Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Chrysomya bezziana
(Old World screw-worm)

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Datasheet

Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chrysomya bezziana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Old World screw-worm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The first specimens of Chrysomya bezziana were recovered from myiases on cattle hosts in the Congo, Central Africa in 1909 (Rovère, 1910). The endemic distribution of C. bezziana includ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); oviposition - females laying eggs on a wounded steer.
TitleOviposition
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); oviposition - females laying eggs on a wounded steer.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); oviposition - females laying eggs on a wounded steer.
OvipositionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); oviposition - females laying eggs on a wounded steer.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); pair copulating.
TitleAdults mating
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); pair copulating.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); pair copulating.
Adults matingChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); pair copulating.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); females ovipositing on wounded steer.
TitleOviposition
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); females ovipositing on wounded steer.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); females ovipositing on wounded steer.
OvipositionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); females ovipositing on wounded steer.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); wound myiasis - early stage of myiasis, with second and early third instar larvae of C.bezziana in a feeding aggregation.
TitleEarly stage of myiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); wound myiasis - early stage of myiasis, with second and early third instar larvae of C.bezziana in a feeding aggregation.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); wound myiasis - early stage of myiasis, with second and early third instar larvae of C.bezziana in a feeding aggregation.
Early stage of myiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); wound myiasis - early stage of myiasis, with second and early third instar larvae of C.bezziana in a feeding aggregation.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); mature third instar larvae in a bovine wound.
TitleThird instar larvae
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); mature third instar larvae in a bovine wound.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); mature third instar larvae in a bovine wound.
Third instar larvaeChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); mature third instar larvae in a bovine wound.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); larvae evacuating the wound after completing feeding.
TitleFinal instar larvae
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); larvae evacuating the wound after completing feeding.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); larvae evacuating the wound after completing feeding.
Final instar larvaeChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); larvae evacuating the wound after completing feeding.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiais of navel of new-born buffalo calf. Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiais
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiais of navel of new-born buffalo calf. Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiais of navel of new-born buffalo calf. Papua New Guinea.
MyiaisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiais of navel of new-born buffalo calf. Papua New Guinea.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of bovine scrotum following castration. Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of bovine scrotum following castration. Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of bovine scrotum following castration. Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of bovine scrotum following castration. Papua New Guinea.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's rectum. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's rectum. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's rectum. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's rectum. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's vulva. Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's vulva. Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's vulva. Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's vulva. Papua New Guinea.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of dog. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of dog. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©D.P.A. Sands-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of dog. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of dog. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.©D.P.A. Sands-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of a cat (Felis catus). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of a cat (Felis catus). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of a cat (Felis catus). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of a cat (Felis catus). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis in human eye orbit.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis in human eye orbit.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis in human eye orbit.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis in human eye orbit.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); imported Australian sheep with C.bezziana myiasis. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
TitleInfested sheep
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); imported Australian sheep with C.bezziana myiasis. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Copyright©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); imported Australian sheep with C.bezziana myiasis. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Infested sheepChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); imported Australian sheep with C.bezziana myiasis. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.©DrJ. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, 1914

