Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Clarias batrachus
(walking catfish)

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Datasheet

Clarias batrachus (walking catfish)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clarias batrachus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • walking catfish
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Originating in South-East Asia, C. batrachus, the walking catfish, has been introduced throughout the world for the purposes of aquaculture and as an ornamental aquarium fish. Its ability to ‘walk’ over land aide...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Trash fish (pile on right) and rice bran (powder on the left) are fed into a conveyor screw leading to a meat mincer to produce on-farm feeds for the culture of Clarias batrachus.
TitleFeed production for Clarias batrachus (a)
CaptionTrash fish (pile on right) and rice bran (powder on the left) are fed into a conveyor screw leading to a meat mincer to produce on-farm feeds for the culture of Clarias batrachus.
Copyright©Wing-Keong Ng
Trash fish (pile on right) and rice bran (powder on the left) are fed into a conveyor screw leading to a meat mincer to produce on-farm feeds for the culture of Clarias batrachus.
Feed production for Clarias batrachus (a)Trash fish (pile on right) and rice bran (powder on the left) are fed into a conveyor screw leading to a meat mincer to produce on-farm feeds for the culture of Clarias batrachus.©Wing-Keong Ng
The resultant ground trash fish: rice bran moist paste are collected into buckets, moulded into hand-sized lumps and fed manually to the catfish.
TitleFeed production for Clarias batrachus (b)
CaptionThe resultant ground trash fish: rice bran moist paste are collected into buckets, moulded into hand-sized lumps and fed manually to the catfish.
Copyright©Wing-Keong Ng
The resultant ground trash fish: rice bran moist paste are collected into buckets, moulded into hand-sized lumps and fed manually to the catfish.
Feed production for Clarias batrachus (b)The resultant ground trash fish: rice bran moist paste are collected into buckets, moulded into hand-sized lumps and fed manually to the catfish.©Wing-Keong Ng
Clarias batrachus.
TitleAdult fish
CaptionClarias batrachus.
CopyrightMd. Sharif Uddin
Clarias batrachus.
Adult fishClarias batrachus.Md. Sharif Uddin
Clarias batrachus.
TitleClarias batrachus
CaptionClarias batrachus.
CopyrightM. Hossain/BAU
Clarias batrachus.
Clarias batrachusClarias batrachus.M. Hossain/BAU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • walking catfish

Other Scientific Names

  • Clarias assamensis Day, 1877
  • Clarias jagur Hamilton, 1822
  • Clarias magur Hamilton, 1822
  • Clarias punctatus Valenciennes, 1840
  • Macropteronotus jagur Hamilton, 1822
  • Macropteronotus magur Hamilton, 1822
  • Silurus batrachus Linnaeus, 1758

International Common Names

  • English: albino walking fish; catfish, walking; clarias catfish; climbing perch; freshwater catfish; magur; Philippine catfish; thai hito; thailand catfish; toyman's spotted catfish
  • Russian: klarievyi som

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: koi; magur
  • Cambodia: trey andaing roueng; trey andeng; trey andèng
  • Denmark: vandremalle
  • Finland: konnamonni
  • Germany: froschwels; waanderwels; Wanderwels
  • India: khamagur; kug-aa; kug-ga; magur; mahgur; mah-gur; mangri; marpoo; masarai; ngakra; yerivahlay
  • Indonesia: cá trèn tráng; ikan keeling; ikan keling; ikan lele; leleh
  • Laos: pa douk; pla douk
  • Malaysia: ikan lele; keli
  • Myanmar: nga-khoo
  • Nepal: mungri
  • Philippines: alimudan; hito; hitong batukan; ito; kawatsi; paltat; pantat; Thai hito
  • Sweden: ålmal
  • Thailand: pla duk; pla duk dam; pla duk dan; pla duk nam jued; pla duk nam juend; plad duk dan
  • Vietnam: cá trê tráng; cá trèn trang

Summary of Invasiveness

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Originating in South-East Asia, C. batrachus, the walking catfish, has been introduced throughout the world for the purposes of aquaculture and as an ornamental aquarium fish. Its ability to ‘walk’ over land aided by its pectoral fins, combined with high fecundity and voracious feeding habits have led to this species becoming both a threat to native fish species and an invader of fish farms.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Siluriformes
  •                         Family: Clariidae
  •                             Genus: Clarias
  •                                 Species: Clarias batrachus

