Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Bactrocera musae
(banana fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Bactrocera musae (banana fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 07 January 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactrocera musae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • banana fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Bactrocera musae is native to northeast tropical Queensland, Australia and mainland Papua New Guinea. It is thought to have been introduced to some Papua New Guinea islands including Lihir and Manu. Early recor...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bactrocera musae (banana fruit fly); adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Papua New Guinea, Central P., 20Km SE Port Moresby bushes. 26 February 1983 - collected by John W. Ismay.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera musae (banana fruit fly); adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Papua New Guinea, Central P., 20Km SE Port Moresby bushes. 26 February 1983 - collected by John W. Ismay.
Copyright©PaDIL/Amy Carmichael/Queensland University of Technology - CC BY 3.0 AU
Bactrocera musae (banana fruit fly); adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Papua New Guinea, Central P., 20Km SE Port Moresby bushes. 26 February 1983 - collected by John W. Ismay.
AdultBactrocera musae (banana fruit fly); adult, dorsal view. Museum set specimen. Papua New Guinea, Central P., 20Km SE Port Moresby bushes. 26 February 1983 - collected by John W. Ismay.©PaDIL/Amy Carmichael/Queensland University of Technology - CC BY 3.0 AU
Bactrocera musae (banana fruit fly); adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Papua New Guinea, Central P., 20Km SE Port Moresby bushes. 26 February 1983 - collected by John W. Ismay.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera musae (banana fruit fly); adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Papua New Guinea, Central P., 20Km SE Port Moresby bushes. 26 February 1983 - collected by John W. Ismay.
Copyright©PaDIL/Amy Carmichael/Queensland University of Technology - CC BY 3.0 AU
Bactrocera musae (banana fruit fly); adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Papua New Guinea, Central P., 20Km SE Port Moresby bushes. 26 February 1983 - collected by John W. Ismay.
AdultBactrocera musae (banana fruit fly); adult, lateral view. Museum set specimen. Papua New Guinea, Central P., 20Km SE Port Moresby bushes. 26 February 1983 - collected by John W. Ismay.©PaDIL/Amy Carmichael/Queensland University of Technology - CC BY 3.0 AU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactrocera musae (Tryon, 1927)

Preferred Common Name

  • banana fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Bactrocera (Bactrocera) musae Tryon, 1927
  • Chaetodacus dorsopicta Tryon, 1927
  • Chaetodacus dorso-picta Tryon, 1927
  • Chaetodacus musae Tryon, 1927
  • Chaetodacus tryoni var. musae Tryon, 1927
  • Dacus musae Hardy, 1951
  • Dacus nigrofasciatus Tryon, 1927
  • Dacus ornatissimus Froggatt, 1909
  • Strumeta musae May, 1953

International Common Names

  • English: banana fly

EPPO code

  • DACUMU (Bactrocera musae)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Bactrocera musae is native to northeast tropical Queensland, Australia and mainland Papua New Guinea. It is thought to have been introduced to some Papua New Guinea islands including Lihir and Manu. Early records from the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Indonesia are either unconfirmed or unreliable. B. musae is a pest of commercially grown bananas if not managed correctly and also infests native bananas. Females tend to lay eggs in bananas before they ripen. However, if the fruit is too immature the eggs do not develop. Under Australia’s Interstate Certification Assurance, domestic trade of hard green Cavendish bananas is approved to manage the risk of fruit fly movement. Monitoring of population sizes can be carried out using methyl eugenol to trap adult males. Increased host fruit sampling can also determine breeding hotspots that can then be targeted with protein bait spray/insecticide mixture to kill females. Female flies are attracted to the protein baits as they require protein for egg maturation. Though the economic impact of this pest is high, the risk of international spread remains low due to the stage of maturity of the harvested fruit that is exported.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Bactrocera
  •                                 Species: Bactrocera musae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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B. musae is in the Bactrocera musae complex, which contains 17 species from Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. It is the only pest species in this complex (Drew et al., 2011). It was originally described as Chaetodacus musae from specimens reared from native and commercial banana in north Queensland, Australia (Tryon, 1927). Drew (1974) revised the description of this species based on specimens from north Queensland, Papua New Guinea, and a single specimen from the Solomon Islands. It was later noted as a major pest of bananas in north Queensland and Papua New Guinea (Drew et al., 1982). 

