Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Piaractus brachypomus
(pirapitinga)

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Datasheet

Piaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 07 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Piaractus brachypomus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pirapitinga
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Piaractus brachypomus is a freshwater pelagic detrivorous fish native to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. In these countries it is cultivated as an important food fish in the Amazon Basin. It is a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Piaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult.
Copyright©Lance & Belinda Peck/GoneWild
Piaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult.
AdultPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult.©Lance & Belinda Peck/GoneWild
Piaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult in hand.
TitleAdult
CaptionPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult in hand.
Copyright©Roger Harris/JunglePhotos
Piaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult in hand.
AdultPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult in hand.©Roger Harris/JunglePhotos
Piaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult in hand, showing teeth.
TitleTeeth
CaptionPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult in hand, showing teeth.
Copyright©Roger Harris/JunglePhotos
Piaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult in hand, showing teeth.
TeethPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga); adult in hand, showing teeth.©Roger Harris/JunglePhotos

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818)

Preferred Common Name

  • pirapitinga

Other Scientific Names

  • Colossoma bidens Spix and Agassiz, 1829
  • Colossoma brachypomum (Cuvier, 1818)
  • Colossoma brachypomus Cuvier, 1818
  • Colossoma mitrei (non Berg, 1895)
  • Colossoma paco Humboldt, 1821
  • Myletes bidens Spix and Agassiz, 1829
  • Myletes brachypomus Cuvier, 1818
  • Myletes edulis (non Castelnau, 1855)
  • Myletes mitrei (non Berg, 1895)
  • Myletes paco Humboldt, 1821
  • Piaractus brachipomus (Cuvier, 1818)
  • Piaractus briachypumus (Cuvier, 1818)
  • Piaractus mitrei (non Berg, 1895)
  • Reganina bidens Spix and Agassiz, 1829
  • Wateina fowleri Amaral-Campos, 1946

International Common Names

  • English: cachama; freshwater pompano; pacu; red pacu
  • Spanish: cachama; cachama blanca; morocoto; paco; tambaqui

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: caranha; pirapitinga; tambaqui
  • Germany: Gamitana-Scheibensalmler; Riesenpacu
  • Sweden: pirapitinga
  • Venezuela: morocoto

Summary of Invasiveness

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Piaractus brachypomus is a freshwater pelagic detrivorous fish native to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. In these countries it is cultivated as an important food fish in the Amazon Basin. It is also a popular aquarium fish. It has been widely introduced for aquaculture and as an aquarium fish.

There have been a few reports about Piaractus spp. invasiveness. Most of these reports come from the USA, where it apparently was introduced by the aquarium trade, and later escaped to the environment. Presently, some specimens can be found year round (in warm water canals) in the southernmost states (especially in Florida), and it is very often confused by the media with piranhas.

Another report was registered in Papua New Guinea, where it was introduced for aquaculture purposes. According to a newspaper article by Dau (2001), it attacked other fishes in the Sepik and Ramu rivers in 1999 when insects became scarce, and caused ecological imbalance by killing local fish and wiping out eggs and fry.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Characiformes
  •                         Family: Characidae
  •                             Genus: Piaractus
  •                                 Species: Piaractus brachypomus

Description

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Three species of the sub-family Serrasalminae are commonly used in aquaculture in Latin America; they are Colossoma macropomum, P. brachypomus and P. mesopotamicus. As confusion is always found when identifying these species, the following chart summarizes the main differences.

CharacteristicSpecies
C. macropomumP. brachypomusP. mesopotamicus
Gill rakers (first arch)84-10733-3720-38
Lateral line scales78-8488-89108-128
Scales above lateral line23-2737-4250-60
Scales below lateral line20-2227-3449-56
Adipose fin with rayspresentabsentabsent
Pyloric caecae30-7520-2520-28
Maximum length (cm)908050
Maximum weight (g)302010-12

Size: 28.7 cm SL
Sex: Juvenile
Locality: Brazil, Port Sudan, Red Sea
Total length (TL): 37.5 cm
Standard length: 82.3% TL
Fork length 84.6% TL
Pre-anal length: 64.9% TL
Pre-dorsal length: 39.4% TL
Pre-pelvic length: 46.4% TL
Pre-pectoral length: 19.9% TL
Body depth: 21.2% TL
Head length (HL): 17.7% TL
Eye diameter: 29.2% HL
Pre-orbital length: 22.6% HL
Aspect ratio of caudal fin: 3.95
(FishBase, 2004).

88.0 cm TL (male/unsexed*); maximum published weight: 25.0 kg; maximum reported age: 28 years. Juveniles mimic Serrasalmus nattereri (FishBase, 2004).