Preferred Common Name

  • Old World screw-worm

International Common Names

  • English: Old World screwworm; Old World Screw-worm fly; screw worm

English acronym

  • OWS
  • OWSWF

Summary of Invasiveness

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The first specimens of Chrysomya bezziana were recovered from myiases on cattle hosts in the Congo, Central Africa in 1909 (Rovère, 1910). The endemic distribution of C. bezziana includes much of central Africa from Sierra Leone in the west to Kenya in the east and to northern South Africa, and probably widespread in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. In the Middle East, C. bezziana is endemic to Saudi Arabia, Iran, United Arab Emirates and Sultanate of Oman (Spradbery and Kirk, 1992; Spradbery et al., 1992) and has been accidentally introduced to Yemen, as well as Bahrain and Kuwait, the latter two countries through shipments of livestock passing the Gulf of Oman en route to ports in the Persian Gulf (Kloft et al., 1981). In 1996, a major outbreak occurred in Iraq, exacerbated by a lack of veterinary response due to United Nations sanctions on the country prevailing at that time. The only live incursion into Australia by C. bezziana was recorded in 1988, when a number of adult flies were recovered in an electrocutor trap aboard a livestock vessel that had just returned from delivering live cattle to Brunei (Rajapaksa and Spradbery, 1989).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Calliphoridae
  •                             Genus: Chrysomya
  •                                 Species: Chrysomya bezziana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Globally, there are two Screw-worm fly species, the Old World SWF (OWS) (Chrysomya bezziana) and the New World SWF (NWS) (Cochliomyia hominivorax) (Spradbery, 1994). The genus Chrysomya contains 11 described species, many of which are important in forensic and medical criminal taxonomy (James, 1947). C. bezziana is the only species in the genus of primary medical importance and is distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, SE Asia and New Guinea, where the larvae parasitize warm-blooded animals including livestock and humans. Chrysomya bezziana was first described by Professor Mario Bezzi of Turin, based on material collected from cattle in the Belgian Congo (now CDR) who identified them as Chrysomya megacephala, but later they were correctly identified as a new species by Joseph Villeneuve de Janti, and named Chrysomya bezziana, in honour of Professor Bezzi (Villeneuve, 1914).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CameroonPresentNativeInvasive
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChadPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeInvasive
Congo, Republic of thePresentNativeInvasive
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeInvasive
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeInvasive
EswatiniPresentNativeInvasive
EthiopiaPresentNativeInvasiveTwo localities: Gondar, Yabello
GambiaPresentNativeInvasive
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaPresentNativeInvasive
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeInvasive
KenyaPresentNativeInvasive
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SenegalPresentNativeInvasive
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresentNativeInvasiveEast Cape Province
South SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
SudanPresentNativeInvasive
TanzaniaPresentNativeInvasive
-Zanzibar IslandPresentNativeInvasive
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UgandaPresentNativeInvasive
ZambiaPresentNativeInvasive
ZimbabwePresentNativeInvasive

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasive
BangladeshPresent
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CambodiaPresentNativeInvasive
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongPresentIntroduced2000Invasive
IndiaPresentNativeInvasive
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativeInvasive
-ChhattisgarhPresentNativeInvasive
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentNativeInvasive
-DelhiPresent
-GoaPresentNativeInvasiveOriginal citation: J.P. Spradbery, personal observation, 1994
-HaryanaPresent
-KarnatakaPresentNativeInvasive
-KeralaPresentNativeInvasive
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeInvasive
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-OdishaPresentNativeInvasive
-RajasthanPresentNativeInvasiveOriginal citation: J.P. Spradbery, personal observation, 1994
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeInvasive
-West BengalPresentNativeInvasive
IndonesiaPresentNativeInvasive
-Irian JayaPresentNativeInvasive
-JavaPresentNativeInvasive
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeInvasive
-SulawesiPresentNativeInvasive
-SumatraPresentNativeInvasive
IranPresentNativeInvasiveBoushehr and Hormozoan Provinces
IraqPresentNativeInvasiveBasrah, Karbala and Diayala Provinces
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
KuwaitPresentIntroducedInvasive
KyrgyzstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
LaosPresentNativeInvasive
MalaysiaPresentNativeInvasive
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativeInvasive
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarPresentNativeInvasive
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
OmanPresentNativeInvasiveAl-Batina, Al-Shargiah and Interior Districts
PakistanPresentNativeInvasive
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesPresentNativeInvasive
QatarPresentNativeInvasive
Saudi ArabiaPresentInvasiveAl-Khari, Al-Muzahimiyah, Al-Ehsaa
SingaporePresentJul-Dec-2020
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaPresentNativeInvasive
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresentNativeInvasive
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresentNativeInvasive
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroducedInvasive
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VietnamPresentNativeInvasive
YemenPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Northern TerritoryAbsent, Intercepted onlyPort Darwin,1988
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LestePresentJul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