Description

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Adults are medium sized (wing length 6.0 mm); face with a pair of medium sized spots; scutum black; postpronotal lobe and notopleuron yellow; lateral postsutural vitta medium width and narrowing slightly to end at the intra-alar seta; mesopleural stripe reaching midway between anterior margin of notopleuron and postpronotal lobe dorsally; wings with cells bc and c colourless, microtrichia in outer corner of cell c only, fuscous costal band overlapping R2+3 and generally of uniform colouration (may be diffuse colouration under basal 2/3 of R2+3), narrow fuscous cubital streak; legs with segments fulvous except hind tibiae dark fuscous; abdominal terga III–V generally orange-brown with narrow anterolateral dark markings on tergum III but may have a range of colours between a narrow black ‘T’ and a narrow medial longitudinal vitta over terga IV and V, shining spots orange-brown (Drew et al., 2011) The scutum can be orange to black (White and Elson-Harris, 1992).

Distribution

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B. musae is native to Queensland, Australia (May, 1963; Hancock et al., 2000; Royer and Hancock, 2012). In Papua New Guinea, B. musae is native and widely distributed throughout the mainland where it has been recorded at elevations up to 1600 m (Drew, 1974). It is also present (though native status is uncertain) to East New Britain and considered introduced to Lihir and Manu islands (LeBlanc et al., 2001).

There are records of B. musae from the Solomon Islands in Guadalcanal, a single male collected in 1970 (Drew, 1974) and four males collected in 1995 (Drew and Romig, 2001). However, its presence here is considered uncertain as it hasn’t been reared from bananas, and the B. musae complex in the Papua New Guinea region consists of a large number of sibling species with which it could be confused (LeBlanc et al., 2001). During a survey of the nine provinces of the Solomon Islands from 1994-1998, where over one million fruit fly specimens were collected, this species was not recorded (Hollingsworth et al., 2003).

Waterhouse (1993) incorrectly mapped the distribution of B. musae to include Vanuatu (and excluded Australia, where it was described). In publications preceding and following this there is no mention of B. musae in Vanuatu. In revised descriptions of fruit fly fauna of the South Pacific (Drew, 1974), B. musae is recorded only from Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. As a result of fruit fly trapping conducted in Vanuatu from 1994-1996, B. musae is recorded under ‘anomalies in fruit fly fauna’, with the authors noting that no B. musae had been recorded in methyl eugenol traps or reared from fruit during that survey (Allwood et al., 1997). In fruit fly surveys conducted from 1994-2000 in Vanuatu there was no mention of B. musae (Allwood, 2000). Finally, in an overview of the fruit fly fauna of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Bougainville there are no records of B. musae on Vanuatu (Drew and Romig, 2001).

B. musae is not mentioned in Perkins’ (1939) 'Studies in Oriental and Australian Trypetidae' or Malloch’s (1939) 'Diptera of the Territory of New Guinea', although both authors note that they were only working with a very limited number of specimens.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndonesiaAbsent, unreliable recordWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative Not invasive White and Elson-Harris, 1992; Hancock et al., 2000Only present in tropical north Queensland
-QueenslandLocalisedNative Not invasive White and Elson-Harris, 1992; Royer and Hancock, 2012East coast of north Queensland
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; LeBlanc et al., 2001; Drew et al., 2011Common on the mainland. Possibly introduced on some islands
Solomon IslandsUnconfirmed recordDrew, 1974; White and Elson-Harris, 1992; Drew and Romig, 2001; LeBlanc et al., 2001There are earlier records of presence on the Solomon Islands but these are likely attributable to other B. musae complex species. It has not been trapped or reared from bananas in recent years
VanuatuUnconfirmed recordLeBlanc et al., 2001There are erroneous early records but it has never been trapped or reared from bananas in recent years

History of Introduction and Spread

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B. musae was first described from northern Queensland in Australia (Tryon, 1927) and found to be native to coastal rainforest areas north of Cardwell (May, 1963). Despite unrestricted domestic export of bananas from north Queensland in the mid 1990s, there was no movement of this species south to banana growing districts of southern Queensland or northern New South Wales (May, 1963).

It was later found to be widespread on the Papua New Guinea mainland and nearby Goodenough and Fergusson islands (Drew, 1974). That it was found later in Papua New Guinea was likely due to limited surveys undertaken in this country.

