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Datasheet

Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 07 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cromileptes altivelis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • humpback grouper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. altivelis was listed as ‘VU A4cd’ on the IUCN Red List in February 2007 by the IUCN Groupers and Wrasses Specialist Group (GWSG) in the Global Marine Species Assessment Workshop. It is rare in nature and high...
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)

Preferred Common Name

  • humpback grouper

Other Scientific Names

  • Chromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)
  • Cromileptis altivales (Valenciennes, 1828)
  • Cromileptis altiveles (Valenciennes, 1828)
  • Cromileptis altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)
  • Serranus altivelis Valenciennes in Cuv. and Val., 1828

International Common Names

  • English: baramundi cod; barramundi cod; barrimundi cod; bleeker's group; flatfish grouper; highfinned grouper; humpback rockcod; hump-back rock-cod; humpback seabass; panther grouper; pantherfish; polkadot grouper; polka-dot grouper; red fish
  • Spanish: mero jorobado
  • French: grisette; loche truite; loche voile; mérou bossu

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Barramundi cod
  • China/Hong Kong: lo shu pan
  • Germany: Grace Kelly Zackenbarsch
  • India: kalava
  • Indonesia: gracekelly; kerapu bebek; kerapu tikus; kko; sunu tikus
  • Japan: sarasa-hata
  • Malaysia: kerapu belida; kerapu sonoh; kerapu sunoh; kerapu tikus; kupin
  • Mozambique: garoupa corcunda
  • Myanmar: nga-tauk-tu
  • New Caledonia: kiriwa; pore
  • Palau: meleches
  • Papua New Guinea: mwananuya
  • Philippines: amidon; badiangon; bulgan; inid; kaltang; kambabalo; kubing; kulapo; kulapo kubing; kurapu; lapu lapu; lapu-lapu; lapu-lapung senorita; lapu-lapung señorita; liglig; mantis; manutsot; mero-mero; milo-milo; milô-milô; miro-miro; muyopuyo; panter; pugapo; sarungsong; señorita; sigapo; soroy; tingag
  • Singapore: kerapu tikus; lao shu hou; nuo mi hou
  • Solomon Islands: demara; iga piu; sogilo ni kolo
  • South Africa: boggel-klipkabeljou
  • Thailand: pla karang-naa-ngon
  • Tokelau: dhagay
  • Vietnam: ca lu heo; cá Mú d?t; ca mu det

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. altivelis was listed as ‘VU A4cd’ on the IUCN Red List in February 2007 by the IUCN Groupers and Wrasses Specialist Group (GWSG) in the Global Marine Species Assessment Workshop. It is rare in nature and high priced both in the international ornamental market, and in the live food fish market centrally in Hong Kong and southern China. After introduction of the species into Hawaiian waters more than three decades ago, it has not been known to establish breeding stocks. C. altivelis mariculture remains in a primitive stage of development. From both environmental and biodiversity perspectives, there is a need to move away from depending on wild-caught to hatchery-produced juveniles for grow-out, and from using mixed fish feed to commercial compounded diets in grouper mariculture operations. C. altivelis is a popular aquarium species in the USA and there is a risk that it may become invasive in western Atlantic waters, although no breeding populations had established there as of 2013 (Johnston and Purkis, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Perciformes
  •                         Suborder: Percoidei
  •                             Family: Serranidae
  •                                 Genus: Cromileptes
  •                                     Species: Cromileptes altivelis

Description

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Morphology

Body compressed, the depth less than head length, and contained 2.6 to 3.0 times in standard length (for fish 12 to 37 cm standard length) and 2.5 to 2.9 times (for fish 30 to 57 cm total length) (Ou et al., 1999a); body width contained 2.4 to 2.6 times in the depth. Head length contained 2.5 to 2.8 times in standard length and 2.4 to 2.9 times (for fish 30 to 57 cm total length) (Ou et al., 1999a); dorsal head profile distinctly concave, rising steeply at the nape; preorbital very narrow, its depth contained about 5 times in eye diameter and 30 to 32 times in head length; preopercle finely serrate, the serrae at the angle slightly enlarged, the lower edge smooth; opercle with middle spine inconspicuous, the upper and lower spines rudimentary; posterior nostril a large, crescentic, vertical slit; maxilla extending to below rear half of eye; no step or knob on ventral edge of maxilla; supramaxilla well developed; jaws with bands of villiform teeth; no canines; palatines with teeth. Gill rakers short, 8 to 11 on upper limb, 13 to 17 on lower limb.