Description

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C. batrachus has an elongated body, broad at the anterior and narrow at the posterior. C. batrachus is similar in size and appearance to C. macrocephalus but can be distinguished from the latter species by the shape of the occipital process in the head portion. The occipital process is round-shaped in C. macrocephalus but pointed in C. batrachus. Unlike C. macrocephalus, C. batrachus does not have large numbers of small white spots along the sides of its body (Teugels et al., 1999). C. batrachus lacks an adipose fin. Dorsal and anal fins are without spines, pectoral fins are strong with fine serrations on both edges, pelvic fins are small and the caudal fin is not confluent with dorsal or anal fin. The mouth is wide and has four pairs of well-developed barbels, with the maxillary barbels reaching to the middle or base of the pectoral fin (Talwar and Jhingran, 1991).

The body of the normal coloured variety is greyish to olive in colour with a whitish underside. Other varieties include albino with a white body and reddish eyes, and a pink variety with normal coloured eyes (Axelrod et al., 1971). Various multi-coloured varieties are becoming more common in the tropical fish aquarium trade.

Distribution

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C. batrachus is indigenous to the inland waters of South-East Asia in the Mekong and Chao Phraya basins, the Malaysian Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo. It also inhabits the inland waters of South Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Laos, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia and Brunei Darussalam. This species can be cultivated in areas with a tropical climate. Like the African catfish, C. gariepinus, it is a hardy fish that can be densely stocked in low oxygen waters making it ideal for culture in areas with a limited water supply. Unlike C. gariepinus, C. batrachus is not widely cultivated outside of its natural range, probably due to its slower growth rates compared to the African species. C. batrachus has been introduced into countries such as Guam, Philippines, China, Taiwan, the UK, the USA (Florida) and Papua New Guinea either for the aquaculture or for the ornamental fish trade.

Within the United States, Nico (2007, and references within) lists non-indigenous occurrences of C. batrachus in California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts and Nevada.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Pacific, Western CentralPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeRahman , 1989; Froese and Pauly, 2004
CambodiaPresentNativeKottelat , 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ChinaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-Hong KongPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
IndiaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-Uttar PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndonesiaPresentNativeAllen , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
JapanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2009
LaosPresentNativeKottelat , 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MalaysiaPresentNativeKottelat , 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MyanmarPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
NepalPresentNativeShrestha , 1994; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PakistanPresentNativeKottelat , 1985; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SingaporePresentNativeMenon , 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Sri LankaPresentNativePethiyagoda , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TaiwanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ThailandPresentNativeVidthayanon and et al. , 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
VietnamPresentNativeKottelat , 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004

North America

USAPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedNico, 2007
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedNico, 2007
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Courtenay and et al. , 1974; Welcomme, 1988; Nico, 2007
-GeorgiaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNico, 2007
-MassachusettsPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNico, 2007
-NevadaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedNico, 2007

Europe

UKPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988

Oceania

GuamPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedAllen , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. batrachus was imported into Florida for the aquarium trade in the 1960s and it is suggested they were purposefully released by fish farmers in the late 1960s (Nico, 2007, and references within).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
China Thailand 1978 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sectorFAO (1997)
Guam Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Hong Kong Thailand 1970 Aquaculture (pathway cause)UnknownWelcomme (1988)
Japan   Yes Froese and Pauly (2007)
Papua New Guinea Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Philippines Thailand 1972 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Juliano and et al. (1989); Juliano et al. (1989)
Sulawesi Java 1939 Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes FAO (1997)
Taiwan Thailand 1972 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
UK South East Asia Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)UnknownWelcomme (1988)
USA Thailand 1960-1969 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FAO (1997)

Habitat

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C. batrachus inhabits lowland streams, swamps, ponds ditches, rice paddies, rivers, flooded areas, canals and stagnant water (Froese and Pauly, 2009).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Present, no further details
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details
Lakes Present, no further details
Terrestrial-managed
Pig farms Present, no further details
Poultry farms Present, no further details
Ricefields Present, no further details
Rural areas Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Floodplains Present, no further details
Wetlands Present, no further details