Distribution

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Piaractus brachypomus is native to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. In these countries it is cultivated as an important food fish in the Amazon Basin and also used as a popular aquarium fish (for further information see Overview).

  • In Venezuela, Piaractus spp. have been recorded from the Orinoco River Basin (Robins et al., 1991), and also from Apure, Portuguesa, Gunare and Bocono Rivers (Duque et al., 1998).
  • In Panama, it was introduced for aquaculture purposes from Brazil (Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1997).
  • In Canada (Coad, 1995) and in the United States, it was introduced some decades ago, probably by the aquarium trade.
  • In Cuba, it was introduced for aquaculture purposes from Peru and Panama (Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1997).
  • In China, it was introduced from Hong Kong to some southern provinces (Tan and Tong, 1989) for aquaculture purposes (Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1997).
  • In Indonesia, it was introduced from Taiwan (FAO, 1997). It was imported for experimental aquaculture purposes, especially for consuming pineapple waste from canning factories (Coates, 1992).
  • In Malaysia, it was introduced for aquaculture purposes from Taiwan (FAO, 1997). Further importations banned because of difficulty distinguishing juveniles from those of piranhas.
  • In Papua New Guinea, P. brachypomus was introduced from Malaysia (which it had originally entered from Brazil, possibly via Taiwan). The genetic composition of the stock is dubious and is possibly already subject to in-breeding. A total of 14,511 individuals were released in 9 locations (remote lakes in the lower and middle Sepik area, Bunapas, in the lower and middle Ramu and Brahman area (Coates, 1997).
  • Piaractus spp. are also cultured in Colombia and Thailand (W Camargo, Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Illinois, USA, personal communication, 2004).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Tan and Tong , 1989; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Coates , 1992; FAO, 1997
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedFAO, 1997
TaiwanPresentIntroducedLiao IC Lia HC, 1989; Froese and Pauly, 2004

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Coad , 1995; Royal Ontario Museum, 2003
-OntarioPresentIntroduced Not invasive Coad , 1995
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Middleton , 1988
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Wright , 1995a; Wright , 1995b
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USGS, 2004
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive IGFA, 2001; USGS, 2004
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USGS, 2004
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Not invasive Burr , 1996; USGS, 2004
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lander A Jr, 1991; USGS, 2004
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Hartel , 1992
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USGS, 2004
-MississippiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Ross ST Brenneman WM, 1991; USGS, 2004
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Not invasive USGS, 2004
-MontanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive USGS, 2004
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welsch , 1996; USGS, 2004
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lee , 1991
-OregonPresentIntroduced Not invasive Logan , 1994; USGS, 2004
-TexasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Howells and et al. , 1991; USGS, 2004
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Bohn , 1988

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988
PanamaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeHureau , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BrazilPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-AmazonasPresentNative Not invasive NHM, 1999; Swedish Museum of Natural History, 1999; ZMH, 2000; Smithsonian Institution, 2001; Royal Ontario Museum, 2003
-Mato GrossoPresentZMH, 2000
-ParaPresent
ColombiaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GuyanaPresent Not invasive NHM, 1999
ParaguayPresent Not invasive Swedish Museum of Natural History, 1999
PeruPresentNativeHureau , 1991; Swedish Museum of Natural History, 1999; Smithsonian Institution, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
VenezuelaPresentNativeIGFA, 2001; Smithsonian Institution, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedCoates , 1997; Dau , 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canada Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Private sector|Individual No Yes Coad (1995); Coad (1995); Royal Ontario Museum (2003)
China Hong Kong 1985 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No Yes Tan and Tong (1989); Tan and Tong (1989); Welcomme (1988)
Cuba Peru 1982 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Fisheries (pathway cause)
Government No Yes Welcomme (1988)
Cuba Panama 1982 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Fisheries (pathway cause)
Government No Yes Welcomme (1988)
Indonesia Taiwan 1985 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector|Individual No Yes Coates (1992); FAO (1997)
Malaysia Taiwan 1984 Research (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes FAO (1997)
Panama Brazil 1986 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes Welcomme (1988)
Papua New Guinea Malaysia Fisheries (pathway cause)Government No Yes Coates (1997); Dau (2001)
Taiwan Brazil 1986 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No Yes Liao IC Lia HC (1989)
Thailand Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector No Yes
USA 1980 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Private sector|Individual No Yes USGS (2004)

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
Adult/Broodstock crustacean intake depends on season
fruits and seeds Fry 10
fruits and seeds Adult/Broodstock 22-71
phytoplankton Fry/Larval 20-60
zooplankton Fry/Larval 87-100
zooplankton Adult/Broodstock 20-60