History of Introduction and Spread

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Chrysomya bezziana was first described from adults reared from larvae collected in cattle myiases in Kitoboli and Dolo, Belgian Congo (now CDR) by Joseph Rovère, a doctor and veterinarian (Villeneuve, 1914). The endemic distribution of C. bezziana includes much of tropical Africa, Arabia and the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and SE Asia as far east as New Guinea. Introductions are made possible by the movement of host animals. For example, live sheep exports from Australia to Middle East ports resulted in sheep becoming infested at the port of Muscat in the Sultanate of Oman when unloading animals, followed by their subsequent offloading in Bahrain and Kuwait (Kloftet al., 1981). C. bezziana has been recorded in Australia on one occasion when a returning livestock vessel docked at Darwin after delivering cattle to Brunei. An electrocutor trap was set up on board the vessel after it had cleared customs and quarantine and 7 adult C. bezziana were subsequently captured (Rajapaksa and Spradbery, 1989). A passenger aboard a commercial flight from Sri Lanka to Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia was found to have a C. bezziana infestation (Pillai and Ramalingan, 1984). The accidental introduction of C. bezziana to Iraq in 1996 (Abdul Rassoul et al., 1996; Al-Izzi et al., 1999; Hall et al., 2001; Siddig et al., 2005) resulted in its rapid dispersal throughout the Tigris and Euphrates river systems with approximately 60,000 cases reported in livestock and humans within 2 years, with a mortality rate of 1 per cent in livestock (Spradbery and El-Dessouky, 1998).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Bahrain Oman 1970s Animal production (pathway cause) Yes Kloft et al. (1981) Via live sheep exports to Gulf ports from Australia via Oman
Iraq 1996 Yes Hall et al. (2001); Siddig et al. (2005)
Kuwait Oman 1970s Animal production (pathway cause) Yes Kloft et al. (1981) Via live sheep exports to Gulf ports from Australia via Oman
Qatar Oman 1970s Animal production (pathway cause) Yes Kloft et al. (1981) Via live sheep exports to Gulf ports from Australia via Oman
Yemen 2007 Yes Robinson et al. (2009)

Risk of Introduction

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The most likely route for an incursion of Chrysomya bezziana to a new location is via an infested host animal, be it livestock or human. However, adult flies have been intercepted in passenger aircraft and returning livestock vessels arriving in Australian ports (Rajapaksa and Spradbery, 1989). C. bezziana remains present in Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq and Yemen where it was accidentally introduced, but no further countries have experienced incursions resulting in successful colonization. Australia maintains an official state of awareness and preparedness with respect to a potential C. bezziana incursion (Animal Health Australia AUSVETPLAN, 2007).

Pathogen Characteristics

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Detailed descriptions of life stages and their morphology in C. bezziana and associated species are given in Spradbery (2002a) and geographical races of C. bezziana are described in Wardhana et al. (2012a).

Eggs: The egg is white, 1.25 mm long and 0.26 mm in diameter with a cylindrical shape, rounded at both ends with the anterior end more tapered. The eggs are laid in a mass of three or more layers thick, glued together in parallel, giving the appearance of a shingled roof.

Larvae: 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae are white to cream coloured 1.6 mm, 3.5-5.5 mm and 6.1-15.7 mm long, respectively, with characteristic bands of spines on most segments. The thorn-like spines are black with a single point. Prominent mouth hooks and heavily sclerotized peritreme surrounding the posterior spiracles with three slit-like openings.

Pupae: Colour changes from deep pink to dark brown as the larval skin changes into the puparium shell through sclerotization. Puparia are characterized by their barrel-shape and retaining many of the external morphological characters of the final stage larva such as spines and spiracles.

Adult fly: The adult fly is 8-12 mm in length and green to blue in colour.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host; Wild hostCattle and Buffaloes|All Stages
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host; Wild hostCattle and Buffaloes|All Stages
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host; Wild hostCattle and Buffaloes|All Stages
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host; Wild host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host; Wild hostSheep and Goats|All Stages
CervidaeWild host
Elephas maximus
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated hostPoultry|Cockerel; Poultry|Mature female; Poultry|Mature male; Poultry|Young poultry
Homo sapiens
Loxodonta africana
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host; Wild hostSheep and Goats|All Stages
Panthera leo (lion)
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Wild hostPigs|All Stages

