                      virus-like particles Pathogen
                                      Zelus renardii Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs

                                      Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                      The species of Encarsia recorded as parasitoids of B. tabaci were revised by Polaszek et al. (1992), and also summarized by Cock (1993). They recognised 18 species, one or more of which are usually found parasitizing B. tabaci wherever natural enemies have been studied. Four additional Encarsia spp. parasitoids were described by Evans and Polaszek (1997).

                                      The other important parasitoids attacking B. tabaci belong to the genus Eretmocerus. In each region one or more species of each of these two genera cause heavy mortality. There are also numerous records of generalist predators of Homoptera recorded as attacking B. tabaci (Cock, 1986, 1993). However, the combined impact of these natural enemies is insufficient to prevent virus transmission, but may be adequate to prevent losses where direct feeding damage is important. These natural enemies are all susceptible to insecticides and injudicious application has caused devastating resurgence, notably on cotton, for example, in the Sudan (Eveleens, 1983).

                                      An isolate of the parasitoid Isaria fumosorosea has shown potential to be further developed as a biopesticide for controlling B. tabaci  (Rahim Eslamizadeh et al., 2013).

                                      Various species of predatory mites have also been shown to be effective in reducing B. tabaci populations, including Amblyseius limonicus, A. swirskii and Transeius montdorensis (Cuthbertson, 2014). A large range of natural enemies of B. tabaci have been recorded in China (Li et al., 2011).

                                      Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                      Adults of B. tabaci do not fly very efficiently but, once airborne, can be transported quite long distances by the wind. All stages of the pest are liable to be carried on planting material and cut flowers of host species. The international trade in poinsettia is considered to have been a major means of dissemination of MEAM1 species of B. tabaci within the EPPO region (Cuthbertson, 2013). 

                                      Impact Summary

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                                      CategoryImpact
                                      Animal/plant collections None
                                      Animal/plant products None
                                      Biodiversity (generally) None
                                      Crop production Negative
                                      Environment (generally) None
                                      Fisheries / aquaculture None
                                      Forestry production None
                                      Human health None
                                      Livestock production None
                                      Native fauna None
                                      Native flora None
                                      Rare/protected species None
                                      Tourism None
                                      Trade/international relations Negative
                                      Transport/travel None

                                      Impact

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                                      Introduction

                                      The pest status of B. tabaci insects is complicated and through the comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene it is generally accepted that, rather than one complex species, B. tabaci is a complex of 11 genetic groups. These genetic groups are composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable species, which are merely separated by a minimum of 3.5% mtCOI nucleotide divergence (Dinsdale et al., 2010De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). Within the B. tabaci complex, the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cryptic species, formerly referred to as 'B' and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species, formerly referred to as 'Q' biotype that are the two most widely distributed, and as a result, best known of the species. These two species present the greatest threat to glasshouse crops worldwide (Bethke et al., 2009). The damaging MEAM1 is described as an aggressive coloniser and is an effective vector of many viruses, whereas the MED characteristically shows strong resistance to novel insecticides (Jones et al., 2008; McKenzie et al., 2009). 

                                      B. tabaci has been recorded as a minor pest of cotton and other tropical or semi-tropical crops within the warmer parts of the world and, until recently has been successfully managed with a range of insecticides.

                                      A few biotypes from certain areas have become major pests, often within large mono-cropping areas where they are regularly exposed to insecticides. In these cases, the biotypes have rapidly evolved resistance to almost all currently available insecticides (Cahill et al., 1996; Mushtaq Ahmad et al., 2002; Luo et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010). Exposure to sustained insecticide treatments may have promoted other characteristics of these 'pest' biotypes, such as increased fecundity and host adaptability. Populations of the cosmopolitan MEAM1 species [see datasheet on B. tabaci (MEAM1)], the Pakistan K biotype and the Mediterranean species are currently within this group. Other presently uncharacterized biotypes within Africa appear specifically adapted to cassava, causing severe losses to this important subsistence crop (Maruthi et al., 2000).