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 26.5
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 26 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 15 28

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Bicarbonate (mg/l) Optimum Larval
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <20 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <20 Optimum Broodstock
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <20 Optimum Egg
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <20 Optimum Larval
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <20 Optimum Fry
Chloride (mg/l) 6 21 Optimum Adult
Chloride (mg/l) 6 21 Optimum Broodstock
Chromium (mg/l) <29 Optimum Egg harmful values not studied
Chromium (mg/l) <29 Optimum Larval harmful values not studied
Chromium (mg/l) <29 Optimum Fry harmful values not studied
Chromium (mg/l) 0.2 Optimum Adult harmful values not studied
Copper (mg/l) 10 Optimum Adult harmful values not studied
Copper (mg/l) 8 Optimum Egg harmful values not studied
Copper (mg/l) 8 Optimum Larval harmful values not studied
Copper (mg/l) 8 Optimum Fry harmful values not studied
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Egg
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Larval
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >4 Optimum Fry
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) <40 Harmful Egg
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 40 200 Optimum Egg
Iron (mg/l) 31 Optimum Egg harmful values not studied
Iron (mg/l) 31 Optimum Larval harmful values not studied
Iron (mg/l) 31 Optimum Fry harmful values not studied
Iron (mg/l) 69 Optimum Adult harmful values not studied
Lead (mg/l) <1 Optimum Adult
Lead (mg/l) >6 Harmful Egg
Lead (mg/l) >6 Harmful Larval
Lead (mg/l) >6 Harmful Fry
Nickel (mg/l) <1 Optimum Egg harmful values not studied
Nickel (mg/l) <1 Optimum Larval harmful values not studied
Nickel (mg/l) <1 Optimum Fry harmful values not studied
Nickel (mg/l) <1 Optimum Adult harmful values not studied
Nickel (mg/l) <1 Optimum Broodstock harmful values not studied
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 530 Optimum Broodstock
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) <1 Optimum Adult total nitrogen levels in ponds
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) <1 Optimum Broodstock total nitrogen levels in ponds
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) <1 Optimum Egg total nitrogen levels in ponds
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) <1 Optimum Larval total nitrogen levels in ponds
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) <1 Optimum Fry total nitrogen levels in ponds
Water pH (pH) <4.5 Harmful Adult
Water pH (pH) <4.5 Harmful Broodstock
Water pH (pH) 6.5 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 6.5 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) 6.5 Optimum Egg
Water pH (pH) 6.5 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <15 >30 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <20 >30 Harmful Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <22 >32 Harmful Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <24 >30 Harmful Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <25 >28 Harmful Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 27 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 27 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 29 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 30 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 30 Optimum Larval
Zinc (mg/l) <1 Optimum Adult
Zinc (mg/l) <1 Optimum Broodstock
Zinc (mg/l) <1 Optimum Egg
Zinc (mg/l) <1 Optimum Larval
Zinc (mg/l) <1 Optimum Fry

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alligator Predator Adult/Broodstock/Fry
Belostoma Predator Egg/Fry/Larval
Coleoptera Predator Egg/Fry/Larval
Hemiptera Predator Egg/Fry/Larval
Hoplias Predator Fry
Notonecta Predator Egg/Fry/Larval
Odonata Predator Egg/Fry/Larval
Serrasalmus Predator Adult/Broodstock
Synbranchus Predator Fry

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections Positive
Biodiversity (generally) Positive
Environment (generally) Positive
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Forestry production Positive
Livestock production Positive
Native flora Positive
Tourism Positive

Impact: Biodiversity

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Dau (2001) reported that Piaractus causes ecological imbalance by killing local fish and wiping out eggs and fry (see Invasiveness section).

Uses List

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General

  • Aquaria fish
  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Cured meat
  • Eggs (roe)
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Whole

Materials

  • Skins/leather/fur

References

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Alcántara F, 1999. Cartilla de Piscicultura. Peruana, Iquitos, Perú: Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia, 43 pp

Alcántara F, 2001. Caracterización piscícola del área de influencia de la carretera Iquitos-Nauta. Proyecto Zonificación ecológica-económica para el desarrollo sostenible de la zona Iquitos, Nauta, Requena, e Intuto. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana y Proyecto Araucaria, Amazonas-Nauta, 45 pp

Alcántara F, Chávez CV, Rodríguez LC, Camargo W, Kohler CC, Colace M, and Tello S, 2003. Gamitana (Colossoma macropomum) and Paco (Piaractus brachypomus) culture in floating cages in the Peruvian Amazon. World Aquaculture, 34(4):22-24

