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Ehrlichia ruminantium

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Datasheet

Ehrlichia ruminantium

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ehrlichia ruminantium
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Rickettsiales
  •         Family: Ehrlichiaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Amblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, male.
TitleAdult
CaptionAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, male.
Copyright©From Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor
Amblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, male.
AdultAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, male.©From Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor
Amblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, female.
TitleVector
CaptionAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, female.
Copyright©From Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, female.
VectorAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick); adult, female.©From Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Cowdria ruminantium organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).|Heartwater organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).
TitleHistology
CaptionCowdria ruminantium organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).|Heartwater organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).
Copyright©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Cowdria ruminantium organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).|Heartwater organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).
HistologyCowdria ruminantium organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).|Heartwater organisms in a Giemsa-stained brain smear (original x3000).©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma hebraeum: male.
TitleVector
CaptionAmblyomma hebraeum: male.
Copyright©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma hebraeum: male.
VectorAmblyomma hebraeum: male.©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma hebraeum: female.
TitleVector
CaptionAmblyomma hebraeum: female.
Copyright©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Amblyomma hebraeum: female.
VectorAmblyomma hebraeum: female.©Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. With permission of the editor.
Brain smear from a goat. Colonies of Cowdria ruminantium are the granular blue areas in the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.
TitleHistology
CaptionBrain smear from a goat. Colonies of Cowdria ruminantium are the granular blue areas in the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.
Copyright©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Brain smear from a goat. Colonies of Cowdria ruminantium are the granular blue areas in the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.
HistologyBrain smear from a goat. Colonies of Cowdria ruminantium are the granular blue areas in the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ehrlichia ruminantium (Cowdry, 1925) Dumler et al., 2001

Other Scientific Names

  • Cowdria ruminantium (Cowdry, 1925) Moshkovski, 1947
  • Rickettsia ruminantium

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Rickettsiales
  •                 Family: Ehrlichiaceae
  •                     Genus: Ehrlichia
  •                         Species: Ehrlichia ruminantium

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BeninPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
Burkina FasoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MalawiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MozambiquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005); Okoh et al. (1987)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabwePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Kingdom
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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E. ruminantium is best demonstrated in fixed sections stained with Giemsa. It resembles a Gram-negative coccus, the colour varying from lilac purple to blue, varying between 0.2 and 2.5 µm in diameter. They most often occur in clumps (from 1 or 2 to several thousand) in a vacuole in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. Generally the small and medium-sized organisms occur in large colonies, while the larger ones occur in small colonies. Pleomorphic forms; horseshoe, ring and bacillary shaped, are frequently seen in those colonies that contain very large organisms (Pienaar, 1970).

The ultrastructural morphology of Ehrlichia reveals that they occur within a bilaminar membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuole, each organism consisting of a wall, made up of 2 membranes, and an internal structure consisting of electron dense and electron-pale areas. Some authors differentiate elementary, intermediate and reticulated bodies (Prozesky et al., 1986; Jongejan et al., 1991).

Taxonomy

Traditional rickettsial taxonomy assigned Cowdria ruminantium as the sole member of the genus Cowdria in the tribe Ehrlichieae. This was one of three tribes within the family Rickettsiaceae in the order Rickettsiales which initially encompassed all intracellular bacteria but from which the Chlamydiae were later removed (Moulders, 1984). The obligate intracellular nature of E. ruminantium, coupled with morphological features suggestive of a Chlamydia-like life cycle led to confusion as to its position in the ehrlichial hierarchy (Uilenberg, 1983). In 2001, Dumler et al. defined after 16S ribosomal DNA and groESL gene comparisons that all members of the tribes Ehrlichieae and Wolbachieae had to be transferred to the family Anaplasmataceae and that the family Rickettsiaceae had to be eliminated. In Anaplasmataceae, four genera are present Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia and Neorickettsia. The genus Ehrlichia now includes E. ruminantium (formerly Cowdria ruminantium) but no longer Anaplasma bovis, phagocytophila, and HGE (belonging now to genus Anaplasma) and the genus neorickettsia (including Ehrlichia sennetsu and Ehrlichia risticii). In this reorganization, E. ruminantium is closer to E. chaffeensis, ewingii, muris, ovis and canis.  

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Aepyceros melampusWild host
Ammotragus lervia (aoudad)Domesticated host
Antidorcas marsupialisWild host
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)Experimental settings, Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)
Boselaphus tragocamelusWild host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Wild host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Cervus damaExperimental settings, Wild host
Cervus timorensisExperimental settings, Wild host
Connochaetes gnouWild host
Connochaetes taurinusWild host
Damaliscus albifronsWild host
Damaliscus lunatusWild host
Diceros bicornisWild host
Geochelone pardalisExperimental settings
Giraffa camelopardalisWild host
Hemitragus jemlahicusWild host
Kobus ellipsiprymnusWild host
Kobus leche kafuensisWild host
Lepus saxatilisExperimental settings
Loxodonta africanaExperimental settings
Mastomys couchaWild host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings
NumidaExperimental settings
Odocoileus virginianusExperimental settings, Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Ovis orientalisDomesticated host
Rhabdomys pumilioExperimental settings, Wild host
Syncerus cafferWild host
Tragelaphus oryxWild host
Tragelaphus spekiiWild host
Tragelaphus strepsiceros

