Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bactrocera correcta
(guava fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactrocera correcta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • guava fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Puparia of B. correcta, note scale.
TitlePuparia
CaptionPuparia of B. correcta, note scale.
CopyrightS.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Puparia of B. correcta, note scale.
PupariaPuparia of B. correcta, note scale.S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Museum set specimen of adult B. correcta.
TitleAdult
CaptionMuseum set specimen of adult B. correcta.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Museum set specimen of adult B. correcta.
AdultMuseum set specimen of adult B. correcta.©CABI BioScience
Adult of B. correcta, line drawing.
TitleLine drawing of adult
CaptionAdult of B. correcta, line drawing.
CopyrightS.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Adult of B. correcta, line drawing.
Line drawing of adultAdult of B. correcta, line drawing.S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
B. correcta: ovipositional punctures (arrowed) caused by fruit fly.
TitleOvipositional punctures
CaptionB. correcta: ovipositional punctures (arrowed) caused by fruit fly.
CopyrightS.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
B. correcta: ovipositional punctures (arrowed) caused by fruit fly.
Ovipositional puncturesB. correcta: ovipositional punctures (arrowed) caused by fruit fly.S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Healthy guava fruit halved.
TitleHealthy guava fruit
CaptionHealthy guava fruit halved.
CopyrightS.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Healthy guava fruit halved.
Healthy guava fruitHealthy guava fruit halved.S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
B. correcta damaged guava fruit halved, with larvae.
TitleDamaged guava fruit
CaptionB. correcta damaged guava fruit halved, with larvae.
CopyrightS.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
B. correcta damaged guava fruit halved, with larvae.
Damaged guava fruitB. correcta damaged guava fruit halved, with larvae.S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
B. correcta: modified attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
TitleAttractant trap
CaptionB. correcta: modified attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
CopyrightS.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
B. correcta: modified attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
Attractant trapB. correcta: modified attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Design of new attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
TitleAttractant trap
CaptionDesign of new attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
CopyrightS.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Design of new attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
Attractant trapDesign of new attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Diagrammatic view of attractant trap.
TitleAttractant trap
CaptionDiagrammatic view of attractant trap.
CopyrightS.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Diagrammatic view of attractant trap.
Attractant trapDiagrammatic view of attractant trap.S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi)

Preferred Common Name

  • guava fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Bactrocera (Bactrocera) correcta (Bezzi)
  • Chaetodacus correctus Bezzi
  • Dacus correctus (Bezzi)

EPPO code

  • BCTRCO (Bactrocera correcta)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Bactrocera
  •                                 Species: Bactrocera correcta

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Bezzi first described B. correcta in 1916. This species has also been known as Chaetodacus correctus and Dacus correctus. It is a member of subgenus Bactrocera, within the genus Bactrocera, and its name may therefore be cited as Bactrocera (Bactrocera) correcta.

Description

Top of page B. correcta is similar to B. zonatus but is distinguished by the colour of the thorax and the facial spots being united, or almost so, to form a black transverse band. The whitish cross band on the second abdominal segment is less developed. The hind tibiae of the male are distinctly tuberculate before the end. Scutum with anterior supra-alar setae, prescutellar acrostichal setae, two scutellar setae, wing with a reduced pattern (costal band reduced to an apical spot); male with a pecten. The puparium is a dark, shiny yellow. Adults are attracted to open termitaria (Bezzi, 1916).

Distribution

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B. correcta has been recorded in India from Pusa (Bihar), Coimbatore, Guindy and Tiruchirappalli (Tamil Nadu), Bangalore, Balechonnur, Bijapur, Hagari (Karnataka), South Gujarat, Bilaspur (Madya Pradesh), Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Hancock (1991) recorded this species from Thailand. White and Elson-Harris (1992) reported its presence in Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

An unconfirmed record of B. correcta in Florida, USA (NAPPO, 2001) published in previous versions of the Compendium has been removed. There have been rare detections of the pest in Florida but these events have initiated programmes leading to the eradication of the pest (PPQ, 2018). B. correcta is a quarantine pest in the USA and was officially declared eradicated from the USA in 2015 (NAPPO, 2015).

