Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Columba livia
(pigeons)

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Datasheet

Columba livia (pigeons)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Columba livia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pigeons
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Aves
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable dam...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Columba livia (feral pigeon); group of birds, with feathers puffed out. UK. December, 2004.
TitleGroup of birds
CaptionColumba livia (feral pigeon); group of birds, with feathers puffed out. UK. December, 2004.
Copyright©Andrew Dunn/Cambridge, UK/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Columba livia (feral pigeon); group of birds, with feathers puffed out. UK. December, 2004.
Group of birds Columba livia (feral pigeon); group of birds, with feathers puffed out. UK. December, 2004.©Andrew Dunn/Cambridge, UK/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Columba livia (pigeons); group of birds bathing on a city street.
TitleStreet pigeons
CaptionColumba livia (pigeons); group of birds bathing on a city street.
CopyrightPixabay License - Free for commercial use, no attribution required.
Columba livia (pigeons); group of birds bathing on a city street.
Street pigeonsColumba livia (pigeons); group of birds bathing on a city street.Pixabay License - Free for commercial use, no attribution required.
Columba livia (pigeons); large group flock on a city street. Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada. February 2013.
TitleLarge flock
CaptionColumba livia (pigeons); large group flock on a city street. Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada. February 2013.
Copyright©Teles/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Columba livia (pigeons); large group flock on a city street. Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada. February 2013.
Large flockColumba livia (pigeons); large group flock on a city street. Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada. February 2013.©Teles/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Columba livia (pigeons); group of birds scavenging spilt foodstuffs.
TitleBirds scavenging
CaptionColumba livia (pigeons); group of birds scavenging spilt foodstuffs.
CopyrightPixabay License - Free for commercial use, no attribution required.
Columba livia (pigeons); group of birds scavenging spilt foodstuffs.
Birds scavengingColumba livia (pigeons); group of birds scavenging spilt foodstuffs.Pixabay License - Free for commercial use, no attribution required.
Columba livia (pigeons); large group of birds being fed, a practice now banned or discouraged in many cities. Washington Square Park, Washington DC, USA. April 2011.
TitlePigeon feeding
CaptionColumba livia (pigeons); large group of birds being fed, a practice now banned or discouraged in many cities. Washington Square Park, Washington DC, USA. April 2011.
Copyright©JoeInQueens/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Columba livia (pigeons); large group of birds being fed, a practice now banned or discouraged in many cities. Washington Square Park, Washington DC, USA. April 2011.
Pigeon feedingColumba livia (pigeons); large group of birds being fed, a practice now banned or discouraged in many cities. Washington Square Park, Washington DC, USA. April 2011.©JoeInQueens/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Columba livia (pigeons); nest and two eggs on a city balcony. Krakow, Poland. 2005.
TitleNest and eggs
CaptionColumba livia (pigeons); nest and two eggs on a city balcony. Krakow, Poland. 2005.
Copyright©Mogor/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Columba livia (pigeons); nest and two eggs on a city balcony. Krakow, Poland. 2005.
Nest and eggsColumba livia (pigeons); nest and two eggs on a city balcony. Krakow, Poland. 2005.©Mogor/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Columba livia (pigeons); nest and two young 'squabs'. India.
TitleNest and young
CaptionColumba livia (pigeons); nest and two young 'squabs'. India.
Copyright©Karthik Easvur/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Columba livia (pigeons); nest and two young 'squabs'. India.
Nest and youngColumba livia (pigeons); nest and two young 'squabs'. India.©Karthik Easvur/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789)

Preferred Common Name

  • pigeons

International Common Names

  • English: carrier pigeon; common pigeon; domestic dove; domestic pigeon; dove, feral rock; feral pigeon; feral rock dove; feral rock pigeon; homing pigeon; kolombo; pigeon; pigeon, domestic; rock dove; rock dove pigeon; rock dove, feral; rock pigeon
  • Spanish: paloma; paloma bravia; paloma casera; paloma común; paloma de castilla; paloma doméstica
  • French: pigeon biset; pigeon biset domestique; pigeon de ville; pigeon domestique
  • Russian: sizy Golub; sizyj golubnull
  • Chinese: yuan ge
  • Portuguese: pombo da rocha; pombo o pombo-doméstico; pombo-das-rochas; pombo-doméstico

