Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Seedborne Aspects
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau, 1958
Preferred Common Name
- sting nematode
- BELOLO (Belonolaimus longicaudatus)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Nematoda
- Family: Belonolaimidae
- Genus: Belonolaimus
- Species: Belonolaimus longicaudatus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Female (n=53): L=2.0-3.0 mm; a=55-75; b=7.2-12.6; c=13-21; c'=3.5-6.0; V=46-54; spear=100-140 µm; tail length=115-183 µm; phasmid to terminus=79-129 µm; spear length divided by tail length=0.67-1.14.
Male (n=50): L=2.0-3.0 mm; a=54-76; b=6.3-8.1; c=13-17; spear=107-132 µm; tail length=100-157 µm; phasmid to terminus=74-129 µm; spear length divided by tail length=0.76-1.19; spicule length along chord=38-49 µm; gubernaculum=15-18 µm.
Female (n=136) (after Rau, 1963): L=2.509 (1.986-3.012) mm; V=49 (46-54); spear=127 (115-140) µm; conus=93 (84-102) µm; shaft=34 (28-39) µm; tail length=154 (115-189) µm.
Description (after Orton Williams, 1974)
Lip region hemispherical, divided by lateral, dorsal and ventral grooves into four main lobes, each bearing six or more horizontal striations. Lip region generally set off from body by a deep constriction, although this may be less well marked in some populations. Lateral fields marked by a single incisure extending from the base of the lip region to near the tail terminus. Spear 110-140 µm long, thin, flexible with rounded knobs. When retracted the anterior oesophagus is convoluted. Median bulb well developed with prominent valve plates. Excretory pore posterior to median bulb with hemizonid just anterior to it. Oesophageal glands lobe-like and extending over anterior portion of intestine. Vulva a transverse slit, lips not protruding and located in the mid-region of the body. Vagina with opposing pairs of cuticularized pieces in lateral view. Genital tract amphididelphic, outstretched. Spermathecae present. Tail 115-189 µm long, about five times anal body width long and subcylindroid with a rounded terminus. Hyaline portion 5.9 (4.2-7.8) µm long. Phasmids inconspicuous. Intestine extending almost to tail terminus. Serpentine canals present.
Lip region more flattened at the sides than in the female. Spicules arcuate with ventral flanges; distal ends pointed with small apical notches. Gubernaculum well developed. Bursa enveloping tail.
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Roots / galls at tip|
|Roots / reduced root system|
|Roots / stubby roots|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The existence of physiological races has been demonstrated and these have differing host ranges (Smart and Nguyen, 1991). The presence of the nematode may overcome resistance to Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum] in cotton leading to high crop losses in the field.
Natural enemiesTop of page
Seedborne AspectsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Roots||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||adults; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ImpactTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Chemical treatment of soil using liquid or granular nematicides is usually highly effective due to the porous nature of the sandy soils that the nematode favours.
Various non-hosts have been used as cover crops or in rotation to reduce populations of the nematode (Smart and Nguyen, 1991) and organic soil amendments may also have a beneficial effect. Soil solarization has also been tested in strawberry fields (Overman et al., 1987).
Biological control has been attempted: Pasteuria penetrans suppressed B. longicaudatus populations after 1 year (Giblin-Davis, 1990).
ReferencesTop of page
Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes. Their Bionomics and Control. Gainesville, Florida: Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Florida.
Giblin-Davis RM, 1990. Potential for biological control of phytoparasitic nematodes in Bermudagrass turf with isolates of the Pasteuria penetrans group. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 103:349-351
Graham TW, 1952. Nematodes as ectoparasites on tobacco, cotton and other plants. Phytopathology, 42:9.
Holdeman QL, 1955. The present known distribution of the sting nematode, Belonolaimus gracilis, in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. Plant Disease Reporter, 39:5-8.
Hutchinson MT; Reed JB, 1956. The sting nematode, Belonolaimus gracilis, found in New Jersey. Plant Disease Reporter, 40:1049.
Kepenekci I, 2001. Taxonomic investigations on the species of Tylenchida (Nematoda) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) fields in Marmara Region. (Marmara Bölgesi'nde ayçiçegi (Helianthus annuus L.) ekilis alanlarInda saptanan Tylenchida (Nematoda) türleri üzerinde taksonomik arastIrmalar.) Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 41(3/4):101-134.
Miller LI, 1972. The influence of soil texture on the survival of Belonolaimus longicaudatus. Phytopathology, 62:670-671.
Owens JV, 1950. Sting nematode found hostile toward Virginia peanuts. Peanut J. Nut World, 30:31.
Owens JV, 1951. The pathological effects of Belonolaimus gracilis on peanuts in Virginia. Phytopathology, 41:29.
Perry VG; Rhoades HL, 1982. The genus Belonolaimus. In: Riggs RD, ed. Nematology in the Southern Region of the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 276. Fayetville, USA: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas, 144-149.
Rau GJ, 1958. A new species of sting nematode. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 25:95-98.
Rau GJ, 1961. Amended description of Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner, 1949 and B. longicaudatus Rau, 1958 (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 28:198-200.
Rau GJ, 1963. Three new species of Belonolaimus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) with additional data on B. longicaudatus and B. gracilis. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 30:119-128.
Riggs RD, 1961. Sting nematodes in Arkansas. Plant Disease Reporter, 45:392.
Russell CC; Sturgeon RV, 1969. Occurrence of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Ditylenchus dipsaci in Oklahoma. Phytopathology, 59:118.
Thorne G, 1961. Principles of Nematology. London, UK: McGraw Hill.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes. Their Bionomics and Control., Gainesville, Florida, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Florida.
Handoo Z A, Skantar A M, Mulrooney R P, 2010. First report of the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus on soybean in Delaware. Plant Disease. 94 (1), 133. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-1-0133B
Kepenekcİ İ, 2001. Taxonomic investigations on the species of Tylenchida (Nematoda) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) fields in Marmara Region. (Marmara Bölgesi'nde ayçiçeği (Helianthus annuus L.) ekiliș alanlarında saptanan Tylenchida (Nematoda) türleri üzerinde taksonomik araștırmalar.). Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 41 (3/4), 101-134.
Pathan M A, Talpur M A, Jiskani M M, Wagan K H, 2004. Studies on plant parasitic nematodes associated with banana in Sindh, Pakistan. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 7 (2), 249-252. DOI:10.1016/S1226-8615(08)60223-X
Perry VG, Rhoades HL, 1982. The genus Belonolaimus. In: Nematology in the Southern Region of the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, 276 [ed. by Riggs RD]. Fayetville, USA: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas. 144-149.
Qaiser Shakeel, Anwar S A, Nazir Javed, Shahid M, 2009. Incidence of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica infecting sugarcane, Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 21 (1), 66-70.
Riggs RD, 1961. Sting nematodes in Arkansas. In: Plant Disease Reporter, 45 392.
Russell CC, Sturgeon RV, 1969. Occurrence of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Ditylenchus dipsaci in Oklahoma. In: Phytopathology, 59 118.
Zeng Y S, Ye W M, Tredway L, Martin S, Martin M, 2012. Taxonomy and morphology of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with turfgrasses in north and South Carolina, USA. Zootaxa. 1-46. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/zt03452p046.pdf
Distribution MapsTop of page
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