Invasive Species Compendium

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Clarias gariepinus

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Datasheet

Clarias gariepinus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clarias gariepinus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Clarias gariepinus has all the qualities of an aggressive and successful invasive species. Its high fecundity, flexible phenotype, rapid growth, wide habitat preferences, tolerance to extreme water conditions a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, on a ford after jumping upsteam. Mlondozi Ford, S129 Road North of Lower Sabie, Kruger NP, South Africa. January, 2014.
TitleAdult
CaptionClarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, on a ford after jumping upsteam. Mlondozi Ford, S129 Road North of Lower Sabie, Kruger NP, South Africa. January, 2014.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont-2014/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Clarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, on a ford after jumping upsteam. Mlondozi Ford, S129 Road North of Lower Sabie, Kruger NP, South Africa. January, 2014.
AdultClarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, on a ford after jumping upsteam. Mlondozi Ford, S129 Road North of Lower Sabie, Kruger NP, South Africa. January, 2014.©Bernard Dupont-2014/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Clarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, captive speimen. Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. May, 2008.
TitleAdult
CaptionClarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, captive speimen. Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. May, 2008.
Copyright©Wibowo A. Djatmiko-2008/Bogor, West Java, Indonesia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, captive speimen. Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. May, 2008.
AdultClarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, captive speimen. Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. May, 2008.©Wibowo A. Djatmiko-2008/Bogor, West Java, Indonesia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, anterior section, captive speimen. Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. May, 2008.
TitleAdult
CaptionClarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, anterior section, captive speimen. Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. May, 2008.
Copyright©Wibowo A. Djatmiko-2008/Bogor, West Java, Indonesia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, anterior section, captive speimen. Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. May, 2008.
AdultClarias gariepinus (African sawtooth catfish); adult, anterior section, captive speimen. Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. May, 2008.©Wibowo A. Djatmiko-2008/Bogor, West Java, Indonesia/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clarias gariepinus; juvenile, showing distinct mottled body coloration.
TitleJuvenile
CaptionClarias gariepinus; juvenile, showing distinct mottled body coloration.
Copyright©Wing-Keong Ng
Clarias gariepinus; juvenile, showing distinct mottled body coloration.
JuvenileClarias gariepinus; juvenile, showing distinct mottled body coloration.©Wing-Keong Ng

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822

Other Scientific Names

  • Clarias capensis Valenciennes, 1840
  • Clarias depressus Myers, 1925
  • Clarias guentheri Pfeffer, 1896
  • Clarias lazera Valenciennes, 1840
  • Clarias longiceps Boulenger, 1899
  • Clarias macracanthus Günther, 1864
  • Clarias malaris Nichols & Griscom, 1917
  • Clarias micropthalmus Pfeffer, 1896
  • Clarias moorii Boulenger, 1901
  • Clarias mossambicus Peters, 1852
  • Clarias muelleri Pietschmann, 1939
  • Clarias notozygurus Lönnberg & Rendahl, 1922
  • Clarias orontis Günther, 1864
  • Clarias robecchii Vinciguerra, 1893
  • Clarias smithii Günther, 1896
  • Clarias syriacus Valenciennes, 1840
  • Clarias tsanensis Boulenger, 1902
  • Clarias vinciguerrae Boulenger, 1902
  • Clarias xenodon Günther, 1864
  • Silurus gariepinus Burchell, 1822

International Common Names

  • English: African catfish; African magur; catfish, African; mudfish; North African catfish; sharptooth catfish
  • Spanish: pez gato
  • French: poisson-chat nord-Africain
  • Russian: yuzhnoafrikanskaya zubatka
  • Arabic: abu shanab; balbout; garmut; karmut

Local Common Names

  • Angola: mburi
  • Cambodia: trey andaing Afrik
  • Ethiopia: ambaazaa
  • Germany: aalbuschelwels; Afrikanischer raubwels; Afrikanischer wels; kiemensackwels
  • Greece: klarias
  • Indonesia: keli Afrika
  • Israel: sfamnun matzui
  • Japan: namazu
  • Kenya: mumi
  • Malawi: mlamba
  • Malaysia: keli Afrika
  • Mozambique: nsomba
  • Namibia: skerptandbaber
  • Netherlands: Afrikaanse meerval
  • Nigeria: arira; aro; ejengi; imunu; kemudu; tarwada
  • Poland: stawada
  • Senegal: baleewu; bambara; talage; toucouleurs; yess
  • Sierra Leone: harlei; thamba; t-nima
  • South Africa: skerptandbaber
  • Sudan: attek; cik; cogo; kor; pet cick; pet der; tukpe
  • Tanzania: kambale; mlamba; mumi
  • Uganda: eyisombi
  • Zambia: mulonge; muta