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Swelling mass penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Reproductive Signs / Paraphimosis or priapism, inability to retract penis Sign
Reproductive Signs / Phimosis Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Alopecia, thinning, shedding, easily epilated, loss of, hair Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Foul odor skin, smell Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Parasite visible, skin, hair, feathers Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign
Urinary Signs / Dysuria, difficult urination, stranguria Sign

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 27

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A species of Syrphophagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a generalist parasitoid of fly puparia, was accidentally introduced to laboratory cultures of Chrysomya bezziana in Papua New Guinea in 1975 (Spradbery, unpublished observations). No other parasitoids of C. bezziana have been reported. General insect predators such as birds may take adult C. bezziana in the field but no observations have been reported. Rats have been recorded feeding on mature C. bezziana larvae after they dropped from infested cattle (Spradbery, unpublished observations).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionMovements of infested humans, stock or wildlife Yes Yes Spradbery (1994)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftAdults Yes Rajapaksa and Spradbery (1989)
LivestockOWS Larvae via live sheep trade; OWS Adults via returning, empty livestock ships Yes Yes Kloft et al. (1981); Rajapaksa and Spradbery (1989)

Economic Impact

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In Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) Chrysomya bezziana is, with the exception of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, the most important insect pest of cattle, horses, dogs and other domestic animals (Cuthbertson, 1933). When the tick control programme broke down during the 1973-1978 guerilla war in Rhodesia, more than 300,000 livestock were lost, the majority due to C. bezziana infestations (Norval, 1978). C. bezziana is considered a major obstacle to large-scale beef production in Malaysia (Basset and Kadir 1982). The economic impact of the 1996 Iraq incursion included an estimated FAO/AOAD budget at the time of US$8,555,000 to counter the invasion (Spradbery and El-Dessouky, 1998). The cost of a C. bezziana incursion resulting in the establishment of the pest in Australia was estimated as high as $AUD900 million per annum a decade ago (Kwabena Anaman in Spradbery, 2002b). The social impact of livestock production losses is matched by the misery of human infestations caused by C. bezziana, especially among children and the aged and infirm. The adverse impacts on wildlife would also be considerable.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Generally low, if any, measureable adverse impacts on habitat.

Impact on Biodiversity

Because of its wide host range, Chrysomya bezziana is unlikely to have a major impact on biodiversity although, in the United States, the New World Screw-worm fly species killed 80 per cent of fawns of one species of deer, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) in some years (Fuller, 1962). The introduction of livestock breeds naïve for screw-worm fly into endemic areas such as Antipodean sheep to India and Papua New Guinea can be catastrophic for the new arrivals (Basset and Kadir, 1982; Spradbery, unpublished observations).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Abdul Rassoul MS; Ali HA; Jassim FA, 1996. Notes on Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), first recorded from Iraq. Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum, 8:113-115.

Al-Izzi MAJ; Al-Taweel AA; Jassim FA, 1999. Epidemiology and rearing of Old World screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agriculture, 4:153-160.

Animal Health Australia, 2007. Disease Strategy: Screw-worm fly (Version 3). Australian Veterinary Emergency Plan (AUSVETPLAN), Edition 3. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Primary Industries Ministerial Council, 60 pp.

Ansari MA; Oertley RE, 1982. Nasal myiasis due to Bezzi's blowfly (screw worm): case report. Saudi Medical Journal, 3(4):275-278.

Baker JAF; Mchardy WM; Thorburn JA; Thompson GE, 1968. Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve-some observations on its occurrence and activity in the Eastern Cape Province. South African Veterinary Medical Association, 39:3-11.

Basset CR; Kadir SBA, 1982. The screw-worm fly (Chrysomya bezziana): an obstacle to large-scale beef production in Malaysia. In: Animal production and health in the tropics. Proceedings of the First Asian-Australasian Animal Science Congress, Serdang, 2nd-5th September 1980 [ed. by M.R. Jainudeen\A.R. Omar]. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia: Universiti Pertanian, 133-135.