It has been suggested that B. musae was introduced to East New Britain, an island province of Papua New Guinea, around 1998-2000 (Mararuai et al., 2002; Drew et al., 2011). However, earlier records indicate that it is native to this island (Drew, 1975; Smith, 1977). In addition, the insect collection at the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries has 13 specimens from East New Britain that pre-date this apparent introduction: 12 from Lau near Porto collected in 1980 and one specimen collected from Rabaul in 1967. This species was also detected in very low levels on Manus and Lihir islands in the late 1990s (Mararuai et al., 2002). This may be due to introduction because Smith (1977) had previously noted the absence of the fly on New Ireland. The detections on Manus and Lihir islands could be from infested fruit and vegetables being shipped from the mainland (Mararuai et al., 2002) or from infested bananas being carried by airline passengers (Putulan et al., 2004).

The two records from the Solomon Islands (Drew, 1974; Drew and Romig, 2001) are likely from another species in the B. musae complex as it has never been reared from bananas there (Drew and Romig, 2001).

Risk of Introduction

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The main risk of spread of B. musae is through the movement of larvae in infested fruit, either through movement of commodities or passengers carrying fruit. However, its distribution does not seem to have expanded notably since early records.

In a survey of domestic travellers in Papua New Guinea it was found that almost 40% of all passengers carry some type of fruit or vegetable, with 16% of passengers entering East New Britain carrying fruit and approximately a quarter of passengers into New Ireland and Manus Island carrying fruit. Overall, 10% of passengers carried bananas (Putulan et al., 2004).

In north Queensland B. musae was originally known from Cardwell northwards (May, 1963) and was later recorded from Townsville (Drew et al., 1982). It has not been recorded south of Townsville (Royer and Hancock, 2012). It is unknown whether Townsville represents a minor range extension (approximately 160 km) due to the expansion of banana production or whether it is a part of its natural distribution that was not detected earlier.

Habitat

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B. musae is native to coastal rainforest in Australia (May, 1963) and is also found in banana plantations and occasionally associated with other agricultural crops.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Native banana (Musa banksii) is a major host. B. musae has also been recorded from other commercial banana varieties, such as dwarf banana, lady finger banana, sugar banana and plantain (Musa x paradisiaca [Musa paradisiaca]). In Papua New Guinea, the giant Cavendish banana was less liable to B. musae infestation than the dwarf Cavendish banana. Differences in infestation rates may be due to variations in hardness of fruit skins (Smith, 1977). Papaya (Carica papaya) and guava (Psidium guajava) are occasional hosts. It has also been recorded on hog plum (Ximenia americana) in the Torres Strait islands of northern Queensland (Hancock et al., 2000). Single records from other hosts require confirmation (May, 1963; Hancock et al., 2000).

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / premature drop

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

BOLD DNA barcoding data are available to distinguish B. musae from non-pest species in the B. musae complex, including B. contermina, B. prolixa, B. rufivitta and B. tinomiscii (Drew et al., 2011). However, other species in the complex that are not represented in BOLD could confound diagnosis (Plant Health Australia, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

In Papua New Guinea male flies were trapped throughout the year using methyl eugenol, with peak populations in July to September and in December during the wet season (Smith, 1977; Pacific Fruit Fly Web, 2002). Adults mate at dusk. Female B. musae have 38 ovarioles per ovary. This is a similar number of ovarioles to polyphagous species and therefore they possibly have the ability to lay a large number of eggs in a relatively short period when hosts are abundant (Fletcher, 1987). Eggs are 1.16 mm long (Fitt, 1990). Larvae are 7.5-9.0 mm long and 1.2-1.5 mm wide (White and Elson-Harris, 1992).

Females oviposit into full-sized green bananas with an incubation period of 3-11 days and lay 7-12 eggs per fruit (Pacific Fruit Fly Web, 2002). Larval duration is 7-11 days and pupal duration 7-10 days. Females prefer to oviposit in immature bananas in Papua New Guinea (Smith, 1977) and are known to oviposit in green bananas in north Queensland (May, 1963). Oviposition into bananas at the preferred stage provides the advantage of allowing larvae time to complete development before the fruit pulp rots. Gravid females select banana fruit that would provide softened pulp in 3-4 days (Smith, 1977). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
2 19 0 1600

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 25 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 31 31
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 14 19

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Chelisoches morio Predator Larvae/Pupae not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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An earwig, Chelisoches morio, is the only predator reported in Papua New Guinea and may exert a small predatory influence on larvae and pupae (Smith, 1977).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

B. musae could potentially spread naturally, but historical records do not indicate that it has done so to date (Royer and Hancock, 2012). This is likely to be due to limitations in its tolerance of climatic variables.