Summary of Invasiveness

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Clarias gariepinus has all the qualities of an aggressive and successful invasive species. Its high fecundity, flexible phenotype, rapid growth, wide habitat preferences, tolerance to extreme water conditions and the ability to subsist on a wide variety of prey can devastate indigenous fish and aquatic invertebrate populations (Bruton, 1986). It is because of these characteristics that countries such as India have imposed a ban on the introduction and culture of C. gariepinus (Dhawan and Kaur, 2001). Nevertheless, the effects of the illegal and indiscriminate introduction of this fish into India, as in other countries, have brought about potential ecological problems such as the loss of biodiversity in natural inland waters (Singh, 2000). Genetic introgression of native wild clariid catfish by escapees of hybrid catfish (C. gariepinus x C. macrocephalus) from fish farms have been reported in Thailand (Senanan et al., 2004).

The introduction of C. gariepinus into Asia has resulted in the rapid expansion of the hybrid catfish culture when the exotic male C. gariepinus is hybridized with local female clariid species. The resultant hybrid with high growth rates and disease resistance (from paternal genes), and high flesh quality and taste (from maternal genes), is very popular with fish farmers and has almost completely replaced the native clariid catfish aquaculture in countries such as Thailand (Poompuang and Na-Nakorn, 2004). It has given a great boost to the aquaculture of clariid catfishes in many Asian countries and positively impacted the livelihoods of many catfish farmers.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Siluriformes
  •                         Family: Clariidae
  •                             Genus: Clarias
  •                                 Species: Clarias gariepinus

Description

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Clarias gariepinus are readily recognized by their cylindrical body with scaleless skin, flattened bony head, small eyes, elongated spineless dorsal fin and four pairs of barbels around a broad mouth. The upper surface of the head is coarsely granulated in adult fishes but smooth in young fish (Van Oijen, 1995). The anal, caudal and dorsal fins are not united. The males can be easily recognized by a distinct sexual papilla located immediately behind the anal opening. This sexual papilla is not present in female fish.

The body is greyish-black with the underside of the head and body a creamy-white colour (Van Oijen, 1995), with a distinct black longitudinal band on each side of the ventral surface of the head (which is absent in young fish of less than 9 cm long). Larger fish (more than 9 cm) are mottled with an overall grey-khaki colour. Skin coloration is known to change slightly according to substrate and light intensity in culture systems.

Distribution

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Clarias gariepinus is indigenous to the inland waters of much of Africa and they are also endemic in Asia Minor in countries such as Israel, Syria and the south of Turkey. C. gariepinus has been widely introduced to other parts of the world including the Netherlands, Hungary, much of South-East Asia and East Asia. This species can be cultivated in areas with a tropical climate, areas with access to geothermal waters or with the use of heated recirculating water systems. It is a hardy fish that can be densely stocked in low oxygen waters making it ideal for culture in areas with a limited water supply. Its air-breathing ability, high fecundity, fast growth rate, resistance to disease and high feed conversion efficiency makes C. gariepinus the freshwater species with the widest latitudinal range in the world.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988
CambodiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Csavas, 1995
ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988
IndiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Shaji et al., 2000
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Costa-Pierce and Soemarwoto, 1990
IraqPresentIntroducedFAO, 1997
IsraelPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
JordanPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
LaosPresentIntroduced Not invasive
LebanonPresentNative Not invasive Krupp and Schneider, 1989
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Invasive FAO, 1997
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1997
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Juliano et al., 1989
Saudi ArabiaPresent Not invasive FAO, 2002
SyriaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
ThailandPresentIntroduced Invasive FAO, 1997
TurkeyPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
VietnamPresentIntroduced Invasive FAO, 1997

