Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus



Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus


  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Bunyaviridae
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (ICTV)

Other Scientific Names

  • Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus

International Common Names

  • English: Congo agent; Congo virus

English acronym


Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Bunyaviridae
  •                     Genus: Nairovirus
  •                         Species: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


Central African RepublicPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent1956Bente et al. (2013)
DjiboutiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
KenyaPresent2000Bente et al. (2013)
MauritaniaPresent1983Bente et al. (2013); CABI Data Mining (2001)
RéunionPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
SenegalPresent2003Bente et al. (2013); CABI Data Mining (2001)
SeychellesPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
South AfricaPresent1981Bente et al. (2013); CABI Data Mining (2001)
SudanPresent2008Bente et al. (2013)


AfghanistanPresent1998Bente et al. (2013)
ChinaPresent1965Bente et al. (2013)
IndiaPresent2011Patel et al. (2011); CABI Data Mining (2001)
IranPresent2000Bente et al. (2013)
IraqPresent1979Bente et al. (2013)
KazakhstanPresent1948Bente et al. (2013)
KyrgyzstanPresentBente et al. (2013)
OmanPresent1995Bente et al. (2013); CABI Data Mining (2001)
PakistanPresent1976Bente et al. (2013); CABI Data Mining (2001)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
TajikistanPresent1943Bente et al. (2013)
TurkeyPresent2002Bente et al. (2013)
United Arab EmiratesPresent1979Bente et al. (2013); CABI Data Mining (2001)


AlbaniaPresent2001Papa et al. (2002)
BulgariaPresent1953Monev (1994); CABI Data Mining (2001)
GermanyPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
GreecePresent2008Papa et al. (2010)
RussiaPresentBente et al. (2013); CABI Data Mining (2001)
SerbiaPresentBente et al. (2013)
UkrainePresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentBente et al. (2013)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus within the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. All members of this family are single-stranded viruses containing a negative-sense RNA genome. CCHF virions are spherical in shape and approximately 90-100 nm in diameter. They are enveloped particles with a tripartite genome made up of three genome segments (Flick, 2007). Four structural proteins are encoded by these three RNA segments: the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein) expressed by the large (L) segment, the glycoproteins GN and GC encoded by the medium (M) segment, and the nucleoprotein (N) encoded by the small (S) segment (Flick, 2007).

A wide variety of mammals including domesticated and wild ruminants, insectivores, small lagomorphs, rodents and some carnivores have been shown to be infected with the virus and are important hosts for Hyalomma and other ixodid ticks that transmit CCHFV ( Hoogstraal, 1979; Whitehouse, 2004; Nalca and Whitehouse, 2007).

Hosts/Species Affected

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CCHFV and other nairoviruses are transmitted by ixodid ticks, which feed upon both wild and domesticated birds and a variety of large and small mammals (Hoogstraal, 1979; Bente, 2013). These hosts do not show any signs of disease, but many of them serve as an amplification host for the virus and thus provide a source of the virus for tick populations (see Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever datasheet). CCHFV has been detected in more than 30 species of ticks (see Table of Vectors and Intermediate Hosts); however, because these blood-sucking arthropods could have recently fed upon a viremia animal just prior to being tested for the virus, it is possible that many of these may not be involved in the natural transmission of the virus and thus not true vectors (Turell, 2007).


Host Animals (seropositive) and Distribution (Nalca and Whitehouse, 2007)

Animal name (species)


Long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus)

Turkmenia (now Turkmenistan)

Cape hare (Lepus capensis)

South Africa

Scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis)

South Africa

Hare (Lepus spp.)