Dorsal fin with X [10] spines and 17 to 19 rays, the fin origin over opercle, the fin membranes not incised between the spines, the posterior spines longest and the soft-rays even longer.

Anal fin with III [3] spines and 9 or 10 rays; pectoral fins rounded, with 17 or 18 rays; the middle rays longest; pelvic fins with I [1] spine and 5 rays (Ou et al., 1999a).

Caudal fin rounded, with 8 branched rays and 8 procurrent rays in upper part and 7 branched rays and 8 procurrent rays in lower part.

Scales on body smooth (the ctenii greatly reduced); lateral line scales 54 to 62; lateral scale series 106 to 122. Pyloric caeca 10-13 (Ou et al., 1999a). Supraneural bones slender, the second more than half length of first; no trisegmental pterygiophores in dorsal or anal fins; rear edge of first dorsal pterygiophore slightly excavated; epipleural ribs on vertebrae 1 to 8; cranium elongate, depressed anteriorly and elevated posteriorly; least interorbital width about 10% of cranium length; postorbital part of cranium elongated, 60% or more of cranium length; supraoccipital crest not extending onto frontals.

Coloration

Pale greenish brown, with widely-spaced, round, black spots on head, body, and fins; some spots on body and base of median fins overlain by a large dusky blotch. Black spots on juveniles are fewer than on adults and may be as large or larger than eye.

Distribution

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Western Pacific from southern Japan to Palau, Guam, New Caledonia, and southern Queensland (Australia); in the eastern Indian Ocean from the Nicobars to Broome, Western Australia. Reports of Cromileptes from the western Indian Ocean are unsubstantiated; not recorded in the Seychelles (Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Orts, 1993; TNC 2003). Records from the Hawaiian Islands are probably based on released aquarium fishes (Randall and Heemstra, 1991). Records of C. altivelis have also been reported for Yemen (although this is an unreliable record) and for Tonga (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006). In 2013 it was reported in western Atlantic waters, although it is not thought to have established a breeding population there (Johnston and Purkis, 2013).
 
Abundance of C. altivelis has shown a decline, according to visual census in its natural habitat that may be due to overfishing for live food fish and ornamental markets and habitat loss. The species is naturally rare (Sadovy et al., 2007). C. altivelis prefer sheltered sites such as inner shelf reefs, compared to exposed sites. Fish are often encountered singly or in pairs and sometimes with 3-6 individuals recorded in some sites; it is unknown whether these small groups are reproductive units (Sadovy et al., 2007).  

There is limited cultivation of C. altivelis, based on grow-out of wild-caught juveniles, throughout South-East Asia (Sadovy, 2000; Sadovy et al., 2007). Although hatchery production of C. altivelis juveniles from Indonesia has supported a small grow-out industry, it is still at an experimental scale due to the high price of juveniles, slow growth rates and susceptibility to disease (Chan, 2001; Rimmer et al., 2004; M Liu, The Swire Institute of Marine Science, <_st13a_place _w3a_st="on"><_st13a_placetype _w3a_st="on">University of <_st13a_placename _w3a_st="on">Hong Kong, personal communication, 2008). Taiwan and mainland China attempted to produce and culture C. altivelis in captivity, however, with little success (Ou et al., 1999b; Liao et al., 2001; Ou, 2006). In Hong Kong, mariculture of C. altivelis from hatchery-produced juveniles to marketable size is developing from experimental to commercial scale using indoor recirculation culture systems (M Templeton, Marine Culture Technology Limited, Hong Kong, personal communication, 2007; M Liu, The Swire Institute of Marine Science, <_st13a_place _w3a_st="on"><_st13a_placetype _w3a_st="on">University of <_st13a_placename _w3a_st="on">Hong Kong, personal communication, 2008).

