Invasive Species Compendium

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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

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Datasheet

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Bunyaviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (ICTV)

Other Scientific Names

  • Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus

International Common Names

  • English: Congo agent; Congo virus

English acronym

  • CCHFV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Bunyaviridae
  •                     Genus: Nairovirus
  •                         Species: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicPresent
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent1956
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KenyaPresent2000
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MauritaniaPresent1983
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SenegalPresent2003
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresent1981
South SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
SudanPresent2008
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanPresent1998
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent1965
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent2011
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IranPresent2000
IraqPresent1979
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
KazakhstanPresent1948
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanPresent
LaosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
OmanPresent1995
PakistanPresent1976
PalestineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TajikistanPresent1943
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkeyPresent2002
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesPresent1979
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020

Europe

AlbaniaPresent2001
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BulgariaPresent1953
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreecePresent2008
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RussiaPresent
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaPresent
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus within the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. All members of this family are single-stranded viruses containing a negative-sense RNA genome. CCHF virions are spherical in shape and approximately 90-100 nm in diameter. They are enveloped particles with a tripartite genome made up of three genome segments (Flick, 2007). Four structural proteins are encoded by these three RNA segments: the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein) expressed by the large (L) segment, the glycoproteins GN and GC encoded by the medium (M) segment, and the nucleoprotein (N) encoded by the small (S) segment (Flick, 2007).

A wide variety of mammals including domesticated and wild ruminants, insectivores, small lagomorphs, rodents and some carnivores have been shown to be infected with the virus and are important hosts for Hyalomma and other ixodid ticks that transmit CCHFV (Hoogstraal, 1979; Whitehouse, 2004; Nalca and Whitehouse, 2007).

Hosts/Species Affected

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CCHFV and other nairoviruses are transmitted by ixodid ticks, which feed upon both wild and domesticated birds and a variety of large and small mammals (Hoogstraal, 1979; Bente, 2013). These hosts do not show any signs of disease, but many of them serve as an amplification host for the virus and thus provide a source of the virus for tick populations (see Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever datasheet). CCHFV has been detected in more than 30 species of ticks (see Table of Vectors and Intermediate Hosts); however, because these blood-sucking arthropods could have recently fed upon a viremia animal just prior to being tested for the virus, it is possible that many of these may not be involved in the natural transmission of the virus and thus not true vectors (Turell, 2007).

 

Host Animals (seropositive) and Distribution (Nalca and Whitehouse, 2007)

Animal name (species)

Location

Long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus)

Turkmenia (now Turkmenistan)

Cape hare (Lepus capensis)

South Africa

Scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis)

South Africa

Hare (Lepus spp.)

South Africa

European hare (Lepus europaeus)

Bulgaria, Russia

Ground squirrel (Xerus inaurius)

South Africa

Springhare (Pedetes capensis)

South Africa

Highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii)

South Africa

Bushveld gerbil (Tatera leucogaster)

South Africa

Naked-soled gerbil (Tatera indica)

Pakistan

Namaqua rock mouse (Aethomys namaquensis)

South Africa

Striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

South Africa

Porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis)

South Africa

House mouse (Mus musculus)

Iran

Black rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Egypt

Field rat (Arvicanthis niloticus)

Egypt

Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Egypt

Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis)

Senegal

Common field mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)

Russia

Long-clawed ground squirrel (Spermophilopsis leptodactylus)

Russia

Williams’ jerboa (Allactaga euphratica williasmsi)

Iran

Swinhoe’s jird (Meriones crassus swinhoei)

Iran

Domestic dog (Canis familiaris)

South Africa

Common red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

Turkmenia (now Turkmenistan)

Pallas’ cat (Otocolobus manul)

Turkmenia (now Turkmenistan)

Genet (Genetta genetta senegalensis)

Senegal

Animals (species) experimentally infected with CCHFV. Most experimental infections, with the exception of newborn mice, resulted in low-level viremia and no clinical signs. Mild illness - with signs of dullness, lassitude, and decreased appetite – were observed in infected calves (Nalca and Whitehouse, 2007)

   

Newborn mice (Mus musculus)

Striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

Horse (Equus caballus)

Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

Donkey (Equus asinus)

South African hedgehog (Atelerix frontalis)

Cow  (Bos taurus)

Highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii)

Sheep (Ovis aries)

Namaqua gerbil (Desmodillus auricularis)

Scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis)

Multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis)

Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris)

Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

Red veld rat (Aethomys chrysophilus)

Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

White-tailed rat (Mystromys albicaudatus)

African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)