South Africa

European hare (Lepus europaeus)

Bulgaria, Russia

Ground squirrel (Xerus inaurius)

South Africa

Springhare (Pedetes capensis)

South Africa

Highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii)

South Africa

Bushveld gerbil (Tatera leucogaster)

South Africa

Naked-soled gerbil (Tatera indica)


Namaqua rock mouse (Aethomys namaquensis)

South Africa

Striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

South Africa

Porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis)

South Africa

House mouse (Mus musculus)


Black rat (Rattus norvegicus)


Field rat (Arvicanthis niloticus)


Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus)


Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis)


Common field mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)


Long-clawed ground squirrel (Spermophilopsis leptodactylus)


Williams’ jerboa (Allactaga euphratica williasmsi)


Swinhoe’s jird (Meriones crassus swinhoei)


Domestic dog (Canis familiaris)

South Africa

Common red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

Turkmenia (now Turkmenistan)

Pallas’ cat (Otocolobus manul)

Turkmenia (now Turkmenistan)

Genet (Genetta genetta senegalensis)


Animals (species) experimentally infected with CCHFV. Most experimental infections, with the exception of newborn mice, resulted in low-level viremia and no clinical signs. Mild illness - with signs of dullness, lassitude, and decreased appetite – were observed in infected calves (Nalca and Whitehouse, 2007)


Newborn mice (Mus musculus)

Striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

Horse (Equus caballus)

Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

Donkey (Equus asinus)

South African hedgehog (Atelerix frontalis)

Cow  (Bos taurus)

Highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii)

Sheep (Ovis aries)

Namaqua gerbil (Desmodillus auricularis)

Scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis)

Multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis)

Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris)

Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

Red veld rat (Aethomys chrysophilus)

Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

White-tailed rat (Mystromys albicaudatus)

African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)

Bushveld gerbil (Tatera leucogaster)

Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas)


Guinea baboon (Papio papio)


Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes africanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes cumminsii cumminsiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes dalzieliMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes furciferMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes luteocephalusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes metallicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes tayloriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Amblyomma hebraeumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma marmoreumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma variegatumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Anopheles hyrcanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Argas persicusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Argas walkeraeMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Boophilus annulatusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Boophilus decoloratusTickAfrica South of Sahara
Boophilus geigyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Boophilus microplusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Culex modestusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Dermacentor daghestanicusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Dermacentor marginatusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Haemaphysalis punctataTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Hyalomma anatolicumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma anatolicum excavatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma asiaticumTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma detritumTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Hyalomma dromedariiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma impeltatumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma impressumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma marginatumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma marginatum marginatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma marginatum rufipesTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma nitidumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Hyalomma truncatumTickAfrica South of Sahara
Ixodes persulcatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ixodes ricinusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Margaropus winthemiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Ornithodoros moubata porcinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ornithodoros savignyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus bursaTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus puchellusTickAfrica South of Sahara
Rhipicephalus pumilioTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Rhipicephalus rossicusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Rhipicephalus sanguineusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region
Rhipicephalus turanicusTickOriental region|Palaearctic region


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Bente DA; Forrester NL; Watts DM; McAuley AJ; Whitehouse CA; Bray M, 2013. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antiviral Research, 100(1):159-189.

Flick R, 2007. Molecular biology of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. In: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a global perspective [ed. by Ergonul, O.\Whitehouse, C. A.]. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 35-44.

Hoogstraal H, 1979. The epidemiology of tick borne Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe and Africa. Journal of Medical Entomology, 15:307-417.

Monev V, 1994. Epidemiological and cartographic assessment of the risks of infection with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria. Infectology, 31(3):11-15.

Nalca A; Whitehouse C, 2007. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection among animals. In: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a global perspective [ed. by Ergonul, O.\Whitehouse, C. A.]. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 155-165.

Papa A; Bino S; Llagami A; Brahimaj B; Papadimitriou E; Pavlidou V; Velo E; Cahani G; Hajdini M; Pilaca A; Harxhi A; Antoniadis A, 2002. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Albania, 2001. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 21(8):603-606.

Papa A; Dalla V; Papadimitriou E; Kartalis GN; Antoniadis A, 2010. Emergence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 16(7):843-847.

Patel AK; Patel KK; Minesh Mehta; Parikh TM; Harsh Toshniwal; Kamlesh Patel, 2011. First Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in India. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 59(September):585-589.

Turell M, 2007. Role of ticks in the transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. In: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a global perspective [ed. by Ergonul, O.\Whitehouse, C. A.]. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 143-154.

Whitehouse CA, 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Research, 64(3):145-160.

Links to Websites

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CDC – Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
WHO - Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever


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26/02/15 Updated by:

Chris A. Whitehouse, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA.

Distribution Maps

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