                                      The feeding of B. tabaci adults and nymphs causes chlorotic spots to appear on the surface of the leaves. Depending on the level of infestation, these spots may coalesce until the whole of the leaf is yellow, apart from the area immediately around the veins. Such leaves are later shed. The honeydew produced by the feeding of the nymphs covers the surface of the leaves and can cause a reduction in photosynthetic potential when colonized by moulds. Honeydew can also disfigure flowers and, in the case of cotton, can cause problems in processing the lint. With heavy infestations, plant height, number of internodes and quality and quantity of yield can be affected (for example, in cotton).

                                      Most biotypes of B. tabaci can vector over 60 plant viruses in the genera Geminivirus, Closterovirus, Nepovirus, Carlavirus, Potyvirus and a rod-shaped DNA virus (Markham et al., 1994; Alegbejo, 2000). Those biotypes that are poor vectors, appear so, due to their inability to feed on alternative host plant species (Bedford et al., 1994b). Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, now called begomoviruses, are by far the most important agriculturally, causing yield losses to crops of between 20 and 100% (Brown and Bird, 1992; Cathrin and Ghanim, 2014). Begomoviruses cause a range of different symptoms that include yellow mosaics, yellow veining, leaf curling, stunting and vein thickening. Presently a million ha of cotton is being decimated in Pakistan by cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuV) (Mansoor et al., 1993) and important African subsistence crops such as cassava are affected by begomoviruses such as African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV). Tomato crops throughout the world are particularly susceptible to many different begomoviruses, and in most cases exhibit yellow leaf curl symptoms. This has caused their initial characterization as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). TYLCV has also recently been recorded in the New World, as well as several other begomoviruses such as Tomato mottle virus (EPPO/CABI, 1996), Tobacco leaf curl virus (TLCV), Sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV), Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV), Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCV) and Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) some of which cause heavy yield losses in their respective hosts. Dual infections have also been shown to occur (Bedford et al., 1994c).

                                      Europe presently has five known begomoviruses. Three have been shown to no longer be transmissible by B. tabaci: Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic (also known as Tobacco leaf curl virus), Abutilon mosaic virus (Bedford et al., 1994a) and Ipomea yellow vein virus (Banks et al., 1999), possibly through many years of vegetative propagation of their ornamental host plants. The others are two different transmissible TYLCVs that are causing major crop losses within the tomato industries of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Canary Islands. Indigenous weed species such as Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium have also been shown as field reservoirs for these tomato viruses (Bedford et al., 1998) and may be the source of others yet to be identified within Europe. Two B. tabaci-transmitted closteroviruses are also now affecting European crops, including those in the Canary Islands. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder, is causing severe damage to cucumbers and melons in southern Europe (Celix et al., 1996), along with Tomato chlorosis virus (Navas-Castillo et al., 2000). There are also reports of a third closterovirus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, in Europe (Duffus et al., 1996) although this virus currently appears not to be of economic significance. However, a Bemisia-transmitted potyvirus, Cucumber yellow vein virus, appeared in cucumber crops in southern Spain for the first time in 2000 (Cuadrado et al., 2001). Despite a crop destruction programme to eradicate this virus, it has recently spread to melon crops in the region. Protected Zones (e.g. UK and Finland) within Europe remain free from damaging begomoviruses (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

                                      Biotype K

                                      In Pakistan, the K biotype is responsible for the spread of a decimating viral disease of cotton, cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) (Briddon and Markham, 2000). This disease first became a serious problem in the early 1990s, rapidly affecting a million ha of cotton, which comprises 60% of the country's foreign exchange (Mansoor et al., 1993).