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
benthic algae Adult/Fry/Larval
chironomid larvae Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval
detritus Adult/Fry/Larval
dragonfly nymphs Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval
finfish Adult/Broodstock
insect eggs and pupae Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval
molluscs Adult/Broodstock
ostracods Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval
other zoobenthos Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval
weeds Adult/Fry/Larval
worms Adult/Broodstock

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 3.42 Harmful Fry LC 50 value
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) 15.78 Harmful Fry LC 50 value
Nitrite (mg/l) 35.60 Harmful Fry LC 50 value
Water pH (pH) 6-9 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) >1 <3 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <9.8 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 Optimum Adult

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Dispersal has occurred via networks of canals and also by overland migration on rainy nights (Nico, 2007).

Pathway Causes

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Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes Yes
Pets and aquarium species Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Native fauna Negative

Environmental Impact

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C. batrachus was introduced into Florida, USA from Thailand and was accidentally released into the aquatic environment from the Penagra Aquariums, west of Deerfield Beach in Broward county, during the mid 1960s (Courtenay et al., 1974). In the 1970s, this exotic catfish species expanded to more than 25% of the freshwater area of Florida (Courtenay, 1978) and is considered as one of the most invasive and harmful non-indigenous species in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem. The rapid spread of C. batrachus throughout Florida is a potential threat to native fish species due to its voracious and opportunistic feeding habits, high fecundity and its ability to migrate on land. Courtenay and Miley (1975) reported that in small wetland pools during the dry season, C. batrachus can quickly become the dominant species due to its air-breathing abilities.

In the Philippines, the exotic C. batrachus has displaced many of the native catfish species including the indigenous Clarias macrocephalus in irrigation canals, lakes and rivers (Juliano et al., 1989). In Taiwan, the faster growth of the introduced C. batrachus has led to the diminished importance of the local Clarias fuscus as a cultured species (Liao and Lia, 1989). In both these countries, despite the obvious economic benefits from aquaculture of an introduced species, the demand for the local indigenous catfish species is still higher and commands a better market value.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly mobile locally

Uses List

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General

  • Aquaria fish
  • Pet/aquarium trade

Human food and beverage

  • Cured meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
  • Whole

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Clarias gariepinus
C. gariepinus x C. batrachus

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

Florida state banned the importation and possession of catfish in the late 1960s (Courtney and Stauffer, 1990 in Nico, 2007).

Control

Physical/mechanical control

In Florida, fish farmers have erected protective fences around their ponds to prevent the entry of Clarias batrachus which prey on their fish stocks (Courtney and Stauffer, 1990 in Nico, 2007).

References

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Ali AB, 1989. Some ecological aspects of fish population in tropical rice fields. Hydrobiologia, 190:215-222.

Allen GR, 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Madang, Papua New Guinea: Christensen Research Institute, 180 pp.

Anwar MF; Jafri AK, 1995. Effect of dietary lipid levels on growth, feed conversion, and muscle composition of the walking catfish, Clarias batrachus. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 5(2):61-71; 27 ref.

Areerat S, 1987. Clarias culture in Thailand. Aquaculture, 63(1-4):355-362.

Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Axelrod HR; Emmens CW; Sculthrope D; Winkler WV; Pronek N, 1971. Exotic Tropical Fishes. Jersey City, NJ: TFH Publications, Inc.

Bassleer G, 2003. The new illustrated guide to fish diseases in ornamental tropical and pond fish. Belgium: Bassleer Biofish, 232 pp.

Chanratchakool P, 2000. Use of sodium chloride to reduce mortality of walking catfish fry (Clarias batrachus Linn.) from transportation. MSc Thesis. Bangkok, Thailand: Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, 15-16.

Choochote S, 2000. Studies on diseases of walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) cultured in circular concrete ponds. MSc Thesis. Bangkok, Thailand: Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, 6.

Choudhary LK; Thakur PK; Munshi JSD, 1990. Seasonal variations in food and feeding habits of an air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) of the Kosi Region (North Bihar). Journal of Freshwater Biology, 2:275-283.

Chuapoehuk W, 1987. Protein requirements of walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus), fry. Aquaculture, 63(1-4):215-219.