A record of B. correcta in Taiwan (EPPO, 2014) published in previous versions of the Compendium is considered invalid (Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ), Taiwan, correspondence to CABI, 2015). B. correcta is listed as a quarantine pest in Taiwan.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentEPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
IndiaWidespreadWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentBezzi, 1916; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-GoaPresentSatarkar et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentShah and Vora, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HaryanaPresentWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentNarayanan and Batra, 1960; Kapoor and Agarwal, 1983
-KarnatakaWidespreadPuttarudriah and Usman, 1954; Ganesh Bhat, 1989; Mani, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduWidespreadMohamed Jalaluddin, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
JapanAbsent, intercepted onlySatoh et al., 1985
MyanmarPresentFoote et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
PakistanWidespreadWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaWidespreadWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
ThailandWidespreadWhite and Elson-Harris, 1992; Allwood et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

North America

USAEradicatedIPPC, 2015; EPPO, 2018
-CaliforniaEradicatedFoote et al., 1993; CDFA, 2013; IPPC, 2015
-FloridaEradicatedEPPO, 2018; PPQ, 2018

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page In India, this potential pest often occurs with serious pest species such as B. zonata and B. dorsalis (Kapoor, 1989). Mohamed Jalaluddin (1996) reported that B. correcta caused 60-80% fruit damage in Tamil Nadu, India. Carey and Dowell (1989) reported that it posed a serious threat to Californian (USA) agriculture. The host data presented here is based on two recently published host lists that are largely based on host-fruit surveys carried out in Sri Lanka and Thailand (Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 1999). These publications also list numerous wild hosts but few of those were noted as of especial significance.

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

Symptoms

Top of page Adult fruit flies damage the fruit where they lay their eggs causing blemishes and discoloration. The maggots bore into the fruit, develop inside and pave the way for secondary invaders (fungi or bacteria), which cause extensive rotting and dropping of fruit. Damaged fruits are unfit for human consumption. Damage symptoms do not vary on different crops.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / obvious exit hole

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods of B. correcta were 14.1, 13.7 and 27.2 days, respectively, at 30±2°C and 70% relative humidity. The incubation, larval and pupal periods were 3.1, 19.0 and 7 days, respectively. The adult longevity was ca 10 days. The sex ratio was observed to be 1:1.

A maximum of 80% fruit damage was recorded during the second fortnight of July and August. The fruit fly population was higher during June-September than in October-February. There was no significant positive correlation between trap catches of adult fruit flies and per cent fruit damage.

Correlation studies between trap catches and weather factors indicated that there was significant positive correlation between weekly catches and maximum temperature, minimum temperature, thermal units, morning relative humidity and rainfall. More fruit fly activity was seen at a height of ca 1.5 m where the fruit is abundantly distributed on the host tree.

(Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1996)

In India, Shah and Patel (1976) found that males were also attracted to tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum) which yields aromatic oils, 40% of which are methyl eugenol. Adults are found congregating under host leaves during the morning and evening. Maggots damage fruit whereas pupae are found in the soil.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Larvae
Dirhinus Parasite Pupae
Eurytoma tibialis Parasite
Torymoides kiesenwetteri Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Very few parasites and predators were found to suppress the population of B. correcta. In India, it was observed that a solitary parasite, Dirhinus sp., parasitized the puparium of B. correcta (Puttarudriah and Usman, 1954) and a carabid predator Pheropsophus sobrinus was observed preying on the larvae and pupae of B. correcta on the ground. The carabid population peaked in July and August (Mohamed Jalaluddin et al., 1998). In Thailand, Biosteres longicaudatus, a Braconid larval endoparasitoid is a potential parasitoid in biological control (Sangvorn-Kitthawee et al., 1999).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsAir baggage Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page Detailed studies on crop loss are lacking. In India, B. correcta is one of the important fruit borers of guava and can cause 80% damage. Reductions in the total phenolic content in fruits of susceptible cultivars also causes damage (Manoukas, 1993; Mohamed Jalaluddin and Sadakathulla, 1999).