Beckett S; Spradbery JP; Urech R; James; P; Green P; Welch M, 2014. Old World Screw-worm Fly: Risk of Entry into Australia and Surveillance Requirements. Report for Animal Health Australia. Canberra, Australia: Animal Health Australia, 192 pp.

Cuthbertson A, 1933. The Habits and Life Histories of some Díptera in Southern Rhodesia. Proceedings and Transactions of the Rhodesia Scientific Association, 32:81-111 pp.

Fuller G, 1962. How screwworm eradication will affect wildlife. The Cattleman, 48:82-84.

Hall MJR; Edge W; Testa JM; Adams ZJO; Ready PD, 2001. Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, occurs as two geographical races. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 15(4):393-402.

Hall MJR; MacLeod N; Wardhana AH, 2014. Use of wing morphometrics to identify populations of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae): a preliminary study of the utility of museum specimens. Acta Tropica, 138(Suppl.):S49-S55. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0001706X

Hall MJR; Wardhana AH; Shahhosseini G; Adams ZJO; Ready PD, 2009. Genetic diversity of populations of Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, causing traumatic myiasis of livestock in the Gulf region and implications for control by sterile insect technique. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 23(s1):51-58. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve

Humphrey JD; Spradbery JP; Tozer RS, 1980. Chrysomya bezziana: pathology of old world screw-worm fly infestations in cattle. Experimental Parasitology, 49(3):381-397.

James MT, 1947. The Flies that cause Myiasis in Man. Miscellaneous Publications. United States Department of Agriculture, 631. Washington, D.C., 175 pp.

James P; Wardhana A; Brown G; Urech R, 2014. Chemical containment and eradication of screw-worm incursions in Australia. Report to Meat and Livestock Australia. Sydney, Australia: Meat and Livestock Australia, 37 pp.

James PJ; Green PE; Urech R; Spradbery JP, 2005. Chemicals for control of the Old World screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana in Australia. Report to Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra, Australia: Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry, 40 pp.

Jarrett S; Morgan JAT; Wlodek BM; Brown GW; Urech R; Green PE; Lew-Tabor AE, 2010. Specific detection of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in bulk fly trap catches using real-time PCR. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 24(3):227-235. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve

Kloft WJ; Noll GF; Kloft ES, 1981. Introduction of Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Dipt., Calliphoridae) into new geographical regions by "transit infestation". (Durch "Transitbefall" bewirkte Einschleppung von Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Dipt., Calliphoridae) in neue geographische Regionen.) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 3(1/3):151-154.

Mahon RJ, 2002. The Malaysian project - entomological report. In: Proceedings of the Screw-worm Fly Emergency Preparedness Conference, Canberra, Australia, November 2001., Australia: Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia, 140-151.

Ng KH; Yip KT; Choi CH; Yeung KH; Auyeung TW; Tsang AC; Chow L; Que TL, 2003. A case of oral myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 9:454-456.

Norris KR; Murray MD, 1964. Notes on the screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a pest of cattle in Papua New Guinea. CSIRO Division of Entomology Technical Paper No. 6. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 26 pp.

Norval RAI, 1978. The effects of partial breakdown of dipping in African areas in Rhodesia. Rhodesian Veterinary Journal, 9(1/4):9-16.

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Pillai JS; Ramalingan S, 1984. Recent introductions of some medically important Diptera in the Northwest, Central, and South Pacific (including New Zealand). In: Commerce and the spread of pests and disease vectors [ed. by Laird, M.]. New York: Praeger Publishers, USA 81-101.

Rajapaksa N; Spradbery JP, 1989. Occurrence of the Old World screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana on livestock vessels and commercial aircraft. Australian Veterinary Journal, 66(3):94-96.

Ready PD; Testa JM; Wardhana AH; Al-Izzi M; Khalaj M; Hall MJR, 2009. Phylogeography and recent emergence of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 23(s1):43-50. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve

Robinson AS; Vreysen MJB; Hendrichs J; Feldmann U, 2009. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 23(s1):1-7. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve

Rovere J, 1910. Etude de larvae cuticoles appartenant au genre Chrysomyia, observées au Congo Belge. Bulletin Agricole du Congo Belge, 1:26-35.