Courtenay WR Jr, 1978. Additional range expansion in Florida of the introduced walking catfish. Environmental Conservation, 5:273-275.

Courtenay WR Jr; Miley WW, 1975. Range expansion and environmental impress of the introduced walking catfish in the United States. Environmental Conservation, 2:145-148.

Courtenay WR Jr; Sahlman HF; Miley WW; Herrema DJ, 1974. Exotic fish in fresh and brackish waters of Florida. Biological Conservation, 6:292-302.

Das D; Sahu NP; Reddy AK, 1999. Indian and Thai magur culture: Present status, perspectives and constraints. Fishing Chimes, 19:11-15.

Erfanullah J, 1998. Effect of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratio on growth and body composition of walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). Aquaculture, 161:159-168.

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. FAO, Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Fitzgerald WJ Jr, 1988. Comparative economics of four aquaculture species under monoculture and polyculture in Guam. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 19:132-142.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2007. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Froese R; Pauly D, 2009. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Hadie W; Pouyaud L; Sudarto, 2000. Genetic diversity of the Asian walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (L. 1758). Abstracts of Biodiversity and Aquaculture of South-east Asian Catfishes, Bogor, Indonesia, 14.

Hensley DA; Courtenay WR, 1980. Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus) Walking catfish. In: Lee DS, Gilbert CR, Hocutt CH, Jenkins RE, McAllister DE, Stauffer JR Jr, eds. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, 854 pp.

Jayaram KC, 1981. The freshwater fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka – A handbook. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India, 475 pp.

Juliano RO; Guerrero R III; Ronquillo I, 1989. The introduction of exotic aquatic species in the Philippines. In: De Silva SS, ed. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia: The Asian Fisheries Society, 83-90.

Kamarudin MS; Mohsin AKM; Mastol MR, 1987. Chemical compositions of Malaysian freshwater catfish (Suborder-Siluroidea). Advances in animal feeds and feeding in the tropics. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Conference of the Malaysian Society of Animal Production, Genting Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia, April 2-4, 1987, 201-205.

Khan MA; Jafri AK, 1990. On the dietary protein requirement of Clarias batrachus Linnaeus. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 5(2):191-198.

Kijaswat P, 2000. Histology of walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). MSc Thesis. Bangkok, Thailand: Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, 12-13.

Knud-Hansen CF; Batterson TR; McNabb CD; Hadiroseyani Y; Dana D; Eidman HM, 1990. Hatchery techniques for egg and fry production of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus). Aquaculture, 89(1):9-19.

Kottelat M, 1985. Fresh-water fishes of Kampuchea. Hydrobiologia, 121:249-279.

Kottelat M, 1998. Fishes of the Nam Theun and Xe Bangfai basins, Laos, with diagnoses of twenty-two new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Coiidae and Odontobutidae). Ichthyological Exploration in Freshwater, 9:1-128.

Liao IC; Lia HC, 1989. Exotic aquatic species in Taiwan. In: DeSilva SS, ed. Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, 101-118.

Lilabati H; Bijen M; Vishwanath W, 1993. Comparative study on the nutritive values of fresh and smoked catfish, Clarias batrachus Linn. Journal of Freshwater Biology, 5:325-330.

Menon AGK, 1999. Check list - fresh water fishes of India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Misc. Publ., Occas. Pap. No. 175, 234-259.

Middendorp HAJ, 1992. Contribution of stocked and wild fish in ricefields to fish production and farmer nutrition in Northeast Thailand. Asian Fisheries Science, 5:145-161.

Mukhopadhyay PK; Mishra S, 1998. Effect of feeding different lipid sources on growth, feed efficiency and tissue fatty acid composition of Clarias batrachus fry and fingerlings. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 14(1/2):105-107; 17 ref.

NBFGR, 1998. Fish chromosome atlas. Lucknow, India: National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Special Publication, No. 1, 332 pp.

Ng WK, 2002. The nutrient requirements of clariid catfishes. Aqua Feed International, 5:14-18.

Nguyen VK; Pham TL, 1998. Some biological characteristics of Clarias batrachus and preliminary results on the hybridization between Clarias batrachus and Clarias gariepinus. In: Legendre M, Pariselle A, eds. The Biological Diversity and Aquaculture of Clariid and Pangasiid Catfishes in South-east Asia, IRD, France, 191-193.