 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Indian Ocean, EasternPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Indian Ocean, WesternPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, NorthwestPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, Western CentralPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Huang, 1994; Ou et al., 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Yu et al., 2004
-Hong KongPresent, few occurrencesNative Not invasive Ni and Kwok, 1999; Sadovy and Cornish, 2000; Froese and Pauly, 2004In the eastern waters of Hong Kong. Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive Kapoor et al., 2002; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2007
IndonesiaPresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993; TNC, 2003; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2007Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2007Bonin Island and Ryukyu Archipelago. Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
-Bonin IslandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Sadovy, 2000; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2007Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Randall and Heemstra, 1991; Sadovy, 2000; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2007Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
SingaporePresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Liao et al., 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004Two samples were collected in Chi-lung (121.76E, 25.16N) in 1975
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
VietnamPresentNative Not invasive Sadovy, 2000; Duong, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Africa

KenyaPresentNativeHeemstra, 1995; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Sadovy et al., 2007
MozambiquePresentFischer et al., 1990; Sadovy et al., 2007
SeychellesPresent2002Orts, 1993Ten individuals were also recorded in Reef Check 2005 (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)

North America

USA
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Eldredge, 1994; Froese and Pauly, 2007

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
-QueenslandPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993
-Western AustraliaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993
FijiPresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
GuamPresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
New CaledoniaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNativeMyers, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PalauPresentNative Not invasive Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2007
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeKailola, 1987; Froese and Pauly, 2004Also recorded by Reef Check (J Mihaly, Reef Check, USA, personal communication, 2006)
VanuatuPresentLieske and Myers, 1994

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii UnknownRandall and Heemstra, 1991

Risk of Introduction

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C. altivelis is a popular aquarium species in the USA and there is a risk that it may become invasive in western Atlantic waters, as did the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) (Johnston and Purkis, 2013). Johnston and Purkis (2013) identified the waters off the Florida towns of Jupiter and Vero Beach as the most likely sites for a breeding C. altivelis population to establish.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Lagoons Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Intertidal zone Present, no further details Natural
Mangroves Present, no further details Natural
Marine
Coral reefs Principal habitat Natural
Inshore marine Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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C. altivelis occurs on well-developed coral reefs as well as in dead or silty reef areas. It is found in tide pools and is also caught at depths of 40 m (Heemstra and Randall, 1993). Juveniles (less than 15 cm) are found inshore, in lagoons and on fringing reefs and seagrass (Sadovy et al., 2007). Fish feed on small fishes and crustaceans (Myers, 1999).

Maximum recorded size is 70 cm total length (TL) with sexual maturity at 39 cm TL and 2 years of age, and maximum age is at least 14 years (Heemstra and Randall, 1993; Davies et al., 1999; Lau and Li, 2000). In captivity, however, the fish mature at a smaller size; the minimum recorded size for female maturation is 19.1 cm TL, 114 g, and 18 months of age (M Liu, The Swire Institute of Marine Science, University of Hong Kong, personal communication, 2008). It is still unknown whether C. altivelis forms spawning aggregations in the wild (Sadovy et al., 2007).

The relationships between standard length (SL) and total length (TL) and between standard length and body weight (BW) were estimated from 233 individuals from hatchery-produced and captivity grown-out (M Liu, The Swire Institute of Marine Science, University of Hong Kong, personal communication, 2008). The lengths ranged from 5 to 30 cm SL and both weights ranged from 5 to 350 g with age from 17 to 95 weeks after hatching.

Protogynous hermaphroditism in C. altivelis has been proposed (Gardner et al., 2005) but not yet confirmed since there is no detailed, histological study on it. Males appeared in the population as young as four years of age with the proportion of males showing a gradual increase with 50% male representation occurring at eight years of age (Davies et al., 2006). A recent study on early gonadal development reveals that all C. altivelis develop an ovarian lumen in their juvenile phase with some maturing as females at 18 months (M Liu, The Swire Institute of Marine Science, University of Hong Kong, personal communication, 2008). There is no indication of testicular tissue in juvenile gonads.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 31

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.02 Optimum Adult
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) 0-0.05 Optimum
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4 8 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) 0 0.05 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum 8-36 tolerated. C. altivelis still feeds at 8
Salinity (part per thousand) 34 35 Optimum Broodstock
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 28 30 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.3 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) Optimum 13-33.3 tolerated. C. altivelis still feeds at 13