Siddig A; Al-Jowary S; Al-Izzi M; Hopkins J; Hall MJR; Slingenbergh J, 2005. Seasonality of Old World screwworm myiasis in the Mesopotamia valley in Iraq. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 19(2):140-150. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=mve

Spradbery JP, 1992. Studies on the prepupal and puparial stages of the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae). CSIRO Division of Entomology Technical Report No. 49., Australia: CSIRO, 24 pp.

Spradbery JP, 1994. Screw-worm fly: a tale of two species. Agricultural zoology reviews, vol. 6 [ed. by Evans, K.]. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited, 1-62.

Spradbery JP, 2002. A Manual for the Diagnosis of Screw-worm Fly. CSIRO Division of Entomology Publication, 2nd edition. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia, iii + 70 pp.

Spradbery JP, 2002. The Screwworm Fly Problem: A Background Briefing. In: Proceedings of the Screw-worm Fly Emergency Preparedness Conference, Canberra, Australia, November 2001., Australia: Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia, 114-119.

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Spradbery JP; Khanfar KA; Harpham D, 1992. Myiasis in the sultanate of Oman. Veterinary Record, 131(4):76-77.

Spradbery JP; Kirk J, 1992. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly in the United Arab Emirates. Veterinary Record, 130(2):33.

Spradbery JP; Tozer RS; Robb JM; Cassells P, 1989. The screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a sterile insect release trial in Papua New Guinea. Researches on Population Ecology, 31(2):353-366.

Spradbery JP; Vanniasingham JA, 1980. Incidence of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, at the zoo Negara, Malaysia. Malaysian Veterinary Journal, 7(1):28-32.

Spradbery P; Tozer RS, 2013. Trapping Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in Papua New Guinea including the coastal border with Torres Strait. Australian Journal of Entomology, 52(2):164-167. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1440-6055

Sukarsih; Partoutomo S; Tozer R; Satria E; Wijffels G; Riding G, 2000. Establishment and maintenance of a colony of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana at Balitvet in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, 5(3):144-149.

Sutherst RW; Spradbery JP; Maywald GF, 1989. The potential geographical distribution of the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 3(3):273-280.

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Urech R; Green PE; Brown GW; Spradbery JP; Tozer RS; Mayer DG; Kan YT, 2012. Field assessment of synthetic attractants and traps for the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Veterinary Parasitology, 187(3/4):486-490. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

Urech R; Muharsini S; Tozer RS; Sumartono; Green PE; Brown GW; Spradbery JP; Mayer DG; Tack Kan Y; Kison A, 2014. Cattle herd inspections and fly trapping for the detection of the Old World screw-worm fly (Chrysomya bezziana). Australian Veterinary Journal, 92(1/2):28-32. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1751-0813

Villeneuve J, 1914. Etude sur quelques types de myodaires supérieurs. Revue Zoologique et Botanique Africaine, 3:429-441.

Wardhana AH, 2006. Chrysomya bezziana Penyebab myiasis pada hewan dan Mausia: permasalahan dan penanggulangannya. Wartazoa, 16:146-159.

Wardhana AH; Cecchi G; Muharsini S; Cameron MM; Ready PD; Hall MJR, 2014. Environmental and phylogeographical determinants of the distribution of the Old World screwworm fly in Indonesia. Acta Tropica, 138(Suppl.):S62-S68. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0001706X

Wardhana AH; Hall MJR; Mahamdallie SS; Muharsini S; Cameron MM; Ready PD, 2012. Phylogenetics of the Old World screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in Asia. International Journal for Parasitology, 42(8):729-738. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00207519

Wardhana AH; Muharsini S; Ready PD; Cameron MM; Hall MJR, 2012. Geographical characteristics of Chrysomya bezziana based on external morphology study. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, 17(1):36-48.

Wardhaugh KG; Mahon RJ, 2002. Insecticides as an integral part of the sterile insect technique for the control of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. In: Proceedings of the Screw-worm Fly Emergency Preparedness Conference, Canberra, Australia, November 2001., Australia: Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia, 103-110.