Detection and Inspection

Top of page Facial spots are more or less joined together towards the middle, forming a transverse band; male abdomen reddish behind the middle, with a black longitudinal middle stripe; ovipositor red.

Males are highly attracted to methyl eugenol. Mohamed Jalaluddin (1996) devised a modified new trap which was more efficient at attracting B. correcta males than a conventional model. The frequency distribution of B. correcta catches per trap per day in different entrance port sizes (5 to 30 mm diameter) varied. Orange and yellow coloured traps attracted more fruit flies, recording 4.34 and 4.18 numbers/day respectively, compared with green, red, white, violet and blue. Traps placed at heights of between ca 1.5 and 2.1 m caught the highest numbers of B. correcta. Traps placed at the border of the orchard intercepted the invading adults and attracted greater numbers of invading adults and more male adults. Twelve new attractant traps with methyl eugenol were hung by nylon fishing line. Each week, trapped files were collected and counted and fresh bait was added. Since the sex ratio is 1:1, the population can be intercepted, monitored and timely control measures can be applied.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Phytosanitary Measures

Since B. correcta occurs on tropical and subsistence fruit, the possibility of introduction to other countries is limited.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Collect and destroy affected fruit to reduce the inoculum. Rake the soil and flood fields for 24 hours to kill the pupae.

Host-Plant Resistance

In India, a few commercial guava varieties have shown resistance to or tolerance of B. correcta. The shape of the fruit influenced the damage. The non-preference mechanism played a major role in the mechanism of resistance in guava fruits. Gibberellic acid treatment of fruits given prior to 'colour break' enhanced the resistance of fruits against oviposition and fly development (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1996).

Biological Control

A few species of parasites and predators were effective in combating this pest in Thailand and India. However, effective biological control studies are required for controlling this pest.

Chemical Control

A bait spray application of malathion killed congregating adults (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1996). Soil drenching with azadirachtin (a neem oil product) or neem seed kernal extract (NSKE) also killed pupating larvae (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1999).

Early Warning System

Since the sex ratio is 1:1 the emerged males can easily be lured and killed with modified methyl eugenol, in an orange coloured attractant trap (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1996). The traps can be situated at a rate of 12/hectare on orchard borders to intercept invading adults.

Economic Threshold Levels

ETL for B. correcta have not been determined.

Integrated Pest Management

IPM programmes combining cultural, chemical and host-plant resistance are being devised and implemented, especially in India and Thailand (see Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1999 and Sangvorn-Kitthawee et al., 1999 for further details).

References

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Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Drew RAI, Hamacek EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad C, Jipanin JC, Jirasurat M, Krong CK, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S, 1999. Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Asia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 47(Supplement 7):1-92; 26 ref

Bezzi M, 1916. On the fruit-flies of the genus Dacus (s.l.) occurring in India, Burma and Ceylon. Bulletin Entomological Research, 7:99-121

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Bactrocera correcta. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 640. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Carey JR, Dowell RV, 1989. Exotic fruit pests and California agriculture. California Agriculture, 43(3):38-40

CDFA, 2013. Proclamation of an eradication project for the guava fruit fly. California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), July 8, 2013., USA: California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/pdep/treatment/pep/PEP-GFF-SanJose-SantaClaraCounty-071513.pdf

Chen, 2015. Investigation of important quarantine pest in Taiwan. Symposium on Trans-Century Plant Protection and Quarantine Technologies. Taichung, Taiwan

Clausen CP, Clancy DW, Chock QC, 1965. Biological Control of the Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and Other Fruit Flies in Hawaii. United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin, No. 1322

Drew RAI, Raghu S, 2002. The fruit fly fauna (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the rainforest habitat of the Western Ghats, India. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 50(2):327-352. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/50/50rbz327-352.pdf

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global Database. Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fletcher TB, 1919. Annotated list of Indian Crop Pests. Proc. Ent. mtg. Pusa, 3:33-34

Foote RH, Blanc FL, Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock

Ganesh Bhat U, 1989. Faunistic and some ecological studies on fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) of Bangalore and Kodagu districts. MSc, (Ag.) Thesis. Bangalore, India: University of Agriculture Science