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Amblyomma astrionTickSao Tome and Principe
Amblyomma cajennenseTickUSA
Amblyomma cohaerensTickEast Africa
Amblyomma dissimileTickUSA
Amblyomma gemmaTickEast Africa
Amblyomma hebraeumTickSouth Africa
Amblyomma lepidumTickEast Africa
Amblyomma maculatumTickUSA
Amblyomma marmoreamTickAfrica
Amblyomma marmoreumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Amblyomma pomposumTickZambia
Amblyomma sparsumTickAfrica
Amblyomma tholloniTickAfrica
Amblyomma variegatumTickCaribbean
Boophilus decoloratusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Culicoides imicolaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Glossina austeniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Glossina pallidipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Hyalomma marginatum rufipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma truncatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus appendiculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Sarcoptes scabieiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Adakal H, Gavotte L, Stachurski F, Konkobo M, Henri H, Zoungrana S, Huber K, Vachiery N, Martinez D, Morand S, Frutos R, 2010. Clonal origin of emerging populations of Ehrlichia ruminantium in Burkina Faso. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 10(7):903-912. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15671348

Allsopp MTEP, Hattingh CM, Vogel SW, Allsopp BA, 1999. Evaluation of 16S, map1 and pCS20 probes for detection of Cowdria and Ehrlichia species. Epidemiology and Infection, 122(2):323-328; 23 ref

Allsopp MTEP, Visser ES, Plessis JLdu, Vogel SW, Allsopp BA, 1997. Different organisms associated with heartwater as shown by analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Veterinary Parasitology, 71(4):283-300; 50 ref

Cowdry EV, 1925a. Studies on the etiology of heartwater I. Observation of a rickettsia, Rickettsia ruminantium (n. sp.), in the tissues of infected animals. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 42(2):231-252

Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, Dasch GA, Palmer GH, Ray SC, Rikihisa Y, Rurangirwa FR, 2001. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 51:2145-2165

Faburay B, Geysen D, Munstermann S, Taoufik A, Postigo M, Jongejan F, 2007. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in Amblyomma variegatum ticks in The Gambia. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 42(1):61-74. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/k0053661734l2107/?p=68fefacc431a47b7aabc4be0118f04e5&pi=6

Faburay B, Munstermann S, Geysen D, Bell-Sakyi L, Ceesay A, Bodaan C, Jongejan F, 2005. Point seroprevalence survey of Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in small ruminants in the Gambia. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12(4):508-512. http://cdli.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/4/508

Hart A, Prozesky L, Jacobs PD, Brett S, 1992. A transmission electron microscopical study of the life cycle of Cowdria ruminantium in vitro. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 63(2):90

Jongejan F, Zandbergen TA, Wiel PAvan de, Groot Mde, Uilenberg G, 1991. The tick-borne rickettsia Cowdria ruminantium has a Chlamydia-like developmental cycle. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 58(4):227-237; 46 ref

Kocan KM, Bezuidenhout JD, 1987. Morphology and development of Cowdria ruminantium in Amblyomma ticks. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 54(3):177-182; 18 ref

Kocan KM, Bezuidenhout JD, Hart A, 1987. Ultrastructural features of Cowdria ruminantium in midgut epithelial cells and salivary glands of nymphal Amblyomma hebraeum. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 54(1):87-92; 17 ref

Molia S, Frebling M, Vachiéry N, Pinarello V, Petitclerc M, Rousteau A, Martinez D, Lefrançois T, 2008. Amblyomma variegatum in cattle in Marie Galante, French Antilles: prevalence, control measures, and infection by Ehrlichia ruminantium. Veterinary Parasitology, 153(3/4):338-346. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

Okoh AEJ, Oyetunde IL, Ibu JO, 1987. Heartwater infection (cowdriosis) in a Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei) in Nigeria. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 23(2):211-214

Pienaar JG, 1970. Electron microscopy of Cowdria (Rickettsia) ruminantium (Cowdry, 1926) in the endothelial cells of the vertebrate host. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 37(1):67-78

Plessis JLdu, Camus E, Oberem PT, Malan L, 1987. Heartwater serology: some problems with the interpretation of results. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 54(3):327-329; 19 ref

Plessis JLdu, Gas Lvan, Olivier JA, Bezuidenhout JD, 1989. The heterogenicity of Cowdria ruminantium stocks: cross-immunity and serology in sheep and pathogenicity to mice. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 56(3):195-201; 23 ref

Prozesky L, Bezuidenhout JD, Paterson CL, 1986. Heartwater: an in vitro study of the ultrastructure of Cowdria ruminatium. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 53(3):153-159

Sulsona CR, Mahan SM, Barbet AF, 1999. The map1 gene of Cowdria ruminantium is a member of a multigene family containing both conserved and variable genes. Biochemical and Biophysiological Research Communications, 257(2):300-305

Villiers EP de, Brayton KA, Zweygarth E et al. , 2000. Genome size and genetic map of Cowdria ruminantium. Microbiology, 146(10):2627-2634

Waghela SD, Rurangirwa FR, Mahan SM, Yunker CE, Crawford TB, Barbet AF, Burridge MJ, 1991. A cloned DNA probe identifies Cowdria ruminantium in Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 29(11):2571-2577; [;Abstract number refers to VB volume 63 (1993)]; 43 ref

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Okoh A E J, Oyetunde I L, Ibu J O, 1987. Heartwater infection (cowdriosis) in a Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei) in Nigeria. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 23 (2), 211-214.

Distribution Maps

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