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AquacultureKept in cages for growout locally, also exported for live fish markets Yes Yes Sadovy, 2000; Sadovy et al., 2007
Breeding and propagationImported long-distance for breeding projects Yes Yes Sadovy, 2000; Rimmer et al., 2004; Sadovy et al., 2007
FisheriesMainly in South-East Asian countries Yes Yes Sadovy, 2000; Sadovy et al., 2007
FoodFor live food fish trade and also local consumption Yes Yes Sadovy, 2000; Sadovy et al., 2007
Live food or feed tradeFor live food fish trade Yes Yes Rimmer et al., 2000; Sadovy, 2000; Sadovy et al., 2007
Ornamental purposesMainly in South-East Asia Yes Yes Sadovy, 2000; Sadovy et al., 2007
Pet trade Yes Yes Sadovy, 2000; Sadovy et al., 2007

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftJuveniles and adults Yes APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001; APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001
Aquaculture stockJuveniles Yes APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001; APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001; Sadovy et al., 2007
Land vehiclesJuveniles and adults, for short distance transportation, e.g. from airport or port to the farm Yes APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001; APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001; Sadovy et al., 2007
Live seafoodCapture mainly in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, transported by boat Yes Yes Rimmer et al., 2004; APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001; Sadovy et al., 2007
Pets and aquarium speciesJuveniles and adults, international trade by air and boat Yes Yes APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001; Sadovy et al., 2007
Ship structures above the water lineJuveniles and adults Yes Yes APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001; Sadovy et al., 2007

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Pathogenic
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Predation

Impact outcomes

  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced native biodiversity

Invasiveness

  • Has a broad native range

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Ornamental

General

  • Pet/aquarium trade

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Human food and beverage

  • Fresh meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
  • Whole

References

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APEC/SEAFDEC, 2001. Husbandry and Health Management of Grouper, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Iloilo, Philippines: Singapore, and South-east Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEAFDEC).

Baliao DD; de los Santos MA; Franco NM; Jamon NRS, 2000. Grouper Culture in Floating Net Cages. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.

Baliao DD; de los Santos MA; Rodriguez EM; Ticar RB, 1998. Grouper Culture in Brackishwater Ponds. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.

Bondad-Reantaso MG; Humphrey J; Kanchanakhan S; Chinabut S, 2000. Development of a Regional Research Programme on Grouper Virus Transmission and Vaccine Development (APEC FWG 02/2000). Report of a workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 18-20 October 2000, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Fish Health Section of the Asian Fisheries Society. Bangkok, Thailand: Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific.

Bosmans JMP; Schipp GP; Gore DJ; Humphrey JD, 2001. Domestication of the barramundi cod, Cromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes): investigation of the reproduction. In: Larvi 2001 [ed. by Hendry, C. I.\Stappen, G. van\Wille, M.\Sorgeloos, P.]. 83-86. [European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication No. 30.]

Caberoy NB; Quinitio GF, 1998. Sensitivity of grouper Epinephelus coioides eggs to handling stress at different stages of embryonic development. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture, 50(4):167-173.

Cesar HSJ; Warren KA; Sadovy Y; Lau P; Meijer S; Ierland Evan, 2000. Marine market transformation of the live reef fish food trade in Southeast Asia. In: Collected essays on the economics of coral reefs [ed. by Cesar, H. S. J.]. Kalmar, Sweden: CORDIO, 137-157.

Chan P, 2001. Taiwan grouper hatchery production in 2000. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin, 8:32-33.

Chao TM; Lim LC, 1991. Recent developments in the breeding of grouper (Epinephelus spp.) in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 19(22):78-93.

Chau GTH; Sadovy Y, 2005. The use of mixed fish feed in Hong Kong's mariculture industry. World Aquaculture, 13:6-16, 69-71.

Chen HY, 2001. Nutritional studies and feed development in the Epinephelus groupers. Nutritional studies and feed development in the Epinephelus groupers. unpaginated. http://140.117.93.1/~hychen/paperAussi2001

Cowey CB; Sargent JR, 1972. Fish Nutrition. Advances in Marine Biology, 10:383-492.