Hancock DL, 1991. New Species and records of Thailand Dacinae (Dipt:Teph) Aronoldia Thailand, 9:299-314

IPPC, 2015. Bactrocera correcta (Guava fruit fly) - removal of quarantine area in Long Beach, Los Angeles County, California. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. USA-63/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jalaluddin SM, Natarajan K, Sadakathulla S, Balasubramaniyan S, 1999. Discovery of the guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Entomon, 24(2):195-196; 3 ref

Jalaluddin SM, Natarajan K, Sadakathulla S, Rajukkannu K, 1998. A carabid predator for guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Insect Environment, 3(4):113

Jalaluddin SM, Sadakathulla S, 1999. Development and survival of Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on selected guava cultivars. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 5(1):24-27; 6 ref

Kapoor VC, 1989. Fruitflies, Indian subcontinent. In Robinson AS, Hooper G (eds). World Crop Pests, Volume 3B, Fruit Flies, their biology, natural enemies and control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science

Kapoor VC, Agarwal ML, 1983. Fruit flies and their natural enemies in India. In: Cavalloro R, ed. Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982 A.A. Balkema Rotterdam Netherlands, 104-105

LüWenGang, Deng YuLiang, Li ZhiHong, Lin Wei, Wan FangHao, Wang ZhiLing, 2010. A predication of potential geographical distribution of guava fruit fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) correcta (Bezzi) in China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 37(6):529-534. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn

Mani M, 1993. Bactrocera correcta or grapevine in India. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40(4):162-163

Mohamed Jalaluddin S, 1996. Bioecology and management of guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Thesis submitted to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Madurai Campus)

Mohamed Jalaluddin S, 1999. Integrated pest management of guava fruit fiy. Indian Farming, 48(10):14

Monouka AG, 1993. The effect of some phenols on the larval performance of the olive fruit fly, Docus Oleae Gmel. (Dipt:Tephritidae). Journal of Applied Entomology (Germany), 116:303-307

NAPPO, 2001. Phytosanitary Alert System: Second Guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta, detected in Florida this year. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/viewArchNewsStory.cfm?nid=78&keyword=bactrocera%20correcta

NAPPO, 2015. Phytosanitary Alert System: Bactrocera correcta (Guava Fruit Fly) - Removal of Quarantine Area in Long Beach, Los Angeles County, California. NAPPO. https://www.pestalerts.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=639&keyword=bactrocera%20correcta

Narayanan ES, Batra HN, 1960. Fruit Flies and their Control. New Delhi, India: ICAR Pub

PPQ, 2018. Status of Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in the United States. Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC). United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), Raleigh, NC. 10 pp

Puttarudriah M, Usman S, 1954. Mysore Dacinae and their natural parasites. Mysore Agricultural Journal, 30:257-262

Sangvorn Kitthawee, Siripong Singhapong, Visut Baimai, 1999. Metaphase chromosomes of parasitic wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Thailand. Cytologia, 64(1):111-115; 14 ref

Satarkar VR, Krishnamurthy SV, Faleiro JR, Verghese A, 2009. Spatial distribution of major Bactrocera fruit flies attracted to methyl eugenol in different ecological zones of Goa, India. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 29(4):195-201. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

Satoh I, Yamabe M, Satoh S, Ohki A, 1985. Study on the frequency of finding of the fruit flies infesting the fruits imported as air baggage. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 21:71-73

Shah AH, Vora VJ, 1974. Occurrence of Dacus correctus Bezzi (Tephritidae: Diptera) on mango and chiku in south Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36(1):76

Shah AH, Vora VJ, 1975. Occurrence of D. correcta (Bezzi) (Teph. Dipt.) on mango and chiku in South Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36:76

Tsuruta K, White IM, Bandara HMJ, Rajapakse H, Sundaraperuma SAH, Kahawatta SBMUC, Rajapakse GBJP, 1997. A preliminary note on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia, No. 37:149-160; 7 ref

Weems HV Jr, 1987. Guava fruit fly, Dacus (Strumeta) correctus (Bezzi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 291:4pp

White IM, Elson-Harris MM, 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 601 pp

Distribution Maps

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