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
BeninPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
BotswanaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
Burkina FasoPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
BurundiPresentNative Invasive Teugels, 1986
CameroonPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988
Central African RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
ChadPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
CongoPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1997
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
DjiboutiPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
EgyptPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
Equatorial GuineaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
EritreaPresentNative Not invasive Eschmeyer, 2003
EthiopiaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
GabonPresentIntroduced Invasive FAO, 1997
GambiaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
GhanaPresentNative Not invasive Beveridge and Haylor, 1998
GuineaPresentNative Not invasive FAO, 2002
Guinea-BissauPresentNative Not invasive Paugy et al., 1994
KenyaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
LesothoPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
LiberiaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
LibyaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
MalawiPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
MaliPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1997
MozambiquePresentNative Not invasive FAO, 1997
NamibiaPresentNative Not invasive FAO, 1997
NigerPresentNative Not invasive FAO, 1997
NigeriaPresentNative Not invasive Beveridge and Haylor, 1998
RwandaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
SenegalPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
Sierra LeonePresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
SomaliaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
South AfricaPresentNative Not invasive Beveridge and Haylor, 1998
SudanPresentNative Not invasive Bailey, 1994
SwazilandPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
TanzaniaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
TogoPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
UgandaPresentNative Not invasive Teugels, 1986
ZambiaPresentNative Not invasive Beveridge and Haylor, 1998
ZimbabwePresentNative Not invasive Bell-Cross and Minshull, 1988

Europe

BelgiumPresent Not invasive FAO, 2002
CyprusPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
FrancePresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1997
GreecePresent Not invasive FAO, 2002
HungaryPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1997
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
PolandPresentIntroduced Not invasive FAO, 1997
SlovakiaPresent Not invasive FAO, 2002

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Bangladesh Thailand 1989 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Cambodia 1982 UnknownCsavas (1995); Csavas (1995)
Cameroon 1972 UnknownWelcomme (1988)
China Central African Republic 1981 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes Welcomme (1988)
Congo 1973 UnknownFAO (1997)
Congo Democratic Republic 1972 UnknownWelcomme (1988)
Côte d'Ivoire 1972 UnknownWelcomme (1988)
Gabon UnknownFAO (1997)
India UnknownShaji et al. (2000)
Indonesia Netherlands 1985 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Research (pathway cause)
Government Yes Csavas (1995); Csavas (1995)
Laos 1980 Unknown; Kottelat (2001); Kottelat (2001a); Kottelat et al. (2001a)
Malaysia Thailand 1986-1989 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes Csavas (1995); Csavas (1995)
Mauritius 1989 UnknownFAO (1997)
Myanmar 1990 UnknownFAO (1997)
Netherlands Côte d'Ivoire Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Research (pathway cause)
Government|IndividualWelcomme (1988)
Philippines Thailand 1985 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes Juliano and et al. (1989); Juliano et al. (1989)
Thailand 1987 UnknownFAO (1997)
Vietnam Central African Republic 1974 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes FAO (1997)

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
aquatic insects/insect larvae Adult/Broodstock
crustacea Adult/Fry
molluscs Adult/Broodstock
plant debris Adult/Fry
terrestrial insects/insect larvae Adult/Broodstock
zooplankton Fry/Larval

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Crocodylus niloticus Predator Adult/Broodstock Whitfield and Blaber, 1979
Cybister Predator Larval Adeyemo et al., 1997
Eretes Predator Larval Adeyemo et al., 1997
Notonecta Predator Larval Adeyemo et al., 1997

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Native fauna Negative

References

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Adeyemo AA; Yakubu AF; Oladosu GA; Ayinla OA, 1997. Predation by aquatic insects on African catfish fry. Aquaculture International, 5(1):101-103.

Bailey RG, 1994. Guide to the fishes of the River Nile in the Republic of the Sudan. J. Nat. Hist., 28:937-970.

Bell-Cross G; Minshull JL, 1988. The fishes of Zimbabwe. National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe, Harare. 294 pp.

Beveridge MCM; Haylor GS, 1998. Warm-water farmed species. In: Black KD, Pickering AD, eds. Biology of Farmed Fish. Sheffield Academic Press, 393-394.

Britz PJ; Pienaar AG, 1992. Laboratory experiments on the effect of light and cover on the behaviour and growth of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Pisces: Clariidae). Journal of Zoology, 227:43-62.