Nico L, 2007. Clarias batrachus. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, FL: USGS.

Pandey N; Lakra WS, 1996. Evidence of female heterogamety, B-chromosome and natural tetraploidy in the Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus, used in aquaculture. Aquaculture, 149(1/2):31-37.

Pethiyagoda R, 1991. Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo, 362 pp.

Poompuang S; Na-Nakorn U, 2004. A preliminary genetic map of walking catfish (Clarias macrocephalus). Aquaculture, 232(1/4):195-203.

Rahman AKA, 1989. Freshwater fishes of Bangladesh. Zoological Society of Bangladesh. Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, 364 pp.

Rahman MA; Bhadra A; Begum N; Islam MS; Hussain MG, 1995. Production of hybrid vigor through cross breeding between Clarias batrachus Lin. and Clarias gariepinus Bur. Aquaculture, 138(1/4):125-130.

Richa Tikariha; Maya Shedpure, 2002. Effect of starvation on the characteristics of 24-h rhythm in surfacing activity of an Indian freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Biological Rhythm Research, 33(2):121-128.

Rustidja MS; Richter CJJ; Sumawidjaja K; Huisman EA, 1993. Triploidy and growth performance in the Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus L. In: Penman D, Roongratri N, McAndrew B, eds. Genetics in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, AADCP Workshop Proceedings, University of Stirling, Scotland, 145-150.

Saha MR; Mollah MFA; Roy PK, 1998. Rearing of Clarias batrachus (Lin.) larvae with formulated diets. Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries Research, 2:41-46.

Sahoo SK; Giri SS; Sahu AK, 2004. Effect of stocking density on growth and survival of Clarias batrachus (Linn.) larvae and fry during hatchery rearing. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 20:302-305.

Shrestha J, 1994. Fishes, fishing implements and methods of Nepal. Lalitpur Colony, Lashkar (Gwalior), India, 150 pp.

Teugels GG; Diego RC; Pouyaud L; Legendre M, 1999. Redescription of Clarias macrocephalus (siluriformes: Clariidae) from Southeast Asia. Cybium, 23:285-295.

Thakur NK, 1980. Notes on the embryonic and larval development of an air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Journal of the Inland Fisheries Society of India, 12:30-43.

Thakur NK; Das P, 1985. Synopsis of biological data on magur Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus) 1758. Bulletin of Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, India, No. 41, 82 pp.

Tripathi SD, 1996. Present status of breeding and culture of catfishes in South Asia. Aquatic Living Resources, 9:219-228.

Van Weerd JH, 1995. Nutrition and growth in Clarias species: a review. Aquatic Living Resources, 8:395-401.

Varghese TJ; Devaraj KV; Satyanarayana Rao GP, 1973. Food of juveniles of the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Journal of the Inland Fisheries Society of India, Barrackpore, 5:78-81.

Verreth J; Eding EH; Rao GRM; Huskens F; Segner H, 1993. A review of feeding practices, growth and nutritional physiology in larvae of the catfishes Clarias gariepinus and Clarias batrachus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 24(2):135-144; [23].

Vidthayanon C; Karnasuta J; Nabhitabhata J, 1997. Diversity of freshwater fishes in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, 102 pp.

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp.

Wilson RP; Moreau Y, 1996. Nutrient requirements of catfishes (Siluroidei). Aquatic Living Resources, 9:103-111.

Zaman Z; Leong TS, 1987. Occurrence of the caryophyllid cestode Lytocestus parvulus Furtado, 1963, in Clarias batrachus (L.) in a tropical environment, Kedah, Malaysia. Journal of Fish Biology, 31:591-596.

Zheng WB; Pan JH; Lui WS, 1988. Culture of catfish in China. Aquaculture, 75(1-2):35-44.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Aqua Worldhttp://aquaworld.netfirms.com
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissionhttp://nis.gsmfc.org/
Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Piercehttp://www.sms.si.edu
The Age of Aquariumshttp://www.aquahobby.com
Your internet guide to all things catfishhttp://www.scotcat.com

Contributors

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20/01/2010 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, OX10 8DE, UK

Main Author
Wing-Keong Ng
Fish Nutrition Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia

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