Accidental Introduction

In the early 1900s, bananas exported from north Queensland to southern ports in Australia were usually infested with B. musae, however, it never established in these southern areas (May, 1963). Occurrences of B. musae on some islands in Papua New Guinea could be due to the shipping of infested fruit and vegetables from the mainland (Mararuai et al., 2002) or from infested bananas being carried by airline passengers (Putulan et al., 2004).

Economic Impact

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B. musae is a major pest of some banana varieties in north Queensland, the Torres Strait islands and Papua New Guinea (Drew et al., 2011). In Papua New Guinea, B. musae prefers to oviposit into full size green bananas (Smith, 1977). In north Queensland, it has also been found to infest immature fruit and may damage 5% of harvested fruit (May, 1963). Females can oviposit in young fruit as it appears on the bunch, as well as ripe fruit (Drew et al., 1982). While females can oviposit in very immature fruit, eggs may fail to develop unless oviposition occurs in fruit approaching maturity (Gold et al., 2002). Queensland fruit fly (B. tryoni), by comparison, will only oviposit in ripe or ripening bananas (May, 1953). Commercial bananas harvested at the hard green stage are not considered hosts of B. musae (Gold et al., 2002).

In Papua New Guinea, levels of infestation caused by B. musae on different banana varieties was found to be variable and patchy, with some areas having no infested fruit. Infestation was generally low, for example, mean B. musae infestation of Cavendish banana was 10% (Mararuai, 2010). In another study, giant Cavendish was less infested by B. musae than the shorter varieties Tui and dwarf Cavendish. Only when ripe were Tui as heavily infested as dwarf Cavendish. Differences in infestation rates may be due to variations in hardness of the skin (Smith, 1977). Overall, mean percentages of ripe fingers infested by larvae in Papua New Guinea are 10-40% in Oro Province, 22.9% in Port Moresby and 17.6% in Morobe (Pacific Fruit Fly Web, 2002).

Environmental Impact

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B. musae is native to areas where native bananas grow (Hancock et al., 2000), and therefore is not known to have any environmental impact.

Social Impact

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The main social impact is from crop losses for smallholder farmers in Papua New Guinea and loss of backyard grown fruit in Australia.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Diagnosis

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Drew (1989) gives a detailed description of adult tropical fruit flies. Drew et al. (2011) distinguish between B. musae and other species in the B. musae complex. Plant Health Australia (2016) provides a handbook to help distinguish between B. musae and other species that are not in the B. musae complex.

White and Elson-Harris (1992) provide a key that distinguishes B. musae larvae and adults from other pest species.

Detection and Inspection

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Presence of male fruit flies can be determined by methyl eugenol trapping (Drew et al., 1982) and subsequent microscopic examination of specimens using descriptions from Drew (1989).

Banana fruit with puncture marks can be cut open to detect larvae, however, larvae could also be other banana infesting species such as Queensland fruit fly B. tryoni or Oriental fruit fly B. dorsalis (Hancock et al., 2000). White and Elson-Harris (1992) provide a key to distinguish the larvae of these species. Larvae can be reared from infested fruit to obtain adults. Fruit can be placed in a tub with gauze over the lid to allow it to breathe, with a medium such as sterilized sawdust in the bottom for emerging larvae to pupate. After adults emerge they should be fed with sugar, water and protein, such as hydrolyzed yeast, for five days so that they mature and colour (Plant Health Australia, 2016).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. musae is in the B. musae complex, which contains 17 species all with similar characteristics (Drew et al., 2011). Bactrocera (Bactrocera) species with a black scutum, two lateral postsutural yellow vittae present, medial postsutural yellow vitta absent, wing colourless except for a narrow fuscous costal band (confluent with or overlapping R2+3 but not to R4+5) and cubital streak, abdominal terga predominantly orange-brown. Characters to separate the individual species are described in Drew (1989) and Drew et al. (2011).

B. musae can also appear similar to B. dorsalis (in the B. dorsalis complex, present in Papua New Guinea) but can be distinguished by a wider costal band overlapping R2+3, wider anal streak and vittae slightly tapering. It can also appear similar to B. endiandrae (native Australian species also in the B. dorsalis complex) and can be distinguished by a wider costal band overlapping R2+3, narrower anal streak, broader less tapering vittae, and in some specimens, brown on the scutum (Plant Health Australia, 2016).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Australia does not have a large export trade in bananas, as the cost of production in Australia is higher than many other banana producing countries. Australia does not import fresh bananas because of the disease threat they pose to local production. Banana trade in Australia is mostly domestic, with 95% of Australia’s banana production in north Queensland (Australian Banana Growers Council, 2017).

