Invasive Species Compendium

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Crotalaria retusa
(rattleweed)

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Datasheet

Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Crotalaria retusa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rattleweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Many species in the genus Crotalaria, including the annual herb C. retusa, have been actively introduced in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world to be used in agroforestry systems (...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Crotalaria retusa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • rattleweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Crotalaria cuneifolia (Forssk.) Schrank
  • Crotalaria hostmannii Steud.
  • Crotalaria retusa var. maritima Trimen
  • Crotalaria retusifolia Stokes
  • Dolichos cuneifolius Forssk.
  • Lupinus cochinchinensis Lour.

International Common Names

  • English: devil bean; devil-bean; rattlebox; rattlepod; wedge-leaf crotalaria; wedge-leaf rattlepod
  • Spanish: cascabel; cascabelillo; cascabelillo fétido
  • French: pistache; pistache marron; pois franc marron
  • Chinese: diao qun cao

Local Common Names

  • : gallincillo; patillo; quiebra plato
  • Bahamas: large yellow rattlebox
  • Cambodia: knông sva; kuël
  • Colombia: cascabelito
  • Cuba: canario; marimena; maromera; maruga
  • Dominican Republic: cachimbito; samba; zapatico
  • Haiti: pete-pete
  • Indonesia: duku todore; orok-orok cina
  • Lesser Antilles: jumbie earing; popbush; pwa zombi; shack-shack; shak shak; sonnet; tcha tcha; wild sweet pea; yellow sweet pea
  • Madagascar: akondrondolo; akondronjaza; amberivatrincolo
  • Malaysia: giring badak
  • Philippines: buli-laua; palpaltog; potokan
  • Puerto Rico: matraca; sonajuelas
  • Venezuela: maraquita

Summary of Invasiveness

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Many species in the genus Crotalaria, including the annual herb C. retusa, have been actively introduced in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world to be used in agroforestry systems (Brunner et al., 2013). Evidence available suggests that this species is able to escape from cultivation and naturalize in disturbed areas such as roadsides, waste grounds, urban areas, and grasslands (Wagner et al., 1999; Brunner et al., 2013). Once naturalized this species may become weedy and invasive and has the potential to displace native or desirable vegetation in both natural and managed habitats (ILDIS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013). Currently, C. retusa is classified as a “noxious weed” in 10 states in the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This species is also listed as invasive in India, Cuba, Cocos Island and several islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details; Chandra, 2012; González-Torres et al., 2012; PIER, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Crotalaria
  •                                     Species: Crotalaria retusa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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C. retusa is in the subfamily Faboideae (also known as Papilionoideae) of the Fabaceae. Members of this subfamily are trees, shrubs, and herbs that may be easily recognized by their classical pea-shaped flowers and the frequent occurrence of root nodulation (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Crotalaria includes around 700 species, mainly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere throughout tropical regions and extending into the subtropics (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; Roux et al., 2013). This genus has its primary centre of species diversity in tropical and subtropical Africa and Madagascar where approximately 543 species occur, and secondary radiations in temperate Asia, tropical Asia and Australasia with 159 species, South America (mainly in Brazil) with 64 species and North America (Mexico and southern United States) with 34 species (Roux et al., 2013). Crotalaria species are easily recognized by the following combination of characters (Wyk, 2005):

  • rostrate keel
  • highly inflated fruit
  • hairy style
  • 5 + 5 anther configuration
  • paired callosities on the standard petal
  • presence of macrocyclic pyrrolizidine alkaloids

The name ‘rattlebox’ for Crotalaria spp. comes from the sound made when their pod-like fruit is shaken, causing the seeds to “rattle” around inside.

Description

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Annual herbs; stems erect, up to 130 cm long, ridged, appressed short-pubescent. Leaves simple, oblanceolate to spatulate, 3-10 × 1-3.8 cm, upper surface glabrous and punctate, lower surface densely sericeous pubescent, apex rounded or retuse, mucronate, base cuneate, petioles 2- 3 mm long, stipules narrowly rhombic-ovate, up to 0.5 mm long. Racemes to 27 cm long, few-flowered, bracts narrowly triangular, minute, early deciduous, calyx broadly bell-shaped, appressed short-pubescent, 12-14 mm long; petals bright yellow, the standard ovate, clawed, to 18 mm long, with reddish veins, wings and keel petals as long as the standard. Pods dark brown to black at maturity, 2.5-4.5 × 1.1-1.3 cm, oblong, nearly cylindrical, glabrous. Seeds approximately 23 per pod, golden-brown to brown, 4-4.5 mm long, smooth (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 1996; Wagner et al., 1999).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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The exact native distribution range of C. retusa is obscure. At present, this species is considered native to tropical Asia, Africa and Australia and widely naturalized in the tropics (ILDIS, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
BhutanPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
Brunei DarussalamPresentILDIS, 2013
CambodiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-HunanPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
Cocos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Orchard, 1993
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Andhra PradeshPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Arunachal PradeshPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-AssamPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-BiharPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-DelhiPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-GoaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-GujaratPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-HaryanaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-Indian PunjabPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Jammu and KashmirPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-KarnatakaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-KeralaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Madhya PradeshPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-MaharashtraPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-ManipurPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-MeghalayaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-MizoramPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-NagalandPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-OdishaPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-RajasthanPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-SikkimPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Tamil NaduPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-TripuraPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Khanna, 2009
-West BengalPresentUSDA-ARS, 2013
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
-KalimantanPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNativeILDIS, 2013Sunda Island
IranPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
LaosPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
MalaysiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
-SarawakPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
MyanmarPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
NepalPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
OmanPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
PakistanPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
PhilippinesPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
SingaporePresentNativeILDIS, 2013
Sri LankaPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
ThailandPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
VietnamPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
YemenPresentNativeILDIS, 2013