Bruton MN, 1979. Breeding biology and early development of Clarias gariepinus (Pisces: Clariidae) in Lake Sibaya, South Africa, with a review of breeding in species of the subgenus Clarias. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 35(1):1-46.

Bruton MN, 1979. The food and feeding behaviour of C. gariepinus (Pisces: Clariidae) in Lake Sibaya, S. Africa, with emphasis on its role as a predator of cichlids. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 35:47-114.

Bruton MN, 1986. The life history styles of invasive fishes in southern Africa. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA, eds. The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in southern Africa, Oxford University Press, Cape Town, 201-209.

Costa-Pierce BA; Soemarwoto O, 1990. Reservoir fisheries and aquaculture development for resettlement in Indonesia. ICLARM Technical Report, No. 23:x + 378pp.; [tab., fig., maps]; ref.

Csavas I, 1995. Status and perspectives of culturing catfishes in East and South-East Asia. Presented at the International Workshop on the Biological Bases for Aquaculture of Siluriformes, May, Montpellier, France.

De Graaf G; Janssen H, 1996. Artificial reproduction and pond rearing of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus in sub-Saharan Africa. A handbook. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper no. 362: FAO, Rome, 73 pp.

Degani G; Ben-Zvi Y; Levanon D, 1989. The effect of different protein levels and temperatures on feed utilization, growth and body composition of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Aquaculture, 76:293-301.

Dhawan A; Kaur K, 2001. Clarias gariepinus in Punjab waters. Fishing Chimes, 21:56.

Eding EH; Schneider O; Ouwerkerk ENJ; Klapwijk A; Verreth JAJ; Aarnink AJA, 2002. The effect of fish biomass and denitrification on the energy balance in African catfish farms. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture, Virginia, USA, 20-23 July, 2000. US Department of Agriculture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA.

Efiuvwevwere BJO; Ajiboye MO, 1996. Control of microbiological quality and shelf-life of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by chemical preservatives and smoking. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 80:465-470.

Eschmeyer WN, 2003. Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2003. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2003.

Fagbenro OA; Balogun AM; Fasakin EA, 1998. Dietary methionine requirement of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 8(4):47-54.

Fagbenro OA; Balogun AM; Fasakin EA; Bello-Olusoji OA, 1998. Dietary lysine requirement of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 8(2):71-77; 15 ref.

Fagbenro OA; Nwanna LC, 1999. Dietary tryptophan requirement of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 9(1):65-72.

Fagbenro OA; Nwanna LC; Adebayo OT, 1999. Dietary arginine requirement of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 9(1):59-64.

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. FAO, Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

FAO, 2002. Aquaculture production: values 1984-2001. FAO Yearbook. Fishery statistics. Aquaculture production 2001 vol. 92/2. FAO, Rome.

Galbusera P; Volckaert FA; Hellemans B; Ollevier F, 1996. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Molecular Ecology, 5(5):703-705.

Graaf GJde; Galemoni F; Banzoussi B, 1995. Artificial reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822), in protected and unprotected ponds. Aquaculture Research, 26(4):233-242.

Haylor GS, 1991. Controlled hatchery production of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822): growth and survival of fry at high stocking density. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 22(4):405-422; 30 ref.

Haylor GS, 1993. Aspects of the biology and culture of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) with particular reference to developing African countries. Recent Advances in Aquaculture, 4:233-294.

Hecht T; Oellermann L; Verheust L, 1996. Perspectives on clariid catfish culture in Africa. In: Legendre M, Proteau JP, eds. The Biology and Culture of Catfishes, Aquatic Living Resources, 197-206.

Henken AM; Boon JB; Cattel BC; Lobée HWJ, 1987. Differences in growth rate and feed utilization between male and female African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Aquaculture, 63(1-4):221-232; 9 ref.

Henken AM; Machiels MAM; Dekker W; Hogendoorn H, 1986. The effect of dietary protein and energy content on growth rate and feed utilization of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Aquaculture, 58(1/2):55-74.

Hossain MA; Begum S; Islam MN; Shah AKMA, 1998. Studies on the optimum protein to energy ratio of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell). Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries Research, 2:47-54.