Bushveld gerbil (Tatera leucogaster)

Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas)

 

Guinea baboon (Papio papio)

 

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes africanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes cumminsii cumminsiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes dalzieliMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes furciferMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes luteocephalusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes metallicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes tayloriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Amblyomma hebraeumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma marmoreumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma variegatumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Anopheles hyrcanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Argas persicusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Argas walkeraeMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Boophilus annulatusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Boophilus decoloratusTickAfrica South of Sahara
Boophilus geigyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Boophilus microplusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Culex modestusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Dermacentor daghestanicusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Dermacentor marginatusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Haemaphysalis punctataTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Hyalomma anatolicumTickAfrica South of Sahara; Oriental region; Palaearctic region
Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma anatolicum excavatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma asiaticumTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma detritumTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Hyalomma dromedariiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma impeltatumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma impressumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma marginatumTickAfrica South of Sahara; Oriental region; Palaearctic region
Hyalomma marginatum marginatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma marginatum rufipesTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma nitidumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma truncatumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Ixodes persulcatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ixodes ricinusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Margaropus winthemiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Ornithodoros moubata porcinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros savignyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus bursaTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus puchellusTickAfrica South of Sahara
Rhipicephalus pumilioTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Rhipicephalus rossicusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Rhipicephalus sanguineusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region
Rhipicephalus turanicusTickOriental region; Palaearctic region

References

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Bente DA; Forrester NL; Watts DM; McAuley AJ; Whitehouse CA; Bray M, 2013. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antiviral Research, 100(1):159-189. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01663542

Flick R, 2007. Molecular biology of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. In: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a global perspective [ed. by Ergonul, O.\Whitehouse, C. A.]. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 35-44. http://www.springerlink.com/content/?k=isbn%3a(978-1-4020-6106-6)

Hoogstraal H, 1979. The epidemiology of tick borne Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe and Africa. Journal of Medical Entomology, 15:307-417.

Monev V, 1994. Epidemiological and cartographic assessment of the risks of infection with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria. Infectology, 31(3):11-15.

Nalca A; Whitehouse C, 2007. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection among animals. In: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a global perspective [ed. by Ergonul, O.\Whitehouse, C. A.]. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 155-165. http://www.springerlink.com/content/?k=isbn%3a(978-1-4020-6106-6)

Papa A; Bino S; Llagami A; Brahimaj B; Papadimitriou E; Pavlidou V; Velo E; Cahani G; Hajdini M; Pilaca A; Harxhi A; Antoniadis A, 2002. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Albania, 2001. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 21(8):603-606.

Papa A; Dalla V; Papadimitriou E; Kartalis GN; Antoniadis A, 2010. Emergence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 16(7):843-847. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/clm

Patel AK; Patel KK; Minesh Mehta; Parikh TM; Harsh Toshniwal; Kamlesh Patel, 2011. First Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in India. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 59(September):585-589. http://www.japi.org/september_2011/10_CR_First_Crimean-congo.pdf

Turell M, 2007. Role of ticks in the transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. In: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a global perspective [ed. by Ergonul, O.\Whitehouse, C. A.]. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 143-154. http://www.springerlink.com/content/?k=isbn%3a(978-1-4020-6106-6)

Whitehouse CA, 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Research, 64(3):145-160.

Distribution References

Bente D A, Forrester N L, Watts D M, McAuley A J, Whitehouse C A, Bray M, 2013. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antiviral Research. 100 (1), 159-189. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.07.006

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

Monev V, 1994. Epidemiological and cartographic assessment of the risks of infection with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria. Infectology. 31 (3), 11-15.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Papa A, Bino S, Llagami A, Brahimaj B, Papadimitriou E, Pavlidou V, Velo E, Cahani G, Hajdini M, Pilaca A, Harxhi A, Antoniadis A, 2002. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Albania, 2001. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 21 (8), 603-606. DOI:10.1007/s10096-002-0770-9

Papa A, Dalla V, Papadimitriou E, Kartalis G N, Antoniadis A, 2010. Emergence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 16 (7), 843-847. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02996.x

Patel A K, Patel K K, Minesh Mehta, Parikh T M, Harsh Toshniwal, Kamlesh Patel, 2011. First Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in India. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 59 (September), 585-589. http://www.japi.org/september_2011/10_CR_First_Crimean-congo.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
CDC – Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverhttp://www.cdc.gov/vhf/crimean-congo/
WHO - Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic feverhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs208/en/

Contributors

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26/02/15 Updated by:

Chris A. Whitehouse, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA.

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