Bactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)
Preferred Common Name
- Solanum fruit fly
Other Scientific Names
- Bactrocera (Bactrocera) latifrons (Hendel)
- Chaetodacus antennalis Shiraki, 1933
- Chaetodacus latifrons Hendel
- Dacus latifrons (Hendel)
- Dacus parvulus Hendel, 1912
International Common Names
- English: Malaysian fruit fly
- DACULA (Bactrocera latifrons)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Diptera
- Family: Tephritidae
- Genus: Bactrocera
- Species: Bactrocera latifrons
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
In the USA this fly is also known as the Malaysian fruit fly. However, Malaysian entomologists have objected to their country being 'blamed' for the presence of this widespread Asian fly in Hawaii, particularly as Malaysia is unlikely to be the origin of the introduction.
DescriptionTop of page
Adult description derived from computer-generated description from White and Hancock (1997). Larval description from White and Elson-Harris (1994).
Head: Pedicel+1st flagellomere not longer than ptilinal suture. Face with a dark spot in each antenna.
Thorax: Predominant colour of scutum black. Postpronotal (=humeral) lobe entirely pale (yellow or orange). Notopleuron yellow. Scutum with lateral postsutural vittae (yellow/orange stripes); without a medial vitta. Scutellum entirely pale. Anepisternal stripe almost to postpronotal lobe. Yellow marking on both anatergite and katatergite. Postpronotal lobe (=humerus) without a seta. Notopleuron with anterior seta. Scutum with anterior supra-alar and prescutellar acrostichal setae. Scutellum without basal as well as apical setae.
Wing: Length 4.4-6.1 mm. With a complete costal band which does not extend below R2+3; expanded into a spot at apex. Wing with an anal streak. Cells bc and c colourless. No transverse markings. Cell bc and c without extensive covering of microtrichia. Cell br (narrowed part) with extensive covering of microtrichia.
Legs: Femora vary from entirely pale, to pale with a pre-apical dark spot, to darkened (either red-brown or black) in entire apical 1/3=1/2.
Abdomen: Predominant colour of abdomen orange-brown to fuscous. Tergites not fused. Abdomen not wasp waisted. Pattern on abdomen lacking or diffuse; if marked, then tergite 3 with a basal transverse dark band and sometimes with a medial stripe down T3-5.
Terminalia and secondary sexual characters: Male wing without a bulla. Male tergite 3 with a pecten (setal comb) on each side. Male sternite 5 V-shaped posteriorly. Surstylus (male) without a long posterior lobe. Wing (male) with a deep indent in posterior margin. Hind tibia (male) with a preapical pad. Aculeus apex with preapical steps and a pointed apex.
The egg of B. olae was described in detail by Margaritis (1985) and that of other species are probably very similar. Size, 0.8 mm long, 0.2 mm wide, with the micropyle protruding slightly at the anterior end. The chorion is reticulate (requires scanning electron microscope examination). White to yellow-white in colour.
Third instar larva: Larvae medium-sized, length 7.0-8.5 mm; width 1.2-1.5 mm. Head: Stomal sensory organ with 3-4 small, peg-like sensilla on a protuberant base surrounded by 5-6 large preoral lobes, some with small serrations; oral ridges with 9-14 rows of moderately long, tapering, bluntly rounded teeth; accessory plates with 6-10 small, serrated plates along the outer edge; mouthhooks moderately sclerotized, with slender, curved apical teeth. Thoracic and abdominal segments: A broad, encircling, anterior band of discontinuous rows of small spinules surrounding each thoracic segment. T1 with 6-10 rows of small, sharply pointed spinules; T2 and T3 with 3-7 rows of small spinules decreasing laterally. Creeping welts with stout spinules, 1 posterior row slightly larger. A8 with intermediate areas large and sensilla well developed. Anterior spiracles: 13-18 tubules. Posterior spiracles: Each spiracular slit about 3 times as long as broad, with a thick rima. Spiracular hairs broad, flat; dorsal and ventral bundles of 16-22 hairs branched in apical third to a quarter; lateral bundles of 6-11 hairs. Anal area: Lobes large, protuberant, surrounded by 3-6 rows of small, sharply pointed spinules, becoming more concentrated and stouter below anal opening.
Barrel-shaped with most larval features unrecognizable, the exception being the anterior and posterior spiracles which are little changed by pupariation. White to yellow-brown in colour. Usually about 60-80% length of larva.
DistributionTop of page
The distribution map includes records based on specimens of B. latifrons from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the Table (NHM, London, UK).