                                      Mediterranean species (Biotype Q)

                                      The Mediterranean species (formerly known as Q biotype) is found throughout the Iberian peninsula, around the Mediterranean basin (including Israel) and in the Canary Islands. It is widely thought that this is the indigenous biotype to these regions, although it co-exists with MEAM1 species  in Israel, Italy and the Canary Islands. A population of MEAM 1 was recorded within a Mediterranean species population around Almeria in southern Spain in 1995. It appears that this population failed to become established since recent surveys have only identified Mediterranean species. Mediterranean species was first recorded entering Guatemala in 2009 (Bethke et al., 2009) and the UK in 2012 (Powell et al., 2012). Mediterranean species has, over recent years, been exposed to extensive insecticide applications and within areas of intensive agriculture exhibits a high level of resistance (Dennehy et al., 2010). The use of IPM control programmes is presently restricted where crops are susceptible to viruses. This is particularly the case with Tomato yellow leaf curl viruses which are transmitted very efficiently by B. tabaci. Because of insecticide resistance, large numbers of Mediterranean species often infest crops within southern Europe, resulting in rapid spread of viruses to newly planted crops. Field grown tomato crops in areas of southern Spain and Morocco have recently suffered 100% losses and TYLCV has spread to Phaseolus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum crops.

                                      Environmental Impact

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                                      The impact of the B. tabaci multi-species complex has mainly been in glasshouses in temperate countries, where Trialeurodes vaporariorum already presented problems. Any additional problems caused by B. tabaci, in terms of changes in crops cultivated or in the use of new control measures, have been essentially in this protected environment and cannot be said to impact the natural environment.

                                      B. tabaci has also proliferated on outdoor crops in warmer countries. There is no particular indication that it has changed the crops cultivated or land use, but its control with insecticides has added to the general pesticide load on the environment.

                                      Threatened Species

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                                      Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
                                      Allactaga alasterNo Details

                                      Detection and Inspection

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                                      Numerous chlorotic spots develop on the leaves of affected plants, which may also be disfigured by honeydew and associated sooty moulds. Leaf curling, yellowing, mosaics or yellow veining could also indicate the presence of whitefly-transmitted viruses.

                                      Close observation of the undersides of the leaves will show the tiny, yellow/white larval scales and in severe infestations, when the plant is shaken, numerous small, white adult whiteflies will flutter out and quickly resettle. These symptoms do not differ appreciably from those of Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the glasshouse whitefly, which is common throughout Europe and also occurs elsewhere.

                                      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                      B. tabaci is now widely regarded to be a multi-species complex. Consisting of as many as 34 species that are morphologically indistinguishable from each other (De Barro et al., 2011; Boykin and De Barro, 2014). They can however, be distinguished molecularly. Differentiation of B. tabaci from other whitefly species by means of the adults is often difficult, although close observation of adult eye morphology may often show differences in ommatidial arrangements between some species. At rest, B. tabaci has wings more closely pressed to the body than Trialeurodes vaporariorum (greenhouse whitefly), which is a larger whitefly and more triangular in appearance.

                                      The fourth instar or puparium can also be used to distinguish B. tabaci from T. vaporariorum as glasshouse pests. T. vaporariorum is 'pork-pie shaped', regularly ovoid, has straight sides (viewed laterally) and in most instances, 12 large, waxy setae. In B. tabaci, the puparium has an irregular, 'pancake-like', oval shape, with oblique sides and shorter, finer setae. Although the number of enlarged setae in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum can vary according to host plant morphology, the two caudal setae are always stout and nearly always as long as the vasiform orifice in B. tabaci.

                                      For more information on the identification of B. tabaci from slide-mounted pupae, see Martin (1987).

                                      Prevention and Control

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                                      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                      Cultural Control

                                      Intercropping practices using non-hosts have been used in many countries aiming to reduce numbers of whiteflies on specific crops. However, intercropping with susceptible crops can promote whitefly populations, by offering more leaf area for feeding.

                                      Weed species play an important role in harbouring whiteflies between crop plantings and attention should be paid to removing these in advance of planting susceptible crops. Weeds also often harbour whitefly-transmitted viruses (Bedford et al., 1998) and may be a major source of crop virus epidemics.

                                      Biological Control

                                      Conservation of natural enemies is important in field crops where feeding damage is the cause of losses, rather than virus transmission, for example, on cotton. Under these circumstances, attempts have been made in Israel to enhance natural enemy action on cotton by introduction of additional, hopefully more efficient parasitoids (Rivany and Gerling, 1987). This effort resulted in the establishment of two species from the USA, Encarsia luteola and a species of Eretmocerus. Similarly, parasitoids are being introduced in Florida, USA, from other regions for the control of B. tabaci on vegetables and ornamentals (Rosen et al., 1994). Predatory mites have been shown to be efficient against Mediterranean species (Cuthbertson, 2014). Entomopathogenic agents such as nematodes (Cuthbertson et al., 2003a, 2007a,b) and fungi (Cuthbertson et al., 2005a, 2012; Cuthbertson and Walters, 2005) have also been shown to be important biological tools in the control/eradication of B. tabaci.