Davies CR; Choat JH; Samoilys M; Mapstone BD; Benzie J; Russ GR, 1999. Stock structure and regional variation in population dynamics of the Red Throat Emperor and other target species of the Queensland Tropical Reef Line Fishery. Stock structure and regional variation in population dynamics of the Red Throat Emperor and other target species of the Queensland Tropical Reef Line Fishery. unpaginated. [Progress Report for FRDC Project 98-13, December 1999.]

Davies CR; Williams AJ; Mapstone BD; Benzie J; Herwerden Lvan; Choat JH; Adams S; Murchie CD; Bean K; Carlos G; Tobin A; Ackerman J, 2006. Stock structure and regional variation in population dynamics of the Red Throat Emperor and other target species of the Queensland Tropical Reef Line Fishery. Stock structure and regional variation in population dynamics of the Red Throat Emperor and other target species of the Queensland Tropical Reef Line Fishery. Townsville, QLD, Australia: CRC Reef Research Centre, 181 pp. [CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report No. 61.]

Ding SX; Zhuang X; Guo F; Wang J; Su YQ, 2006. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of China Seas groupers based on cytochrome b gene fragment sequences. Science in China Series C Life Sciences, 49(3):235-242.

Doi M; Toledo JD; Golez MSN; Santos Mde los; Ohno A, 1997. Preliminary investigation of feeding performance of larvae of early red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, reared with mixed zooplankton. Hydrobiologia, 358:259-263; 14 ref.

Duong TT, 2001. Mot so loai ca thuong gap o bien Viet Nam (Viet Nam’s Common Marine Fishes Catalogue). Ministry of Fisheries of Viet Nam - Fisheries Information Center of Viet Nam.

Duray MM, 1994. Daily rates of ingestion of rotifers and Artemia nauplii by laboratory-reared grouper larvae Epinephelus suillus. Philippines Science, 31:32-41.

Duray MN; Estudillo CB; Alpasan LG, 1996. Larval rearing of the grouper Epinephelus suillus under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture, 150(1/2):63-76; 29 ref.

Duray MN; Estudillo CB; Alpasan LG, 1996. The effect of background color and rotifer density on rotifer intake, growth and survival of the grouper (Epinephelus suillus) larvae. Aquaculture, 146(3/4):217-224; 24 ref.

Eldredge LG, 1994. Perspectives in aquatic exotic species management in the Pacific islands. Volume I. Introduction of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific islands. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia, 127 pp.

Estudillo CB; Duray MN, 2003. Transport of hatchery-reared and wild grouper larvae, Epinephelus sp. Aquaculture, 219(1/4):279-290.

FIGIS, 2004. Fisheries Global Information System. Global Aquaculture Production (1950 to 2002). Online at www.fao.org/fi/figis. Accessed 5 August 2004.

Fischer W; Sousa I; Silva C; de Freitas A; Poutiers JM; Schneider W; Borges TC; Feral JP; Massinga A, 1990. Fichas FAO de identificaçao de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guia de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. Publicaçao preparada em collaboraçao com o Instituto de Investigaçao Pesquiera de Moçambique, com financiamento do Projecto PNUD/FAO MOZ/86/030 e de NORAD. Roma, FAO, 424 pp.

FishBase, 2004. Entry for Cromileptes altivelis. Main ref.: Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world. (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Fish. Synops. No. 125, Vol. 16, 63. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 5 August 2004.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2007. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Gardner L; Anderson T; Place AR; Dixon B; Elizur A, 2005. Sex change strategy and the aromatase genes. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 94:395-404.

Haylor G; Briggs MRP; Pet-Soede L; Tung H; Yen NTH; O’Callaghan B; Gow C; DeVantier L; Cheung C; Santos R; Pador E; de la Torre M; Bulcock P; Savage W, 2003. Improving Coastal Livelihoods Through Sustainable Aquaculture Practices: A Report to the Collaborative APEC Grouper Research and Development Network (FWG/01/2001). STREAM Initiative, NACA, Bangkok, pp. 37.

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11/12/2007 Updated by:

Min Liu, The Swire Institute of Marine Science, University of Hong Kong, Division of Ecology & Biodiversity, School of Biological Sciences, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

Main Author
Mike Rimmer
DPI, Agency for Food and Fibre Sciences -, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Northern Fisheries Centre, PO Box 5396, Cairns, Qld 4870, Australia

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