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Ehrlichia ruminantium

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Datasheet

Ehrlichia ruminantium

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ehrlichia ruminantium
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rickettsiales
  •         Family: Ehrlichiaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Amblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, male.
TitleAdult
CaptionAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, male.
Copyright©From Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor
Amblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, male.
AdultAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, male.©From Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor
Amblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, female.
TitleVector
CaptionAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, female.
Copyright©From Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, female.
VectorAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, female.©From Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Cowdria ruminantium (heartwater) organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).
TitleHistology
CaptionCowdria ruminantium (heartwater) organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).
Copyright©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Cowdria ruminantium (heartwater) organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).
HistologyCowdria ruminantium (heartwater) organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma hebraeum: male.
TitleVector
CaptionAmblyomma hebraeum: male.
Copyright©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma hebraeum: male.
VectorAmblyomma hebraeum: male.©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma hebraeum: female.
TitleVector
CaptionAmblyomma hebraeum: female.
Copyright©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma hebraeum: female.
VectorAmblyomma hebraeum: female.©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Brain smear from a goat. Colonies of Cowdria ruminantium are the granular blue areas in the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.
TitleHistology
CaptionBrain smear from a goat. Colonies of Cowdria ruminantium are the granular blue areas in the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Brain smear from a goat. Colonies of Cowdria ruminantium are the granular blue areas in the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.
HistologyBrain smear from a goat. Colonies of Cowdria ruminantium are the granular blue areas in the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ehrlichia ruminantium (Cowdry, 1925) Dumler et al., 2001

Other Scientific Names

  • Cowdria ruminantium (Cowdry, 1925) Moshkovski, 1947
  • Rickettsia ruminantium

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rickettsiales
  •                 Family: Ehrlichiaceae
  •                     Genus: Ehrlichia
  •                         Species: Ehrlichia ruminantium

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BeninAbsentJan-Jun-2019
BotswanaPresentJul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoPresentJul-Dec-2019
BurundiPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosPresentJan-Jun-2018
Congo, Republic of theAbsentJan-Jun-2019
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniPresentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
KenyaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
LesothoPresentJan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarPresentJan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MauritaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipePresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
SenegalPresentJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SomaliaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresentJul-Dec-2019
SudanPresentJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
TogoPresentJul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabwePresentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanPresent
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupePresentJul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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E. ruminantium is best demonstrated in fixed sections stained with Giemsa. It resembles a Gram-negative coccus, the colour varying from lilac purple to blue, varying between 0.2 and 2.5 µm in diameter. They most often occur in clumps (from 1 or 2 to several thousand) in a vacuole in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. Generally the small and medium-sized organisms occur in large colonies, while the larger ones occur in small colonies. Pleomorphic forms; horseshoe, ring and bacillary shaped, are frequently seen in those colonies that contain very large organisms (Pienaar, 1970).

The ultrastructural morphology of Ehrlichia reveals that they occur within a bilaminar membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuole, each organism consisting of a wall, made up of 2 membranes, and an internal structure consisting of electron dense and electron-pale areas. Some authors differentiate elementary, intermediate and reticulated bodies (Prozesky et al., 1986; Jongejan et al., 1991).

Taxonomy

Traditional rickettsial taxonomy assigned Cowdria ruminantium as the sole member of the genus Cowdria in the tribe Ehrlichieae. This was one of three tribes within the family Rickettsiaceae in the order Rickettsiales which initially encompassed all intracellular bacteria but from which the Chlamydiae were later removed (Moulders, 1984). The obligate intracellular nature of E. ruminantium, coupled with morphological features suggestive of a Chlamydia-like life cycle led to confusion as to its position in the ehrlichial hierarchy (Uilenberg, 1983). In 2001, Dumler et al. defined after 16S ribosomal DNA and groESL gene comparisons that all members of the tribes Ehrlichieae and Wolbachieae had to be transferred to the family Anaplasmataceae and that the family Rickettsiaceae had to be eliminated. In Anaplasmataceae, four genera are present Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia and Neorickettsia. The genus Ehrlichia now includes E. ruminantium (formerly Cowdria ruminantium) but no longer Anaplasma bovis, phagocytophila, and HGE (belonging now to genus Anaplasma) and the genus neorickettsia (including Ehrlichia sennetsu and Ehrlichia risticii). In this reorganization, E. ruminantium is closer to E. chaffeensis, ewingii, muris, ovis and canis.  

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Aepyceros melampusWild host
Ammotragus lervia (aoudad)Domesticated host
Antidorcas marsupialisWild host
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)Experimental settings; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)
Boselaphus tragocamelusWild host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Wild host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Cervus damaExperimental settings; Wild host
Cervus timorensisExperimental settings; Wild host
Connochaetes gnouWild host
Connochaetes taurinusWild host
Damaliscus albifronsWild host
Damaliscus lunatusWild host
Diceros bicornisWild host
Geochelone pardalisExperimental settings
Giraffa camelopardalisWild host
Hemitragus jemlahicusWild host
Kobus ellipsiprymnusWild host
Kobus leche kafuensisWild host
Lepus saxatilisExperimental settings
Loxodonta africanaExperimental settings
Mastomys couchaWild host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings
NumidaExperimental settings
Odocoileus virginianusExperimental settings; Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Ovis orientalisDomesticated host
Rhabdomys pumilioExperimental settings; Wild host
Syncerus cafferWild host
Tragelaphus oryxWild host
Tragelaphus spekiiWild host
Tragelaphus strepsiceros

