Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Bactrocera occipitalis



Bactrocera occipitalis


  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactrocera occipitalis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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TitleMuseum set specimen of adult B. occipitalis
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Museum set specimen of adult B. occipitalis©CABI BioScience


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactrocera occipitalis (Bezzi)

Other Scientific Names

  • Chaetodacus ferrugineus var. occipitalis Bezzi
  • Chaetodacus occipitalis Bezzi, 1919
  • Dacus dorsalis var. occipitalis (Bezzi)
  • Dacus occipitalis (Bezzi)
  • Strumeta pedestris var. occipitalis (Bezzi)

EPPO code

  • BCTROC (Bactrocera occipitalis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Bactrocera
  •                                 Species: Bactrocera occipitalis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


Brunei DarussalamPresentNHM London UK; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentDrew and Hancock, 1994; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentDrew and Hancock, 1994; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / premature drop

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Armstrong JW; Couey HM, 1989. Control; fruit disinfestation; fumigation, heat and cold. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 3(B):411-424.

Baker RT; Cowley JM, 1991. A New Zealand view of quarantine security with special reference to fruit flies, In: Vijaysegaran S, Ibrahim AG, eds. First International Symposium on Fruit Flies in the Tropics, Kuala Lumpur, 1988. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, 396-408.

Bateman MA, 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations, In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region. 2nd edn. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Chen ZhiLin; Yu DaoJian; Jiao Yi; Kang Lin; Chen ZhiNan; Xu Lang, 2007. Identification on five sibling species of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) from imported fruits of South East Asia. Entomotaxonomia, 29(1):44-50.

Christenson LD; Foote RH, 1960. Biology of fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 5:171-192.

Drew RAI; Hancock DL, 1994. The Bactrocera dorsalis complex of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in Asia. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 84(2(Suppl.)):68 pp.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Fletcher BS, 1987. The biology of dacine fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 32:115-144

Fletcher BS, 1989. Ecology; life history strategies of tephritid fruit flies, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests. Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier, 3(B):195-208.

Fletcher BS, 1989. Movements of tephritid fruit flies. In: Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests [ed. by Robinson, A. S., Hooper, G.]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 209-219.

Foote RH; Blanc FL; Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock.

IIE, 1994. Bactrocera occipitalis (Bezzi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). International Institute of Entomology, Distribution Maps of Pests, series A, (549), 1-2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Khalid Mahmood, 2004. Distinguishing features of Bactrocera occipitalis (Bezzi) and Bactocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock occurring in the Philippines. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 36(2):103-110.

Khalid Mahmood, 2004. Identification of pest species in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 36(3):219-230.

Margaritis LH, 1985. Comparative study of the eggshell of the fruit flies Dacus oleae and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Trypetidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63(9):2194-2206

Smith D; Nannan L, 1988. Yeast autolysate bait sprays for control of Queensland fruit fly on passionfruit in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 45(2):169-177.

Weldon CW; Schutze MK; Karsten M, 2014. Trapping to monitor tephritid movement: results, best practice, and assessment of alternatives. In: Trapping and the detection, control, and regulation of Tephritid fruit flies: lures, aarea-wide programs, and trade implications [ed. by Shelly T, Epsky N, Jang EB, Reyes-Flores J, Vargas R]. New York, USA: Springer, 175-217.

Wharton RH, 1989. Control; classical biological control of fruit-infesting Tephritidae, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 303-313.

White IM; Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance. Their Identification and Bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Yu DaoJian; Chen ZhiLin; Zhang RunJie; Yin WenYing, 2005. Real-time qualitative PCR for the inspection and identification of Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera occipitalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) using SYBR Green assay. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 53(1):73-78.

Distribution Maps

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