Local Common Names

  • Albania: pëllumbi i egër i shkëmbit
  • Armenia: Tkhakapuyt Aghavni
  • Belarus: šyzy holub
  • Bulgaria: skalen g"l"b
  • Croatia: golub pecinar; gradski Golub; pecinar
  • Czech Republic: holub domácí; holub skalní
  • Denmark: klippedue
  • Eastern Europe: bareski-golumbaika; baresko-golumbo
  • Faroe Islands: bládúgva; bládúva
  • Fiji: ruve
  • Finland: kalliokyyhky; kesykyyhky
  • France: dubet,; pichon
  • Germany: dziwi holb; Felsentaube; Haustaube, Strassentaube; Verwilderte Haustaube; ziwy golub
  • Hungary: szirti galamb
  • Iceland: bjargdúfa; húsdúfa
  • Ireland: colm aille; colunullr aille; pomba brava
  • Isle of Man (UK): calmane creggey
  • Israel: colomba salvaria
  • Italy: colomp salvadi; piccione; piccione domestico; piccione selvatico; piccione selvatico semidomestico; piccione terraiolo; piccione torraiolo
  • Italy/Sardinia: agreste; columbu agreste; columbu aresti; columbu de is arrocas; tidori; tidu; tzidu
  • Japan: dobato; kawarabato; kawara-bato
  • Latvia: klinšu balodis
  • Lithuania: balandis; kieminis; naminis karvelis
  • Macedonia: div gulab
  • Malta: tudun tal-gebel
  • Netherlands: rotsduif
  • Norway: bydue
  • Poland: golab miejski¦Golab skalny; golab skalny; pustynnik
  • Romania: porumbel de stânca
  • Scandinavia: bákteduvvá
  • Serbia: divlji golub; golub pecinar
  • Slovenia: domaci golob
  • Spain: colom roquer; colom roquer,; haitz-uso; kaljutuvi; Xixella
  • Sweden: klippduva; tamduva
  • Switzerland: columba da chasa; columba selvadia
  • Turkey: güvercin
  • UK: colomen ddôf; colomen y graig
  • UK/England and Wales: colom wyls; kolomm an garrek
  • UK/Scotland: calman-creige
  • Ukraine: sizij golub
  • Vietnam: b? câu

Summary of Invasiveness

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Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Aves
  •                     Order: Columbiformes
  •                         Family: Columbidae
  •                             Genus: Columba
  •                                 Species: Columba livia

Description

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Rock pigeons have a grey body with a whitish rump, two black bars on the secondary wing feathers, a broad blank band on the tail, and red feet. The body colour can vary from grey to white, tan, and black. Body mass is highly variable ranging from 243 to 359g (Johnston & Johnson 1989) and averaging 28cm in length (Williams & Corrigan 1994). When they take off, their wing tips touch, making a characteristic clicking sound. When they glide, their wings are raised at an angle (Williams & Corrigan 1994).

Distribution

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Native range: Native to most of Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa (Avibase, 2007).
Known introduced range: Throughout the world, including Asia, North and South America, Australasia and most island systems worldwide (Avibase, 2007).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
AngolaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BotswanaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Burkina FasoPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Cabo VerdePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
CameroonPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ChadPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ComorosPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
DjiboutiPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EgyptPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EritreaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EswatiniPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EthiopiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GabonPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GambiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GhanaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GuineaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
KenyaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LesothoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LiberiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LibyaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MaliPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MauritaniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Mauritius
-RodriguesPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MoroccoPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MozambiquePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
NamibiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
NigeriaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
RéunionPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)First reported: 16th or early 17th century
São Tomé and PríncipePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SenegalPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SeychellesPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SomaliaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
South AfricaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SudanPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
TogoPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
TunisiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
UgandaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Western SaharaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ZambiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BangladeshPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BhutanPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BruneiPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
CambodiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Inner MongoliaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-QinghaiPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-XinjiangPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-BiharPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ChandigarhPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-DelhiPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-GoaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-GujaratPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-HaryanaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-KeralaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-LakshadweepPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-OdishaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-PuducherryPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-PunjabPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-RajasthanPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-SulawesiPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-SumatraPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
KazakhstanPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LaosPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LebanonPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MaldivesPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MongoliaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MyanmarPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
NepalPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
North KoreaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
PakistanPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
South KoreaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SyriaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
TajikistanPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
TurkeyPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
TurkmenistanPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
UzbekistanPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
VietnamPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
AndorraPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
AustriaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BelarusPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BelgiumPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BulgariaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
CroatiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
CyprusPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
CzechiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
DenmarkPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EstoniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Faroe IslandsPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
FinlandPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
FrancePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-CorsicaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GermanyPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GibraltarPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GreecePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-CretePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GuernseyPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
HungaryPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
IcelandPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
IrelandPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Isle of ManPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ItalyPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-SardiniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-SicilyPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LatviaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LithuaniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
LuxembourgPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MaltaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MoldovaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MonacoPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
North MacedoniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
NorwayPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
PolandPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
PortugalPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
RomaniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Western SiberiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
San MarinoPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SlovakiaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SloveniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SpainPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Balearic IslandsPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SwedenPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
UkrainePresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
United KingdomPresentCABI (Undated); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)Present based on regional distribution.
-ScotlandPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BahamasPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BelizePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BermudaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-OntarioPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-QuebecPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-YukonPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced1984InvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GrenadaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
HaitiPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
HondurasPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
MontserratPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
PanamaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Jn Pierre (2008); Krauss (2012)
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)First reported: Early 1600s
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-DelawarePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-IdahoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-IndianaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-IowaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-KansasPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MainePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MissouriPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MontanaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-NevadaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-OhioPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-OregonPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-TennesseePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-UtahPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-VermontPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-WyomingPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Lord Howe IslandPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Cook IslandsPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)First reported: before 1840
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Marquesas IslandsPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GuamPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
New CaledoniaPresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BoliviaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-AmapaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-BahiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-CearaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-GoiasPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ParaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-PiauiPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-SergipePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
-Galapagos IslandsPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)First reported: 1972-73
French GuianaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
GuyanaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
ParaguayPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
PeruPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
SurinamePresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
UruguayPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)