Papua New Guinea’s agriculture is mostly subsistence farming with no banana exports and no domestic quarantine restrictions (Putulan et al., 2004; Mararuai, 2010).

Prevention

SPS measures

There are no major banana exports from Australia or Papua New Guinea. Under Australia’s Interstate Certification Assurance domestic trade of hard green Cavendish bananas is approved to manage the risk of fruit fly movement (Australian Interstate Quarantine, 2016).

Early warning systems

Australia maintains a grid of methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps to monitor exotic fruit flies. These traps would detect any movement of B. musae out of north Queensland (Plant Health Australia, 2016).

Rapid response

Increased trapping, increased host fruit sampling, restriction of fruit movement, protein bait spraying and male annihilation are among the recommended methods to respond if the pest is discovered in a new region or country (Pacific Fruit Fly Web, 2002).

Public awareness

Public awareness campaigns can advise travellers of any movement restrictions on bananas.

Eradication

Increased host fruit sampling can determine breeding hotspots to target with protein bait spraying. Male annihilation can be carried out using methyl eugenol and toxicant impregnated canenite blocks (Pacific Fruit Fly Web, 2002).

Containment/zoning

Movement restrictions on host fruit would restrict the spread of any incursion.

Control

Cultural control and sanitary measures

Good crop hygiene, including removal and destruction of fallen or infested fruits, is advisable to reduce breeding sites. Harvesting at the hard green stage is the main method of ensuring damage free fruit (Gold et al., 2002).

Physical/mechanical control

Bagging of banana bunches prevents females from ovipositing in fruit.

Movement control

Movement restriction of potentially infested fruit should be implemented to prevent spread.

Chemical control

Male annihilation is effective in combination with protein bait sprays. Male annihilation involves the use of canite blocks or cordelitos impregnated with methyl eugenol and malathion. This suppresses male populations, thereby reducing availability of males to mate with females. A bait spray consisting of protein and a toxicant can be sprayed where breeding populations are found. Protein bait sprays particularly target females as they require protein for egg maturation (Drew et al., 1982).

Monitoring and surveillance (incl. remote sensing)

Methyl eugenol trapping is effective to monitor for the presence of male adults. Surveys for infested banana fruit show where breeding hotspots are that can then be targeted with protein bait spraying.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Research on the seasonal phenology of B. musae in Australia and levels of damage to unmanaged bananas in Australia would be useful.

References

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Allwood A, 2000. Fruit flies in Vanuatu. Pest Advisory Leaflet No. 27. Plant Protection Service, Secretariat of the Pacific Community.

Allwood AJ, Tumukon T, Tau D, Kassum A, 1997. Fruit Fly Fauna in Vanuatu. In: Management of fruit flies in the Pacific, a regional symposium, Nadi, Fiji 28-31 October 1996 [ed. by Allwood AJ, Drew RAI]. ACIAR Proceedings No. 76. 267 pp.

Australian Banana Growers Council, 2017. Key facts. http://abgc.org.au/our-industry/key-facts/

Australian Interstate Quarantine, 2016. QLD ICA 6. Certification of hard green condition of bananas. http://www.interstatequarantine.org.au/ica-results/?produce=bananas&state=QLD

Drew RAI, 1974. Revised description of species of Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the South Pacific area II, the Strumeta group of subgenera of genus Dacus. Bulletin No. 653. Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. Division of Plant Industry.

Drew RAI, 1975. Zoogeography of Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the South Pacific area. Pacific Insects, 16(4), 441-454.

Drew RAI, Ma Jing, Smith S, Hughes JM, 2011. The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of species in the Bactrocera musae complex of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in Papua New Guinea. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 59(2):145-162. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/592/59rbz145-162.pdf

Drew, R. A. I., 1989. The tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the Australasian and Oceanian regions. In: Memoirs of the Queensland Museum , 26. 521 pp.

Drew, R. A. I., Hooper, G. H. S., Bateman, M. A., 1982. Economic fruit flies of the South Pacific Region. In: Economic fruit flies of the South Pacific Region , (Ed. 2) . Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries.x + 139 pp.