B. latifrons has a predominantly south and south-east Asian distribution. Waterhouse (1993) records this species from Indonesia, although no area is specified. Given that this species has been found in Sabah and West Malaysia it may at least be expected in Kalimantan and Sumatra.
In Africa, B. latifrons has only been recorded from Tanzania and Kenya. Its occurance in other parts of Africa is currently unknown (Meyer et al., 2007).
This species was recently introduced to Hawaii and was first discovered there in 1983 (Liquido et al., 1994).
A distribution map has been produced by IIE (1996).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 12 May 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present|
|Cambodia||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|Indonesia||Present||Original citation: Waterhouse (1993)|
|-Ryukyu Islands||Present||1984||only on Yonaguni island; Original citation: Ishida et al. (2005)|
|Jordan||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|Italy||Absent, Intercepted only|
|United States||Present, Localized|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Taken from Meyer et al. (2007):
B. latifrons is Asian in origin. It was only very recently detected in Africa. The first specimens were trapped early in 2006 in Morogoro, Tanzania (Mwatawala et al., 2010). Surveys have shown that this species is widely distributed in Tanzania although not present in large numbers because of its limited host range (Mwatawala et al., 2010). In 2007, it was also found in Kenya near the border with Tanzania (Ekesi, unpublished records). So far, the species has not been reported from any other African countries.
B. latrifons was found in the Hawaiian Islands around 1983 (Vargas and Nishida, 1985).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / internal feeding|
|Fruit / lesions: black or brown|
|Fruit / premature drop|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Eggs (9-587 eggs) are laid below the skin of the host fruit. These hatch within a few days (mean 2.3) and the larvae feed for about a week (mean 8.5 days). Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant for little over a week (mean 10.2 days). Adults occur throughout the year and females begin oviposition after 6-17 days, and continue laying eggs for 6-117 days; data from Vargas and Nishida (1985). Adult flight and the transport of infected fruit are the major means of movement and dispersal of Bactrocera spp. to previously uninfected areas. A pre-adult life-table for B. latifrons was produced by Vargas and Nishida (1985) and further ecological studies were carried out by Liquido et al. (1994) who showed that B. latifrons outcompeted B. dorsalis, B. cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata in its Solanaceous hosts but not in its non-Solanaceous hosts. For further information on the biology and ecology of B. latifrons, see Sunil Kumar and Agarwal (2003), Peck and McQuate (2004) and Ishida et al. (2005).
[Erratum: In previous versions of this datasheet, it was stated that “many Bactrocera spp. can fly 50-100 km (Fletcher, 1989)” but a review of Fletcher (1989a) and Fletcher (1989b) by Hicks et al. (2019) found no evidence to support this statement and it has been removed. Fletcher (1989b) provides dispersal data for only 11 of 651 species of Bactrocera, many of the case studies lack the necessary numerical data, and the study did not discern between active flight and passive wind-assisted dispersal. There are differences among fruit fly species and further studies are required to determine dispersal distances for individual species. For further information on trapping Bactrocera species to monitor movement, see Weldon et al. (2014).]
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Biosteres arisanus||Parasite||Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae|
|Fopius arisanus||Parasite||Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae|
|Opius incisi||Parasite||India; Karnataka||Solanum viarum|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||arthropods/pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ImpactTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Fruits (locally grown or samples of fruit imports) should be inspected for puncture marks and any associated necrosis. Suspect fruits should be cut open and checked for larvae. Larval identification is difficult, so if time allows, mature larvae should be transferred to saw dust (or similar dry medium) to allow pupariation. The use of cuticular hydrocarbons for larval identification has been investigated (Sutton et al., 1996) but in most circumstances many more species will need to be compared before this can be applied. Upon emergence, adult flies must be fed with sugar and water for several days to allow hardening and full colour to develop, before they can be identified.
Adult B. latifrons have a yellow strip on the side of the thorax and a mostly red-brown abdomen. Females have a pair of preapical ‘shoulders’ on the aculeus (Meyer et al., 2007). For further information see Invasive Fruit Fly Pests in Africa (Meyer et al., 2007).
B. latifrons was one of six Bactrocera species identified by a PCR-DGGE method based on the gene analysis of mtDNA CO II and 16S rDNA (Zhan et al., 2007). The method was shown to be a rapid and specific technique for identifying pest species in plant quarantine.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Minimum characters to differentiate from most other Bactrocera and Dacus spp. (White and Hancock, 1997): Face with a dark spot in each antennal furrow. Scutum predominantly black; with lateral vittae; without medial vitta; with prescutellar acrostichal setae. Scutellum entirely yellow (except for narrow basal line). Anepisternal stripe almost reaching postpronotal (=humeral) lobe. Cell bc colourless. Costal band expanded into a spot at apex. Tergite 4 without any lateral markings. Aculeus apex trilobed.