Africa

ComorosPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
GambiaPresentILDIS, 2013
GhanaPresentILDIS, 2013
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresentILDIS, 2013
MadagascarPresentILDIS, 2013
MaliPresentILDIS, 2013
MauritiusPresentILDIS, 2013
MozambiquePresentILDIS, 2013
NigeriaPresentILDIS, 2013
RéunionPresentILDIS, 2013
Rodriguez IslandPresentILDIS, 2013
SenegalPresentILDIS, 2013
SeychellesPresentILDIS, 2013
Sierra LeonePresentILDIS, 2013
SomaliaPresentILDIS, 2013
TanzaniaPresentILDIS, 2013
UgandaPresentILDIS, 2013

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedGann and Bradley, 2000Noxious weed
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Noxious weed
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Noxious weed
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Noxious weed
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Noxious weed
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Noxious weed
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Noxious weed
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Noxious weed
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013Noxious weed

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Antigua and BarbudaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
ArubaPresentIntroduced
BahamasWidespreadIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GrenadaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
MontserratWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Martin
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
PanamaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
-BahiaPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-PiauiPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedFlores, 2013Naturalized
ColombiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McMullen, 1999
French GuianaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
GuyanaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
ParaguayPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
PeruPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
SurinamePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2013

Oceania

American SamoaPresentPIER, 2013
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
-QueenslandPresentNativeILDIS, 2013Considered a weed
-Western AustraliaPresentNativeILDIS, 2013
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013Cultivated
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Lorence and Wagner, 2013
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive Stone, 1970
KiribatiPresentIntroduced Invasive Swarbrick, 1997
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Herrera et al., 2010
NauruPresentIntroduced Invasive Thaman et al., 1994
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedRaulerson, 2006
PalauPresentIntroducedSpace et al., 2009Cultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentNative Invasive USDA-ARS, 2013
SamoaPresentPIER, 2013
TongaPresentPIER, 2013
VanuatuPresentPIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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Several Crotalaria species were introduced from Asia into tropical regions in the Western Hemisphere early in the nineteenth century (Sheahan, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2013). In the West Indies C. retusa was first reported in 1876 in the Virgin Islands (Eggers, 1876). By 1900, this species is listed as a “common herb” in the United States, Mexico, Central America, Brazil, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, St Kitts, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, Netherland Antilles, St Vincent, Barbados, Grenada, and Trinidad and Tobago (Urban, 1905; Orwa et al., 2009).  

Risk of Introduction

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C. retusa has been actively introduced to be used as a fibre crop, green manure, forage, ground cover and soil improver, and consequently the risk of new introductions as well as the probability of escape from cultivation is high, mainly in disturbed areas (Wagner et al., 1999; Brunner et al., 2013; PIER, 2013).

Habitat

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C. retusa is cultivated in humid tropical areas, but can also grow in semiarid conditions with average annual rainfall as low as 200 mm. C. retusa is common in disturbed areas, roadsides, waste grounds, agricultural lands, pastures, urban areas (i.e., gardens and parks) and grasslands, where it grows as a weed (Wagner et al., 1999; Brunner et al., 2013).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. retusa is 2n=16 (Olivera and Aguiar-Perecin,1999).

Reproductive Biology

Species in the genus Crotalaria are generally reported as self-incompatible. Cross-pollination is extensive and self-pollination occurs only after the stigmatic surface has been stimulated by insects or some other means (Kundu, 1964). Flowers are adapted to buzz-pollination by large bees such as Xylocopa spp. and Vegactile spp (Wyk, 2005).

Physiology and Phenology

C. retusa is an annual herb and its growth is stimulated by high sunlight and water availability (Wagner et al., 1999).

Environmental Requirements

C. retusa grows best in areas with relatively high humidity. However, it is well adapted to drought and can also grow in hot, semiarid habitats (McMullen, 1999). Within its native distribution range, C. retusa occurs in areas with temperatures ranging from 15°C to 27°C. It can tolerate light frosts (-2°C minimum tolerated without injury) and partial salinity conditions (Wagner et al., 1999; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; Brunner et al., 2013; PIER, 2013).

