Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Bactrocera tsuneonis
(Japanese orange fly)



Bactrocera tsuneonis (Japanese orange fly)


  • Last modified
  • 01 April 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactrocera tsuneonis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Japanese orange fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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TitleMuseum set specimen of adult B. tsuneonis
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Museum set specimen of adult B. tsuneonis©CABI BioScience


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactrocera tsuneonis (Miyake)

Preferred Common Name

  • Japanese orange fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Dacus cheni Chao
  • Dacus tsuneonis Miyake
  • Tetradacus tsuneonis (Miyake)

International Common Names

  • English: citrus fruit fly; fruit fly, citrus; fruit fly, Japanese orange; Japanese orange fruit fly
  • French: mouche du citronnier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfliege, Japanische Citrus-; Japanische Citrus Fruchtfliege
  • Japan: Mikanbae

EPPO code

  • DACUTS (Bactrocera tsuneonis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Bactrocera
  •                                 Species: Bactrocera tsuneonis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentHuo BoHua et al., 2018
-GuangxiPresentMing, 1985; Wang, 1998; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentMing, 1985; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentEPPO, 2014
-SichuanRestricted distributionMing, 1985; EPPO, 2014
JapanRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentWang, 1998; Ito, 1983; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentWang, 1998; Shiraki, 1968; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentEPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentEPPO, 2014


New ZealandAbsent, confirmed by surveyEPPO, 2014

Habitat List

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Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / odour
Fruit / ooze

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsFruit in cases or bags Yes
Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo Yes
Land vehiclesLorries, planes, possibly ships carrying fruit cargo Yes
MailFruit in post Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Bateman MA, 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations, In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region. 2nd edn. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

Drew RAI, 1982. Fruit fly collecting. In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA, eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region, 2nd edition. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 129-139

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Hou BoHua, Ouyang GeCheng, Lu HuiLin, Ma Jun, Lu YongYue, Xia Yulu, 2018. First detection of Bactrocera tsuneonis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guangdong Province of China. Florida Entomologist, 101(3), 533-535. doi: 10.1653/024.101.0331

IIE, 1991. Bactrocera tsuneonis (Miyake). Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A No. 410, revised edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 1-2

Ito S, 1983. Die Japanischen Bohrfliegen. Osaka. [Privately published in 7 parts.]

Lin LiLi, Wu JiaJiao, Zeng Ling, Liang GuangWen, Hu XueNan, Mo RenHao, 2007. Rapid identification of two species of Tetradacus by PCR-RFLP. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 44(4):588-592

Ming Yue, 1985. Identification of two species of Chinese citrus flies. Plant Quarantine, 1:35-39

Miyake T, 1919. Studies on the fruit-flies of Japan. I. Japanese orange fly. Bulletin of the Imperial Central Agricultural Experiment Station of Japan, 2:85-165

Roessler Y, 1989. Control; insecticides; insecticidal bait and cover sprays. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies. Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 329-336

Shiraki T, 1968. Fruit flies of the Ryukyu Islands. United States National Museum Bulletin, 263:1-104

USDA, 1994. Treatment manual. Frederick, USA: USDA/APHIS

Wang HS, Zhao CD, Li HX, Lou HZ, Liu QR, Kang W, Hu JG, Zhang HQ, Chu JM, Xia DR, Yang RX, 1990. Control of Dacus citri by irradiated male sterile technique. Acta Agriculturae Nucleatp Sinica, 4(No. 3):135-138

Wang Xing-Jian, 1998. The fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the East Asian region. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 21(supplement):1-338

White IM, Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance. Their Identification and Bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

White IM, Wang XJ, 1992. Taxonomic notes on some dacine (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies associated with citrus, olives and cucurbits. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(2):275-279

Yasuda T, Narahara M, Tanaka S, Wakamura S, 1994. Thermal responses in the citrus fruit fly, Dacus tsuneonis: evidence for a pupal diapause. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 71(3):257-261

Zhang YA, 1989. Citrus fruit flies of Sichuan Province (China). Bulletin OEPP, 19(4):649-654

Distribution Maps

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