Willadsen P, 2000. Vaccination against Chrysomya bezziana: a summary of current knowledge. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, 5(3):201-203.

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Distribution References

Ansari M A, Oertley R E, 1982. Nasal myiasis due to Bezzi's blowfly (screw worm): case report. Saudi Medical Journal. 3 (4), 275-278.

Baker J A F, Mchardy W M, Thorburn J A, Thompson G E, 1968. Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve-some observations on its occurrence and activity in the Eastern Cape Province. South African Veterinary Medical Association. 3-11.

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cuthbertson A, 1933. The Habits and Life Histories of some Díptera in Southern Rhodesia. Proceedings and Transactions of the Rhodesia Scientific Association. 81-111 pp.

Hall M J R, Edge W, Testa J M, Adams Z J O, Ready P D, 2001. Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, occurs as two geographical races. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 15 (4), 393-402. DOI:10.1046/j.0269-283x.2001.00327.x

Hall M J R, MacLeod N, Wardhana A H, 2014. Use of wing morphometrics to identify populations of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae): a preliminary study of the utility of museum specimens. Acta Tropica. 138 (Suppl.), S49-S55. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0001706X DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.03.023

Hall M J R, Wardhana A H, Shahhosseini G, Adams Z J O, Ready P D, 2009. Genetic diversity of populations of Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, causing traumatic myiasis of livestock in the Gulf region and implications for control by sterile insect technique. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 23 (s1), 51-58. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00778.x

James M T, 1947. The Flies that cause Myiasis in Man. In: Miscellaneous Publications. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 175 pp.

Kloft W J, Noll G F, Kloft E S, 1981. Introduction of Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Dipt., Calliphoridae) into new geographical regions by "transit infestation". (Durch "Transitbefall" bewirkte Einschleppung von Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Dipt., Calliphoridae) in neue geographische Regionen.). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie. 3 (1/3), 151-154.

Ng KH, Yip KT, Choi CH, Yeung KH, Auyeung TW, Tsang AC, Chow L, Que TL, 2003. A case of oral myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana. In: Hong Kong Medical Journal, 9 454-456.

Norris K R , Murray M D, 1964. Notes on the screw-worm fly, Chrysotnya bezziana (Díptera: Calliphoridae), as a pest of cattle in New Guinea. Technical papers. Division of Entomology, C.S.I.R.O., Australia. 26.

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Rajapaksa N, Spradbery J P, 1989. Occurrence of the Old World screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana on livestock vessels and commercial aircraft. Australian Veterinary Journal. 66 (3), 94-96. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1989.tb09755.x

Ready P D, Testa J M, Wardhana A H, Al-Izzi M, Khalaj M, Hall M J R, 2009. Phylogeography and recent emergence of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 23 (s1), 43-50. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00771.x

Robinson A S, Vreysen M J B, Hendrichs J, Feldmann U, 2009. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 23 (s1), 1-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00769.x

Rovere J, 1910. (Etude de larvae cuticoles appartenant au genre Chrysomyia, observées au Congo Belge). In: Bulletin Agricole du Congo Belge, 1 26-35.

Spradbery J P, Kirk J, 1992. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly in the United Arab Emirates. Veterinary Record. 130 (2), 33.

Spradbery P, Tozer R S, 2013. Trapping Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in Papua New Guinea including the coastal border with Torres Strait. Australian Journal of Entomology. 52 (2), 164-167. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1440-6055 DOI:10.1111/aen.12007

Wardhana A H, Cecchi G, Muharsini S, Cameron M M, Ready P D, Hall M J R, 2014. Environmental and phylogeographical determinants of the distribution of the Old World screwworm fly in Indonesia. Acta Tropica. 138 (Suppl.), S62-S68. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0001706X DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.06.001

Wardhana A H, Muharsini S, Ready P D, Cameron M M, Hall M J R, 2012. Geographical characteristics of Chrysomya bezziana based on external morphology study. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner. 17 (1), 36-48.

Contributors

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21/07/15 Original text by:

Dr J. Philip Spradbery, XCS Consulting Pty Ltd, GPO Box 2566, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

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