Alcántara F, Colace M, 2001. Piscicultura, seguridad alimentaria y desarrollo sostenible en la carretera Iquitos-Nauta y el río Tigre: Valorando y preservando nuestros peces amazónicos. Lima, Perú. 83 pp

Alcántara F, Guerra HF, 1986. Avances en la producción de alevinos de gamitana, Colossoma macropomum y paco C. brachypomus por reproducción inducida. Revista Latinoamericana de Acuicultura, 30:23-32

Alcántara F, Guerra HF, 1992. Avances en la producción de alevinos de gamitana Colossoma macropomum y paco P. brachypomus por reproducción inducida. Publication of the Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE) and Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana (IIAP), 4:23-33

Alcántara FB, Kohler CC, Camargo WN, Kohler ST, Padilla PP, De Jesús MJ, 2004. Comparative pond culture production of Piaractus brachypomus and Colossoma macropomum. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Collaborative Research Support Program. American Fisheries Society, in press

Alves G, 1991. Módulo de propagação artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) e pacu (Colossoma mitrei). Companhia de Desenvolvimento do Vale do São Francisco, Brasil. 14 pp

Araujo-Lima C, Goulding M, 1998. Tambaqui. Sociedade Civil Mamirauá/MCT-CNPq/IPAAM: Brasilia, Brasil

Araújo-Lima CARM, Goulding M, 1997. So Fruitful a Fish: Conservation and Aquaculture of the Amazon’s Tambaqui. New York City: Columbia University Press

Bernardino G, Alcantara RCG, Senhorini JA, 1988. Procedimentos para a reprodução inducida e alevinagem do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) e pacu (Piaractus brachypomus). In: Anais. V Simpósio Brasileiro de Aquicultura. Florianópolis, SC. Brasil

Bernardino G, Mendonca JOJ, Ribeiro LP, Alcantara RCG, Ferrari VA, Fijan N, 1986. Indução a desova do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) com extrato bruto de hipófises. In: Anais. IV Simpósio Brasileiro de Aquicultura. Cuiabá, MS. Brasil

Bohn J, 1988. Toothy fish puts the bite on Burke Lake angler. Washington Post, 4 June 1988: G1, G3-G4

Burr B, 1996. Zoology Department. Systematic. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL. USA

Campos-Baca L, Kohler CC, 2004. Aquaculture of Colossoma macropomum and related species in Latin America. In: Kelly AM, Silverstein J, ed. Aquaculture in the 21th century. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, in press

Cantelmo A, de Sousa A, Senhorini J, 1986. Dimensão da partícula do alimento para alevinos de pacu, Colossoma mitrei, e tambaqui Colosoma macropomum. Sintese dos trabalhos realizados com espécies do gênero Colossoma. Projeto Aquicultura Marzo/82-Abril/86. Pirassununga, Brasil, 6pp

Carneiro DJ, 1981. Digestibilidade protéica em dietas isocalóricas para tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier) (Pisces, Characidae). In: Anais. II Simpósio Brasileiro de Aquicultura. Jaboticabal SP, Brasil

Ciasullo GM, 2002. Retrocruce de hembras híbridos (F1) (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus brachypomus) con machos de las especies parentales. In: I Congreso Iberoamericano Virtual de Acuicultura CIVA 2002. Online at www.civa2002.org. Accessed 12 February 2004

Coad BW, 1995. Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions Inc., Singapore

Coates D, 1992. FAO Sepik River Fish Stock Enhancement Project, Madang, Papua New Guinea. Letter sent to FAO

Coates D, 1997. Fish stocking activities undertaken by the Sepik River Fish Stock Enhancement Project (1987-1993) and the FISHAID Project (1993-1997). FISHAID Project FI:PNG/93/007 Field Document No. 5. FAO, Rome. 45 pp

Conroy DA, 1989. Reseña sobre las principales enfermedades infecto contagiosas y parasitosis de peces del género Colossoma. In: Hernández RA, ed. Cultivo de Colossoma Guadalupe, Bogotá

Contreras PJC, Contreras JC, 1993. Reproducción inducida de peces tropicales. In: Fundamentos de Acuicultura Continental. In: Rodríguez HG, Polo GR, Salazar GA, eds. Ministerio de Agricultura-Instituto Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (INPA). Bogotá

Da Silva AB, Vinatea JE Alcántara F, 1988. Manual de reproducción de peces Colossoma (Pacu y Tambaqui). Documento preparado para el proyecto GCP/RLA/075/ITA. FAO Brasilia, Brasil. 95 pp

Dau J, 2001. Killer fish threat to river systems. The National (News Paper). 15 June 2001