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Amblyomma astrionTickAngola; Central African Republic; Congo Democratic Republic; Sao Tome and Principe
Amblyomma cajennenseTickUSA
Amblyomma cohaerensTickCentral Africa; East Africa
Amblyomma dissimileTickUSA
Amblyomma gemmaTickEast Africa
Amblyomma hebraeumTickSouth Africa
Amblyomma lepidumTickEast Africa
Amblyomma maculatumTickUSA
Amblyomma marmoreamTickAfrica
Amblyomma marmoreumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma pomposumTickAngola; Tanzania; Zambia
Amblyomma sparsumTickAfrica
Amblyomma tholloniTickAfrica
Amblyomma variegatumTickAfrica; Caribbean
Boophilus decoloratusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Culicoides imicolaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Glossina austeniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Glossina pallidipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Hyalomma marginatum rufipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma truncatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus appendiculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Sarcoptes scabieiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Adakal H, Gavotte L, Stachurski F, Konkobo M, Henri H, Zoungrana S, Huber K, Vachiery N, Martinez D, Morand S, Frutos R, 2010. Clonal origin of emerging populations of Ehrlichia ruminantium in Burkina Faso. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 10(7):903-912. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15671348

Allsopp MTEP, Hattingh CM, Vogel SW, Allsopp BA, 1999. Evaluation of 16S, map1 and pCS20 probes for detection of Cowdria and Ehrlichia species. Epidemiology and Infection, 122(2):323-328; 23 ref

Allsopp MTEP, Visser ES, Plessis JLdu, Vogel SW, Allsopp BA, 1997. Different organisms associated with heartwater as shown by analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Veterinary Parasitology, 71(4):283-300; 50 ref

Cowdry EV, 1925a. Studies on the etiology of heartwater I. Observation of a rickettsia, Rickettsia ruminantium (n. sp.), in the tissues of infected animals. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 42(2):231-252

Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, Dasch GA, Palmer GH, Ray SC, Rikihisa Y, Rurangirwa FR, 2001. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 51:2145-2165

Faburay B, Geysen D, Munstermann S, Taoufik A, Postigo M, Jongejan F, 2007. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in Amblyomma variegatum ticks in The Gambia. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 42(1):61-74. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/k0053661734l2107/?p=68fefacc431a47b7aabc4be0118f04e5&pi=6

Faburay B, Munstermann S, Geysen D, Bell-Sakyi L, Ceesay A, Bodaan C, Jongejan F, 2005. Point seroprevalence survey of Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in small ruminants in the Gambia. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12(4):508-512. http://cdli.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/4/508

Hart A, Prozesky L, Jacobs PD, Brett S, 1992. A transmission electron microscopical study of the life cycle of Cowdria ruminantium in vitro. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 63(2):90

Jongejan F, Zandbergen TA, Wiel PAvan de, Groot Mde, Uilenberg G, 1991. The tick-borne rickettsia Cowdria ruminantium has a Chlamydia-like developmental cycle. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 58(4):227-237; 46 ref

Kocan KM, Bezuidenhout JD, 1987. Morphology and development of Cowdria ruminantium in Amblyomma ticks. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 54(3):177-182; 18 ref

Kocan KM, Bezuidenhout JD, Hart A, 1987. Ultrastructural features of Cowdria ruminantium in midgut epithelial cells and salivary glands of nymphal Amblyomma hebraeum. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 54(1):87-92; 17 ref

Molia S, Frebling M, Vachiéry N, Pinarello V, Petitclerc M, Rousteau A, Martinez D, Lefrançois T, 2008. Amblyomma variegatum in cattle in Marie Galante, French Antilles: prevalence, control measures, and infection by Ehrlichia ruminantium. Veterinary Parasitology, 153(3/4):338-346. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

Okoh AEJ, Oyetunde IL, Ibu JO, 1987. Heartwater infection (cowdriosis) in a Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei) in Nigeria. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 23(2):211-214

Pienaar JG, 1970. Electron microscopy of Cowdria (Rickettsia) ruminantium (Cowdry, 1926) in the endothelial cells of the vertebrate host. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 37(1):67-78

Plessis JLdu, Camus E, Oberem PT, Malan L, 1987. Heartwater serology: some problems with the interpretation of results. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 54(3):327-329; 19 ref

Plessis JLdu, Gas Lvan, Olivier JA, Bezuidenhout JD, 1989. The heterogenicity of Cowdria ruminantium stocks: cross-immunity and serology in sheep and pathogenicity to mice. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 56(3):195-201; 23 ref

Prozesky L, Bezuidenhout JD, Paterson CL, 1986. Heartwater: an in vitro study of the ultrastructure of Cowdria ruminatium. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 53(3):153-159

Sulsona CR, Mahan SM, Barbet AF, 1999. The map1 gene of Cowdria ruminantium is a member of a multigene family containing both conserved and variable genes. Biochemical and Biophysiological Research Communications, 257(2):300-305

Villiers EP de, Brayton KA, Zweygarth E et al. , 2000. Genome size and genetic map of Cowdria ruminantium. Microbiology, 146(10):2627-2634

Waghela SD, Rurangirwa FR, Mahan SM, Yunker CE, Crawford TB, Barbet AF, Burridge MJ, 1991. A cloned DNA probe identifies Cowdria ruminantium in Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 29(11):2571-2577; [;Abstract number refers to VB volume 63 (1993)]; 43 ref

Distribution References

El-Neweshy M S, Al-Mawly J H, Aboollo S H, El-Manakhly E M, 2019. Natural Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in two captive Arabian tahrs (Arabitragus jayakari) in Oman. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 51 (8), 2539-2545. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11250-019-01970-7

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

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