B. latifrons was included in a pictorial key to Sri Lankan species (also largely applicable to southern India) by Tsuruta (1998).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Many countries, such as the mainland USA, forbid the import of susceptible fruit without strict post-harvest treatment having been applied by the exporter. This may involve fumigation, heat treatment (hot vapour or hot water), cold treatments, insecticidal dipping, or irradiation (Armstrong and Couey, 1989). However, recent research has indicated that B. latifrons is more heat tolerant than other species (Jang et al., 1999). Irradiation is not accepted in most countries and many have now banned methyl bromide fumigation. Heat treatment tends to reduce the shelf life of most fruits and so the most effective method of regulatory control is to preferentially restrict imports of a given fruit to areas free of fruit fly attack.
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
One of the most effective control techniques against fruit flies in general is to wrap fruit, either in newspaper, a paper bag, or in the case of long/thin fruits, a polythene sleeve. This is a simple physical barrier to oviposition but it has to be applied well before the fruit is attacked. Little information is available on the attack time for most fruits but few Bactrocera spp. attack prior to ripening.
Although cover sprays of entire crops are sometimes used, the use of bait sprays is both more economical and more environmentally acceptable. A bait spray consists of a suitable insecticide (e.g. malathion) mixed with a protein bait. Both males and females of fruit flies are attracted to protein sources emanating ammonia, and so insecticides can be applied to just a few spots in an orchard and the flies will be attracted to these spots. The protein most widely used is hydrolysed protein, but some supplies of this are acid hydrolysed and so highly phytotoxic. Smith and Nannan (1988) have developed a system using autolysed protein. In Malaysia this has been developed into a very effective commercial product derived from brewery waste.
This species is not attracted to either cue lure or methyl eugenol. Field monitoring is by sampling susceptible fruits for larvae. In Hawaii a new lure chemical is being developed (see White and Liquido, 1995).
ReferencesTop of page
Akhila MU, Jiji T, 2015. Record of solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting solanaceous vegetables in Kerala. Current Biotica, 9(1):78-81. http://www.currentbiotica.com/CB/Journals9-Issue-I/CB-9-1-Short-note-2.pdf
Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Drew RAI, Hamacek EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad C, Jipanin JC, Jirasurat M, Krong CK, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S, 1999. Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Asia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 47(Supplement 7):1-92; 26 ref
Armstrong JW, Couey HM, 1989. Control; fruit disinfestation; fumigation, heat and cold. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 3(B):411-424
Baker RT, Cowley JM, 1991. A New Zealand view of quarantine security with special reference to fruit flies, In: Vijaysegaran S, Ibrahim AG, eds. First International Symposium on Fruit Flies in the Tropics, Kuala Lumpur, 1988. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, 396-408
Bateman MA, 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations, In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region. 2nd edn. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128
Bellis, G. A., Brito, A. A., Jesus, H. de, Quintao, V., Sarmento, J. C., Bere, A., Rodrigues, J., Hancock, D. L., 2017. A preliminary account of the fruit fly fauna of Timor-Leste (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). Zootaxa, 4362(3), 421-432. http://www.mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4362.3.6 doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4362.3.6
Bokonon-Ganta AH, McQuate GT, Messing RH, 2007. Natural establishment of a parasitoid complex on Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Biological Control, 42(3):365-373. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10499644
Clarke, A. R., Allwood, A., Chinajariyawong, A., Drew, R. A. I., Hengsawad, C., Jirasurat, M., Krong, C. K., Kritsaneepaiboon, S., Vijaysegaran, S., 2001. Seasonal abundance and host use patterns of seven Bactrocera Macquart species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 49(2), 207-220.
Clausen, C. P., Clancy, D. W., Chock, Q. C., 1965. Biological control of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and other fruit flies in Hawaii. Technical Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture, 1322, 102 pp.