                                      Host-Plant Resistance

                                      Plant and crop species that exhibit a high level of resistance to both vector and virus must also be considered when designing an IPM system. The development of transgenic resistant plant and crop species through genetic engineering must be considered and accepted as a future method of control where whitefly-transmitted viruses are already endemic and causing severe crop losses.

                                      Chemical Control

                                      B. tabaci appears to develop resistance to all groups of pesticides that have been developed for its control. A rotation of insecticides that offer no cross-resistance must therefore be used to control B. tabaci infestations (Cuthbertson et al., 2012).

                                      Active ingredients that have already been reported to have an effect in controlling B. tabaci worldwide include bifenthrin, buprofezin, imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, amitraz, fenoxycarb, deltamethrin, azidirachtin and pymetrozine. However, development of resistance to the products is a continual problem (Dennehy et al., 2010).

                                      Integrated Pest Management

                                      Until recently, B. tabaci was readily controlled with insecticides in field and glasshouse situations. However, problems with its effective control on many crops are now being experienced worldwide due to insecticide resistance. It appears that no single control treatment can be used on a long-term basis against this pest, and that the integration of a number of different control agents needs implementing for an effective level of control.

                                      IPM appears to offer the best option for controlling B. tabaci without causing contamination of the environment: beneficial insects are used alongside chemicals that offer a high level of selectivity such as insect growth regulators. However, the use of biological control agents alone, such as Encarsia formosa and Lecanicillium lecanii, although moderately successful (Nedstam, 1992), can never bring infestation levels down to a level that stops virus transmission, as B. tabaci is such an efficient virus vector. Cuthbertson et al. (2012) developed a series of chemical control programmes, including Beauveria bassiana (Naturalis-L) that offered complete control of Mediterranean species under laboratory conditions. Nematodes and fungi have also been shown to be successfully tank-mixed with several chemical products for use in eradication schemes against what is now known to be MEAM1 species (Cuthbertson et al., 2003b, 2005b, 2012; Cuthbertson and Collins, 2015).

                                      Phytosanitary Control

                                      In countries where B. tabaci is not already present, the enforcement of strict phytosanitary regulations should help reduce the risk of this whitefly becoming established (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015) . Because of the difficulty of detecting low levels of infestation in consignments, it is best to ensure that either the area or the place of production is free from the pest (OEPP/EPPO, 1990). If this cannot be obtained, a detailed treatment and inspection regime can be used to ensure that traded plants are free from the pest. Particular attention is needed for consignments from countries where certain B. tabaci-vectored viruses, now on the EPPO A1 or A2 quarantine lists, are present (see Risk of Introduction) (Cuthbertson and Vänninen, 2015).

                                      References

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                                      Adan A, Ronda M, Cifuentes D, Cenis JL, Beitia F, 1999. Laboratory studies on the crossing of two biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889) present in Spain. Proceedings of the 7th Spanish Congress of Entomology, Almeria (8-12th November, 1999)

                                      Ahmed, M. Z., Barro, P. J. de, Olleka, A., Ren, S. X., Mandour, N. S., Greeff, J. M., Qiu, B. L., 2012. Use of consensus sequences and genetic networks to identify members of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex in Egypt and Syria. Journal of Applied Entomology, 136(7), 510-519. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01673.x

                                      Alegbejo MD, 2000. Whitefly transmitted plant viruses in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 17(2/3):99-109

                                      Alegbejo, M. D., Banwo, O. O., 2005. Host plants of Bemisia tabaci Genn. in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 45(2), 93-98.

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                                      25/07/15 Reviewed by:

                                      Andrew Cuthbertson, Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York, UK

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