Drew, R. A. I., Romig, M. C., 2001. The fruit fly fauna (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of Bougainville, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Australian Journal of Entomology, 40(2), 113-150. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-6055.2001.00222.x

Fitt, G. P., 1990. Variation in ovariole number and egg size of species of Dacus (Diptera; Tephritidae) and their relation to host specialization. Ecological Entomology, 15(3), 255-264. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1990.tb00807.x

Fletcher, B. S., 1987. The biology of dacine fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 32, 115-144. doi: 10.1146/annurev.en.32.010187.000555

Gold, C. S., Pinese, B., Peña, J. E., 2002. Pests of banana. In: Tropical fruit pests and pollinators: biology, economic importance, natural enemies and control, [ed. by Peña, J. E., Sharp, J. L., Wysoki, M.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. 13-56. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20073012682 doi: 10.1079/9780851994345.0013

Hancock DL, Hamacek EL, Lloyd AC, Elson-Harris MM, 2000. The distribution and host plants of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Australia. Information Series Q199067. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries.

Hollingsworth, R. G., Drew, R. A. I., Allwood, A. J., Romig, M., Vagalo, M., Tsatsia, F., 2003. Host plants and relative abundance of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species in the Solomon Islands. Australian Journal of Entomology, 42(2), 95-108. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-6055.2003.00337.x

Leblanc L, Balagawi S, Mararuai A, Putalan D, Tenakanai D, Clarke AR, 2001. Fruit flies in Papua New Guinea. Pest Advisory Leaflet. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Plant Protection Service, 37.

Malloch JR, 1939. The Diptera of the territory of New Guinea, XI Family Trypetidae. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, 64(3), 409-465.

Mararuai A, 2010. Market access of Papua New Guinea bananas (Musa spp.) with particular respect to banana fly (Bactrocera musae (Tryon)) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Australia: Queensland University of Technology.

Mararuai A, Allwood A, Balagawi S, Dori F, Kalamen M, LeBlanc L, Putulan D, Sar S, Schuhbeek A, Tenakenai D, Clarke A, 2002. Introduction and distribution of Bactrocera musae (Tryon) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 45(1), 59-65.

MAY, A. W. S. , 1953. Queensland Host Records for the Dacinae (fam. Trypetidae). Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 10(1), 36-79 pp.

MAY, A. W. S. , 1963. An investigation of fruit flies (Trypetidae: Diptera) in Queensland. 1. Introduction, species, pest status and distribution. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(1), 1-82 pp.

Pacific Fruit Fly Web, 2002. Banana fly (Bactrocera musae) (Tryon)). https://lrd.spc.int/species/bactrocera-musae-tryon-banana-fly

Perkins FA, 1939. Studies in Oriental and Australian Trypetidae. Part 3 Adraminae and Dacinae from New Guinea, Celebes, Aru Is., and Pacific islands, 1(10) , Australia: University of Queensland.1-38.

Plant Health Australia, 2016. The Australian Handbook for the identification of fruit flies, version 2.0. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Plant Health Australia.http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/national-programs/fruit-fly/handbook-for-the-identification-of-fruit-fly/

Putulan, D., Sar, S., Drew, R. A. I., Raghu, S., Clarke, A. R., 2004. Fruit and vegetable movement on domestic flights in Papua New Guinea and the risk of spreading pest fruit-flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 50(1), 17-22. doi: 10.1080/09670870310001626329

Royer, J. E., Hancock, D. L., 2012. New distribution and lure records of Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Queensland, Australia, and description of a new species of Dacus Fabricius. Australian Journal of Entomology, 51(4), 239-247. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1440-6055 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2012.00864.x

Smith, E. S. C., 1977. Studies on the biology and commodity control of the banana fruit fly, Dacus musae (Tryon), in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Agricultural Journal, 28(2/4), 47-56.

TRYON, H. , 1927. Queensland Fruit Flies (Trypetidae), Series 1. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 38, 176-224 pp.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. Biological control: Pacific Prospects Supplement 2. ACIAR monograph no. 20. Burwood, Australia: Brown Prior Anderson.138 pp.

White, I. M., Elson-Harris, M. M., 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics, Wallingford, UK: CAB International.xii + 601 pp.

Links to Websites

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Organizations

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Australia: Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF), Brisbane, https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/

Papua New Guinea: PNG National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI), Morobe Province, http://www.nari.org.pg/

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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01/02/18 Original text by:

Jane Royer, Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane, Australia

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