Duan JJ, Messing RH, 2000. Host specificity tests of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly introduced opiine fruit fly parasitoid with four nontarget tephritids in Hawaii. Biological Control, 19(1):28-34; 30 ref
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fletcher BS, 1989. Ecology; life history strategies of tephritid fruit flies, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests. Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier, 3(B):195-208
Fletcher, B. S., 1989. Movements of tephritid fruit flies. In: Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests [ed. by Robinson, A. S., Hooper, G.]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 209-219
Foote RH, Blanc FL, Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock
Hardy DE, 1973. The fruit flies (Tephritidae - Diptera) of Thailand and bordering countries. Pacific Insects Monograph, 31:1-353
Hardy DE, 1977. Tephritidae (Trypetidae, Trupaneidae), In: Delfinado MD, Hardy DE, eds. A Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, Vol. III. Honolulu, USA: University Press of Hawaii, 44-134
Hardy, D. E., 1973. The fruit flies (Tephritidae-Diptera) of Thailand and bordering countries. In: Pacific Insects Monograph , USA: Entomology Dept., Bernice P. Bishop Museum.1-353. https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/21600476
Harris, E. J., Liquido, N. J., Lee, C. Y. L., 2003. Patterns in Appearance and Fruit Host Utilization of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Kalaupapa Peninsula, Molokai, Hawaii. [Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society], 36, USA: Hawaiian Entomological Society. 69-78. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/99/36_69-78.pdf
Hicks, C. B., Bloem, K., Pallipparambil, G. R., Hartzog, H. M., 2019. Reported Long-Distance Flight of the Invasive Oriental Fruit Fly and Its Trade Implications. In: Area-Wide Management of Fruit Fly Pests, [ed. by Perez-Staples, D., Diaz-Fleischer, F., Montoya, P., Vera, M. T.]. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. 9-25. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9780429355738/chapters/10.1201/9780429355738-2
IPPC, 2016. Bactrocera latifrons (Malaysian Fruit Fly) - Establishment of Regulated Area in in Westchester, Los Angeles County, California. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. USA-70/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/en/
Ishida T, Nakahara S, Minoura K, Dohino T, 2005. Development and reproductive ability of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Yonaguni Island. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, 41:39-42
Ishida T, Nakahara S, Minoura K, Dohino T, 2005. Development and reproductive ability of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Yonaguni Island. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No.41:39-42
Jang EB, Nagata JT, Chan HTJr, Laidlaw WG, 1999. Thermal death kinetics in eggs and larvae of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) and comparative thermotolerance to three other tephritid fruit fly species in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(3):684-690; 37 ref
Liquido NJ, Harris EJ, Dekker LA, 1994. Ecology of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations: host plants, natural enemies, distribution, and abundance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87(1):71-84
McQuate GT, Follett PA, Liquido NJ, Sylva CD, 2015. Assessment of navel oranges, Clementine tangerines, and rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae). International Journal of Insect Science, 7:1-9. http://www.la-press.com/assessment-of-navel-oranges-clementine-tangerines-and-rutaceous-fruits-article-a4634
McQuate, G. T., Jang, E. B., Siderhurst, M., 2013. Detection/Monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): Assessing the Potential of Prospective New Lures. [Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society], 45, USA: University of Hawai'i. 69-81. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/31007/1/PHES45_69-81.pdf
Meeyen, K., Sopaladawan, P. N., Pramual, P., 2014. Population structure, population history and DNA barcoding of fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomological Science, 17(2), 219-230. doi: 10.1111/ens.12049
Mwatawala M, Meyer Mde, White IM, Maerere A, Makundi RH, 2007. Detection of the solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in Tanzania (Dipt., Tephritidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 131(7):501-503. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jen
Mwatawala, M. W., Meyer, M. de, Makundi, R. H., Maerere, A. P., 2009. An overview of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) invasions and their speculated dominancy over native fruit fly species in Tanzania. Journal of Entomology, 6(1), 18-27. doi: 10.3923/je.2009.18.27
Mziray HA, Makundi RH, Mwatawala M, Maerere A, Meyer Mde, 2010. Host use of Bactrocera latifrons, a new invasive tephritid species in Tanzania. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103(1):70-76. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/00220493/v103n1/s10.pdf?expires=1268122998&id=0000&titleid=10264&checksum=8ACDE68A6ED0B4D0E0B421315857FDB3
Mziray, H. A., Makundi, R. H., Mwatawala, M., Maerere, A., Meyer, M. de, 2010. Spatial and temporal abundance of the solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), in Morogoro, Tanzania. Crop Protection, 29(5), 454-461. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2009.10.018
NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: Bactrocera latifrons (Malaysian Fruit Fly) - Removal of the Quarantine in the Westchester Area of Los Angeles County, California. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=677
Peck SL, McQuate GT, 2004. Ecological aspects of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Maui, Hawaii: movement and host preference. Environmental Entomology, 33(6):1722-1731. HTTP://www.esa.catchword.org
Prabhakar CS, Pankaj Sood, Mehta PK, 2012. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) diversity in cucurbit fields and surrounding forest areas of Himachal Pradesh, a north-western Himalayan state of India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 45(10):1210-1217. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20
Shimizu Y, Kohama T, Uesato T, Matsuyama T, Yamagishi M, 2007. Invasion of solanum fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Yonaguni Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 42(2):269-275. http://odokon.ac.affrc.go.jp/
Sutton BD, Steck GJ, Mathis WN (ed. ), Grogan WL Jr., 1997. Discrimination of fruit-fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by cuticular hydrocarbon analysis: Bactrocera Macquart species established in the New World and Hawaii. Contributions on Diptera dedicated to Willis W. Wirth. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington, No. 18:243-253
Tsuruta K, 1998. Pictorial key to dacine fruit flies associated with economic plants in Sri Lanka. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 34:23-35
Tsuruta, K., White, I. M., Bandara, H. M. J., Rajapakse, H., Sundaraperuma, S. A. H., Kahawatta, S. B. M. U. C., Rajapakse, G. B. J. P., 1997. A preliminary note on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia, (No. 37), 149-160.
Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp
Wharton RA, Gilstrap FE, 1983. Key to and status of opiine braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoids used in biological control of Ceratitis and Dacus s.l. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 76(4):721-742
Wharton RH, 1989. Control; classical biological control of fruit-infesting Tephritidae, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 303-313
White IM, Liquido NJ, 1995. Case 2967; Chaetodacus latifrons Hendel, 1915 (currently Bactrocera latifrons; Insecta, Diptera): proposed precedence of the specific name over that of Dacus parvulus Hendel, 1912. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 52:250-252
Wingsanoi, A., Siri, N., 2012. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with reference to reproductive capacity. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 34(5), 475-478. http://rdo.psu.ac.th/sjstweb/journal/34-5/0475-3395-34-5-475-478.pdf
Yong, H. S., 1993. Allozyme variation in the solanaceous fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Comparative Biochemistry, 106(4), 933-935.
Yu DJ, Zhang GM, Chen ZL, Zhang RJ, Yin WY, 2004. Rapid identification of Bactrocera latifrons (Dipt., Tephritidae) by real-time PCR using SYBR Green chemistry. Journal of Applied Entomology, 128(9/10):670-676
Zhan KaiRui, Zhao ShiXi, Chen YuHang, Ren DaMing, 2007. Rapid identification of 6 species of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by PCR-DGGE. Journal of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Natural Science Edition), 36(3):274-278
Akhila M U, Jiji T, 2015. Record of solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting solanaceous vegetables in Kerala. Current Biotica. 9 (1), 78-81. http://www.currentbiotica.com/CB/Journals9-Issue-I/CB-9-1-Short-note-2.pdf
Bellis G A, Brito A A, Jesus H de, Quintao V, Sarmento J C, Bere A, Rodrigues J, Hancock D L, 2017. A preliminary account of the fruit fly fauna of Timor-Leste (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). Zootaxa. 4362 (3), 421-432. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4362.3.6
Bokonon-Ganta A H, McQuate G T, Messing R H, Jang E B, 2013. Release and establishment of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii against the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons in Hawaii. Journal of Insect Science (Madison). 13 (7), (31 January 2013). DOI:10.1673/031.013.0701
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Chang C L, Geib S, Cho I K, Li Q X, Stanley D, 2014. Dietary lufenuron reduces egg hatch and influences protein expression in the fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 86 (4), 193-208. DOI:10.1002/arch.21169
Clarke A R, Allwood A, Chinajariyawong A, Drew R A I, Hengsawad C, Jirasurat M, Krong C K, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Vijaysegaran S, 2001. Seasonal abundance and host use patterns of seven Bactrocera Macquart species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 49 (2), 207-220.
Clausen C P, Clancy D W, Chock Q C, 1965. Biological control of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and other fruit flies in Hawaii. Technical Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture. 102 pp.
Hardy D E, 1973a. The fruit flies (Tephritidae-Diptera) of Thailand and bordering countries. In: Pacific Insects Monograph, USA: Entomology Dept., Bernice P. Bishop Museum. 1-353. https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/21600476
Hardy DE, 1973. The fruit flies (Tephritidae - Diptera) of Thailand and bordering countries. In: Pacific Insects Monograph, 31 1-353.