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Huisman EA; Richter CJJ, 1987. Reproduction, growth, health control and aquacultural potential of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Aquaculture, 63(1-4):1-14.

Jubb RA, 1967. Freshwater Fishes of southern Africa. AA Balkema, Cape Town/Amsterdam, 248 pp.

Juliano RO; Guerrero R III; Ronquillo I, 1989. The introduction of exotic aquatic species in the Philippines. In: De Silva SS, ed. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia: The Asian Fisheries Society, 83-90.

Klinkhardt M; Tesche M; Greven H, 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, 179 pp.

Kottelat M, 2001. Fishes of Laos. Colombo, Sri Lanka: WHT Publications Ltd., 198 pp.

Kovács B; Egedi S; Bártfai R; Orbán L, 2000. Male-specific DNA markers from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Genetica, 110(3):267-276.

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Lim PhaikKin; Boey PengLim; Ng WingKeong, 2001. Dietary palm oil level affects growth performance, protein retention and tissue vitamin E concentration of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Aquaculture, 202(1/2):101-112.

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Ng WingKeong; Lim PhaikKin; Boey PengLim, 2003. Dietary lipid and palm oil source affects growth, fatty acid composition and muscle -tocopherol concentration of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Aquaculture, 215(1/4):229-243.

Ng WK, 2002. The nutrient requirements of clariid catfishes. Aqua Feed International, 5:14-18.

Nwadukwe FO, 1995. Analysis of production, early growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), Heterobranchus longifilis (Val.) (Pisces: Clariidae) and their F1 hybrids in ponds. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 29:177-182.

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Prinsloo JF; Schoonbee HJ, 1992. Evaluation of the poly- and monoculture production of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) in final effluent oxidation pond water of a sewage purification system. Water SA, 18:7-12.

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Rahman MM; Varga I; Choudhury SN, 1992. Manual on African magur (Clarias gariepinus) culture in Bangladesh. FAO/UNDP Project on Institution Strengthening in the Fisheries Sector, Dhaka, Bangladesh. FAO/UNDP, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 43 pp.

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Senanan W; Kapuscinski AR; Na-Nakorn U; Miller LM, 2004. Genetic impacts of hybrid catfish farming (Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus) on native catfish populations in central Thailand. Aquaculture, 235:167-184.

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Singh AK, 2000. Impact of unauthorized exotic fish introduction on conservation and aquacultural development of the northeast region. In: Ponniah AG, Sarkar UK, eds. Proceedings of the National Workshop on northeast Indian fish Germplasm Inventory and Conservation, Meghalaya, India: NBFGR, India, 155-156.

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Tonguthai K; Chinabut S; Limsuwan C; Somsiri T; Chanratchakool P; Kanchanakhan S; MacRae IH, 1993. Handbook of Hybrid Catfish: Husbandry and Health. Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, 37 pp.

Trzebiatowski R; Filipiak J; Sadowski J, 1993. Feeding of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) with feeds containing different fat levels. In: Carrillo M, Dahle L, Morales J, Sorgeloos P, Svennevig N, Wyban J, eds. Special Publication of the European Aquaculture Society no. 19, 279.

Van Oijen MJP, 1995. Key to Lake Victoria fishes other than haplochromine cichlids, Appendix I. In: Witte F, Van Densen WLT, eds. Fish Stocks and Fisheries of Lake Victoria. A Handbook for Field Observations. UK: Samara Publishing Limited, 209-300.

Van Weerd JH, 1995. Nutrition and growth in Clarias species: a review. Aquatic Living Resources, 8:395-401.

Verreth J; Bieman Hden, 1987. Quantitative feed requirements of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell) larvae fed with decapsulated cysts of Artemia. 1. The effect of temperature and feeding level. Aquaculture, 63(1-4):251-267.

Verreth JAJ; Eding EH, 1993. European farming industry of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Facts and figures. Aquaculture Europe, 18:6-13.

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Wedekind H, 1995. Growth, body composition and meat quality in African catfish from two pure breeds and one hybrid population. Advances in Fisheries Science, 12:107-116.

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Links to Websites

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Planet Catfishhttp://www.planetcatfish.com

Contributors

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Main Author
Wing-Keong Ng
Fish Nutrition Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia

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