Habitat

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Rock pigeons prefer human habitations and are commonly found around farm yards, grain elevators, feed mills, parks, city buildings, bridges, and other structures (Williams & Corrigan 1994). In some settings, rock pigeons will roost and nest in natural areas and make daily foraging flights of several kilometres (Baldaccini et al. 2000, Earle & Little 1993, Phillips et al. 2003).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
Rock pigeons are primarily granivorous, but will consume insects and other food items (Johnston & Janiga 1995). In rural areas, rock pigeons forage primarily in fields for grains, such as corn, wheat, barley, and oats. In winter when the ground is snow-covered, spilled grain at storage sites (e.g., silos and grain elevators) is an important food source. When available, high protein food items, such as peas, are preferred by rock pigeons. They mostly rely on free-standing water but can also use snow to obtain water (Williams & Corrigan 1994).

Reproduction
Rock pigeons are monogamous. The male provides nesting material and guards the female and the nest. The young are fed pigeon milk, a liquid solid substance secreted in the crop of the adult (both male and female) that is regurgitated. Breeding may occur at all seasons, but peak reproduction occurs in the spring and fall. A population of rock pigeons usually consists of equal numbers of males and females (Williams & Corrigan 1994).
 
Lifecycle stages
Eggs are laid 8 to12 days after mating, with a normal clutch size of 1 to 2 eggs, but up to 4. The eggs hatch after 16 to 21 days incubation and the young fledge at 4 to 6 weeks of age. More eggs are laid before the first clutch leaves the nest. Sexual maturity occurs after 6 months of age. In captivity, rock pigeons commonly live up to 15 years. In urban populations, however, rock pigeons seldom live more than 3 or 4 years (Johnston & Janiga 1995, Williams & Corrigan 1994).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Live food trade: Pigeons have been introduced as a food source (Eguchi & Amano 2004)
Transportation of domesticated animals: Europeans moving to new locations were a source of early introduced populations (Robbins 1995).

Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement: Some rock pigeons kept by fanciers for homing and racing competition fail to return to their lofts, establishing new populations or bolstering existing ones (Robbins 1995).

Natural dispersal (local): Rock pigeons are not considered migratory, but are known to make daily roundtrip flights in excess of 50 km from roosting and nesting sites to feeding areas (Johnston & Janiga 1995). Within urban habitats, recruitment from adjacent rock pigeon sub-populations compensates for losses from natural mortality or control efforts (Sol & Senar 1995, Rose et al. 2006).

Pathway Causes

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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General Impacts

Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Rock pigeons are known to transmit pigeon ornithosis, encephalitis, Exotic Newcastle Disease, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, salmonella food poisoning, and several other diseases (Weber 1979, Long 1981). Rock pigeons and their nests are infested with ectoparasites, such as ticks, fleas, and mites, which can cause health problems for humans (Dautel et al. 1991, Haag & Spiewak 2004).
 
Rock pigeon droppings can accelerate the deterioration of buildings and increase cost of maintenance (Haag 1995). Large amounts of droppings may kill vegetation and produce an objectionable odour. Around grain handling facilities, pigeons consume and contaminate large quantities of food destined for human or livestock consumption (Little 1994). Furthermore, rock pigeons located around airports can be a threat to human safety because of potential bird-craft collisions (Seamans et al. 2007). In the U.S. alone, they cause $1.1 billion dollars of damage in urban areas annually (Pimentel et al. 1999). In the Galápagos, the rock pigeon is the carrier of Trichomonas gallinae, a potentially fatal disease for endemic Galápagos doves and poultry (Harmon et al.1987).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Fouling
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing

Uses

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Rock pigeons are kept and bred by pigeon fanciers for homing and racing competition (Robbins 1995) and in some locations such as Japan (Eguchi & Amano 2004) and the Galápagos Islands (Phillips et al. 2003) they are kept as a food source. In cities worldwide rock pigeons are a source of pleasure for many people who enjoy watching and feeding them.