Hardy DE, 1977. Tephritidae (Trypetidae, Trupaneidae). In: A Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, III [ed. by Delfinado MD, Hardy DE]. Honolulu, USA: University Press of Hawaii. 44-134.
IPPC, 2016. Bactrocera latifrons (Malaysian Fruit Fly) - Establishment of Regulated Area in in Westchester, Los Angeles County, California. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. USA-70/1, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/en/
Ishida T, Nakahara S, Minoura K, Dohino T, 2005. Development and reproductive ability of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Yonaguni Island. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 39-42.
Lin MingGuang, Yang ZuJiang, Wang XingJian, Li JiYong, Li WeiDong, 2006. A taxonomic study of the subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Hainan, China. Acta Entomologica Sinica. 49 (2), 310-314.
Liquido N J, Harris E J, Dekker L A, 1994. Ecology of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations: host plants, natural enemies, distribution, and abundance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 87 (1), 71-84. DOI:10.1093/aesa/87.1.71
McQuate G T, Jang E B, Siderhurst M, 2013. Detection/Monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): Assessing the Potential of Prospective New Lures. [Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society], 45 USA: University of Hawai'i. 69-81. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/31007/1/PHES45_69-81.pdf
Mwatawala M, Meyer M de, White I M, Maerere A, Makundi R H, 2007. Detection of the solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in Tanzania (Dipt., Tephritidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 131 (7), 501-503. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jen DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2007.01156.x
Mziray H A, Makundi R H, Mwatawala M, Maerere A, Meyer M de, 2010. Host use of Bactrocera latifrons, a new invasive tephritid species in Tanzania. Journal of Economic Entomology. 103 (1), 70-76. DOI:10.1603/EC09212
Mziray H A, Makundi R H, Mwatawala M, Maerere A, Meyer M de, 2010a. Spatial and temporal abundance of the solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), in Morogoro, Tanzania. Crop Protection. 29 (5), 454-461. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2009.10.018
Nair N, Thangjam B C, Bhattacharjee T, Debnath M R, 2017. Species composition of Dacine fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae: Dacini) associated with Cucurbits in Tripura, a North Eastern state of India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 5 (3), 330-335. http://www.entomoljournal.com/archives/?year=2017&vol=5&issue=3&part=E&ArticleId=1826
NAPPO, 2016. Phytosanitary Alert System: Bactrocera latifrons (Malaysian Fruit Fly) - Removal of the Quarantine in the Westchester Area of Los Angeles County, California., NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=677
NAPPO, 2016a. Bactrocera latifrons (Malaysian Fruit Fly) - Establishment of Regulated Area in in Westchester, Los Angeles County, California., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/bactrocera-latifrons-malaysian-fruit-fly-establishment-regulated-area
Othman A B, Hj M, Hashim N, 2004. Technical Document for Market Access on Star Fruit (Carambola). In: Crop Protection and Plant Quarantine Services Division, Department of Agriculture, Malaysia, MALAYSIA: THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRO-BASED INDUSTRY KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIA. https://www.ippc.int/static/media/files/cnpublications/2014/05/07/1115281083940_Technical_Document_Carambola.pdf
Peck S L, McQuate G T, 2004. Ecological aspects of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Maui, Hawaii: movement and host preference. Environmental Entomology. 33 (6), 1722-1731. HTTP://www.esa.catchword.org DOI:10.1603/0046-225X-33.6.1722
Prabhakar C S, Pankaj Sood, Mehta P K, 2012. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) diversity in cucurbit fields and surrounding forest areas of Himachal Pradesh, a north-western Himalayan state of India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (10), 1210-1217. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.660612
Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435
Shimizu Y, Kohama T, Uesato T, Matsuyama T, Yamagishi M, 2007. Invasion of solanum fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Yonaguni Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 42 (2), 269-275. http://odokon.ac.affrc.go.jp/ DOI:10.1303/aez.2007.269
Tsuruta K, White I M, Bandara H M J, Rajapakse H, Sundaraperuma S A H, Kahawatta S B M U C, Rajapakse G B J P, 1997. A preliminary note on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia. 149-160.
Wingsanoi A, Siri N, 2012. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with reference to reproductive capacity. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology. 34 (5), 475-478. http://rdo.psu.ac.th/sjstweb/journal/34-5/0475-3395-34-5-475-478.pdf
Yong H S, 1993. Allozyme variation in the solanaceous fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Comparative Biochemistry. 106 (4), 933-935.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/