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -2
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 27
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall2001600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. retusa only spreads by seeds. Seeds are ejected short distances from the pods which twist upon drying. Additionally, because plants are common in disturbed and agricultural areas, seeds can be easily dispersed as contaminants in mud or hay adhering to vehicles, humans or livestock (Wagner et al., 1999; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; PIER, 2013).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionFibre crop Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
DisturbanceEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Forage Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Habitat restoration and improvementUsed as ground cover Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
HorticultureUsed as ground cover Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Medicinal useLeaves and flowers used in medicine Yes Yes Nuhu et al., 2009
Ornamental purposesPlanted in gardens to attract insects Yes Yes
People foragingSeeds collected Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
LivestockSeeds can be dispersed by animals Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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C. retusa has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in disturbed areas, roadsides, waste grounds, urban areas, and grasslands (Wagner et al., 1999; Brunner et al., 2013). Once naturalized, C. retusa grows as a weed and may become invasive, displacing native vegetation (ILDIS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013). In addition, C. retusa is a nitrogen-fixing species and consequently it has the capacity to alter chemical soil conditions, nutrient cycling and trophic levels in invaded ecosystems, with negative effects on native vegetation principally in nutrient-poor ecosystems that did not previously contain nitrogen-fixing plants (Levine et al., 2003). This species is also a noxious weed and annually generates extensive economic impacts principally in agroforestry systems in the United States, West Indies, tropical Asia, and in several islands in the Pacific Ocean (ILDIS, 2013; PIER, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013). There are reports of sheep (Nobre et al., 2005; Riet-Correa et al., 2011) and horses (Nobre et al., 2004) being poisoned by C. retusa in Brazil.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Antagonistic (micro-organisms)
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. retusa is frequently planted in agroforestry system to be used in the production of fibre, forage, and green manure (Brunner et al., 2013). This species is also used as a ground cover and to improve soil condition (ILDIS, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013). In Africa, roots are used against coughing up blood. Leaves are used to treat fever, scabies, lung diseases and impetigo. Flowers and leaves are consumed as a vegetable. Roasted seeds are eaten in Vietnam and Africa. Occasionally, Crotalaria retusa is grown as an ornamental, and is used as a dye plant in East Africa (PROTA4U, 2013).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Soil improvement

Human food and beverage

  • Seeds
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Dyestuffs
  • Fibre
  • Green manure

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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In small infestations, existing plants of C. retusa should be removed before seeds are produced. Mechanical control should be applied in large infestations and repeated control must be practiced over several years. Glyphosate and triclopyr have been used in the chemical control of several Crotalaria species, but there is no information about chemical control of C. retusa (Cook et al., 2005). Riet-Correa et al. (2011) report that resistant sheep will consume sprouting C. retusa plants, and suggest that they can be used for biological control.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Brunner B; Martínez S; Flores L; Morales P, 2013. Crotalaria. Hoja Informativa. Proyecto de Agricultura Orgánica Z-NRCS-007/Z-208 ([English title not available])., Puerto Rico: Estación Experimental Lajas. http://prorganico.info/crotalaria2.pdf

Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184.

Cook B; Pengelly B; Brown S; Donnelly J; Eagle D; Franco A; Hanson J; Mullen B; Partridge I; Peters M; Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F (Qld), CIAT and ILRI. http://www.tropicalforages.info/

Cotias de Oliveira ALP; Aguiar-Perecin MLRde, 1999. Karyotype evolution in the genus Crotalaria (Leguminosae). Cytologia, 64(2):165-174.

Eggers HFA, 1876. The St Croix's Flora. Washington, USA: Government Printing Office, 158 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, Massachusetts , USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Flores AS, 2013. Crotalaria in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil ([English title not available])., Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB82989

Gann GD; Bradley KA, 2000. The Exotic Plants of Southern Florida. Exotic Specifics. Miami, Florida, USA: The Institute for Regional Conservation.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia:146 pp.

ILDIS, 2013. International Legume Database & Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, Unversity of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Khanna KK, 2009. Invasive alien angiosperms of Uttar Pradesh. Biological Forum, 1(2):34-39. http://www.researchtrend.net

KUNDU BC, 1964. Sunn-hemp in India. Proceedings. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 24:396-404.

Levine JM; Vilà M; D'Antonio CM; Dukes JS; Grigulis K; Lavorel S, 2003. Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 270(1517):775-781.

Lorence DH; Wagner WL, 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

McMullen CK, 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Ithaca, New York, USA: Comstock Publisher Assoc., 370 pp.

Nobre VMda T; Riet-Correa F; Barbosa Filho JM; Dantas AFM; Tabosa IM; Vasconcelos JS, 2004. Poisoning by Crotalaria retusa (Fabaceae) in equidae in the semiarid region of Paraíba. (Intoxicação por Crotalaria retusa (Fabaceae) em eqüídeos no semi-árido da Paraíba.) Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 24(3):132-143.

Nobre VMT; Dantas AFM; Riet-Correa F; Barbosa Filho JM; Tabosa IM; Vasconcelos JS, 2005. Acute intoxication by Crotalaria retusa in sheep. Toxicon, 45(3):347-352. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00410101

Nuhu H; Abdurrahman EM; Shok M, 2009. Ethnomedical studies of Crotalaria species found in Zaria, northern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(2):46-53.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
International Legume Database and Information Servicehttp://www.ildis.org/
PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota4u.org/

Contributors

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09/01/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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