Duque AB, Taphorn DC, Winemiller KO, 1998. Ecology of the coporo, Prochilodus mariae (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae), and status of annual migrations in western Venezuela. Environ. Biol. Fish., 53(1):33-46

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. FAO, Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

Fernandes JBK, Carneiro DJ, Sakomura NK, 2000. Sources and levels of crude protein in diets for pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fingerlings. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 29(3):646-653

Fernandes JBK, Lochmann R, Alcántara FB, 2004. Apparent digestible energy and nutrient digestibility coefficients of diet ingredients for pacu Piaractus brachypomus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 35(2):237-244

Ferraz-de-Lima J, Castagnolli N, 1989. Reprodução, larviculture e genêtica. Cultivo de Colossoma. In: Hernandez RA, ed. Primera Reunión del Grupo de Trabajo Técnico, Junio 1988. Pirassununga, Brasil. 315-322

FishBase, 2004. Entry for Piaractus brachpomus. Main ref.: Ortega H, Vari RP, 1986. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 13 October 2004

Froese R, Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org

González J, 1987. Actividad biológica de extractos hipofisarios de Teleosteos y sus cambios en los ciclos reproductivos y ambientales. MSc thesis, Universidad Central de Venezuela

Goulding M, 1980. The fishes and the forest. Explorations in Amazonian natural history. The fishes and the forest. Explorations in Amazonian natural history., xii + 280 pp.; [68 pl.]

Goulding M, 1988. Tropical rainforest: ecology and management of migratory food fishes of the Amazon Basin. In: Almeda F, Pringle CM, eds. Tropical Rainforest: Diversity and Conservation. San Francisco: California Academy of Science, 70-85

Goulding M, 1997. História natural dos rios amazônicos. Trad. De Antônio Carlos de Albuquerque dos Santos e Mírian Leal Caravalho, Brasília: Sociedade Civil Mamirauá/CNPq/Rainforest Alliance, Titulo Original: “Amazon: the flooded forest”, 208pp

Goulding M, Carvalho ML, 1982. Life history and management of the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Characidae): an important Amazon food fish. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 1:70-85

Graef EW, 1995. Manejo, estocagem e despesca. In: Val AL, Honczaryk A, ed. Criando peixes na Amazônia. Manaus: Inpa, 121-136

Guerra H, Alcántara F, Campos L, 1992. Cultivo de peces Amazónicos. Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica - TCA. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana - IIAP, Iquitos, Perú

Guerra HF, 1999. Estudio de mercado y comercialización de productos de pesca y sus derivados en el area de la frontera peruano-colombiana. Edit. INADE/PEDICP. Iquitos, Peru

Hartel KE, 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Fish Department, Cambridge, MA, 1-9 pp

Hernández M, Takeuchi T, Watanabe T, 1995. Effect of dietary energy sources on the utilization of protein by Colossoma macropomum fingerlings. Fisheries Science, 61:507-511

Hernández RA, Muñoz D, Ferraz de Lima JA, Fex de Santis R, Vásquez W, Gonzales R, Morales R, Alcántara F, Luna TM, Kossoswki C, Pérez L, Mora JA, Contreras JJ, Díaz F, Fadul EM, Montoya P, 1992. Estado actual del cultivo de Colossoma y Piaractus en Brasil, Colombia, Panamá, Perú y Venezuela. Boletín Red Acuicultura, 6:3-28

Honda MES, 1974. Biological Contributions to The Establishment of The Amazon’s Fishes. II: The Feeding of Tambaqui, Colossoma bidens (Spix)." Manaus Instituto de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Brazil. In: Da Silva, et al, 1977. Acta Amazonica, 4(2)

Howells RG, Benefield RL, Mambretti JM, 1991. Records of pacus (Colossoma spp.) and piranhas (Serrasalmus spp.) in Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife, Management Data Series 70, Austin, TX. 4 pp

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Aquanewshttp://pdacrsp.oregonstate.edu/aquanews/Provided by PDA/CRSP Oregon State University.
FUNEThttp://www.funet.fi
Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruanahttp://www.iiap.org.pe
Instituto Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (INPA), Colombiahttp://inpa.gov.co
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA)http://www.inpa.gov.br/index.html
International Game and Fish Associationhttp://www.igfa.org
Jungle Photos: Education, Conservation and Inspirationhttp://www.junglephotos.com
The Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Programhttp://pdacrsp.oregonstate.edu/
United States Geological Surveyhttp://nas.er.usgs.gov
Universidad Nacional Experimental del Táchira, Venezuelahttp://www.unet.edu.ve

Contributors

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Main Author
Christopher Kohler
Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Southern Illinois University, 173 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511, USA

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