Uses List

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General

  • Game bird
  • Ornamental
  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Fresh meat

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Management Information

Compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
 
Preventative measures: Several techniques are available to prevent rock pigeons from establishing in an area or to exclude them if they are already established (Williams & Corrigan, 1994). Habitat modification includes physically altering roosting and nesting sites and removing food and water sources. The latter two aspects are critical for long-term control and require cooperation from the public. Exclusion methods, such as blocking access to roost sites or installing anti-perching devices are effective. Rock pigeons can also be prevented from perching or roosting by applying various chemical repellents to these areas.

Physical: Williams & Corrigan (1994) suggested that frightening, repellents, trapping, shooting, and nest removal may be useful and practical approaches to manage rock pigeons in conjunction with habitat modification measures.

Chemical: Toxicants, including both oral and contact poisons, may also be used to control rock pigeons. Oral poisons require prebaiting before the toxicant can be applied and can pose significant risks to non-target species (Williams & Corrigan, 1994). Fumigants can also be used to control rock pigeons, however, they are generally not practical (Williams & Corrigan, 1994).
Please follow this link for more details about preventative measures, physical and chemical control methods Hygnstrom, et al. 1994.

Integrated management: Eradication campaigns have been carried out on Isabela, San Cristóbal and Santa Cruz islands using a combination of methods: shooting, catching them by hand, using baits laced with alpha-chloralose to stupefy them (Phillips, R. B., unpublished data).

Bibliography

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Avibase ( The world database), Online database Columbia livia http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?pg=summary

Buden, D.W. 2000. A comparison of 1983 and 1994 bird surveys of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. In Wilson Bull 112(3): 403-410.

CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras en México. Especies invasoras - Aves. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Aves

Eguchi, K. and Amano, H.E. 2004. Spread of exotic birds in Japan. In Ornithological Science 3:3-11. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/osj/3/1/3/_pdf

Forys, E.A. and Allen, C.R. 1999. Biological invasions and deletions: community change in south Florida. In Biological Conservation 87:341-347

Galapagos National Park and the Charles Darwin Foundation (GNP and CDF), 2004. Galapagos Invasive Species: Harmful animals. http://www.hear.org/galapagos/invasives/topics/management/vertebrates/projects/doves.htm

Phillips, R. B., Snell, H. L., and Vargas, H. 2003. Feral rock doves in the Galapagos Islands: biological and economic threats. Noticias de Galapagos 62:6-11.

Post Fiji Web Site: Pigeons of Fiji Stamp Issue: www. stamps fiji.htm.

Robbins, C. S. 1995. Non-native birds. Pages 437-440 in LaRoe, E. T., Farris, G. S., Puckett, C. E., Doran, P. D., and Mac, M. J. ed. Our Living Resources. National Biological Service, Washington, D.C. xi, 530 pp.

Ryan, P. 1999. Fiji’s Natural Heritage. Exile Publishing.

Schorger, A.W. 1952. Introduction of the domestic pigeon. Auk 69:462-463 http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v069n04/p0462-p0463.pdf

Trainor, C. R. 2002. The birds of Adonara, Lesser Sundas, Indonesia, Forktail 18: 93-100 http://orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/18pdfs/Trainor-Adonara.pdf

Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660

Watling, D. 1999. Pocket poster guide to the Birds of Fiji. Landbirds.

Watling, D. and Pernetta, J.C. 1978. The Introduced and Native Terrestrial Vertebrates of Fiji. Pacific Science: Vol. 32, no. 3.

Williams, D.E. and Corrigan, R.M. 1994. Pigeons (Rock Doves) in Hygnstorm, S.E., Timm, R.M. and Larson, G.E., Prevention and control of wildlife damage :E87-E96. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdmhandbook/69/

References

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ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Jn Pierre L, 2008. Mitigating the Threat of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean (Saint Lucia). Report to CABI. 56 pp.

Krauss U, 2012. 161 Invasive Alien Species present in Saint Lucia and their current status. Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Jn Pierre L, 2008. Mitigating the Threat of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean (Saint Lucia). In: Report to CABI, 56 pp.

Krauss U, 2012. 161 Invasive Alien Species present in Saint Lucia and their current status. In: Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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Reviewed by: R. Brand Phillips, PhD Candidate Department of Biology University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA
 
    Compiled by: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Last Modified: Thursday, May 29, 2008

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