Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bactrocera correcta
(guava fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bactrocera correcta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • guava fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); puparia. Note scale.
TitlePuparia
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); puparia. Note scale.
Copyright©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); puparia. Note scale.
PupariaBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); puparia. Note scale.©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); adult. Museum set specimen.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); adult. Museum set specimen.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); adult. Museum set specimen.
AdultBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); adult. Museum set specimen.©CABI BioScience
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); adult. Line drawing.
TitleAdult
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); adult. Line drawing.
Copyright©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); adult. Line drawing.
AdultBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); adult. Line drawing.©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); ovipositional punctures (arrowed) caused by a fruit fly.
TitleOvipositional punctures
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); ovipositional punctures (arrowed) caused by a fruit fly.
Copyright©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); ovipositional punctures (arrowed) caused by a fruit fly.
Ovipositional puncturesBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); ovipositional punctures (arrowed) caused by a fruit fly.©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); healthy guava fruit halved.
TitleHealthy fruit
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); healthy guava fruit halved.
Copyright©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); healthy guava fruit halved.
Healthy fruitBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); healthy guava fruit halved.©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); damaged guava fruit halved, with larvae.
TitleDamaged fruit
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); damaged guava fruit halved, with larvae.
Copyright©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); damaged guava fruit halved, with larvae.
Damaged fruitBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); damaged guava fruit halved, with larvae.©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); modified attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
TitleTrap
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); modified attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
Copyright©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); modified attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
TrapBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); modified attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); design of new attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
TitleTrap
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); design of new attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
Copyright©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); design of new attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.
TrapBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); design of new attractant trap used for monitoring guava fruit fly.©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); diagrammatic view of attractant trap.
TitleTrap
CaptionBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); diagrammatic view of attractant trap.
Copyright©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Bactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); diagrammatic view of attractant trap.
TrapBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly); diagrammatic view of attractant trap.©S.M. Jalaluddin/Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi)

Preferred Common Name

  • guava fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Bactrocera (Bactrocera) correcta (Bezzi)
  • Chaetodacus correctus Bezzi
  • Dacus correctus (Bezzi)

EPPO code

  • BCTRCO (Bactrocera correcta)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Bactrocera
  •                                 Species: Bactrocera correcta

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Bezzi first described B. correcta in 1916. This species has also been known as Chaetodacus correctus and Dacus correctus. It is a member of subgenus Bactrocera, within the genus Bactrocera, and its name may therefore be cited as Bactrocera (Bactrocera) correcta.

Description

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B. correcta is similar to B. zonatus but is distinguished by the colour of the thorax and the facial spots being united, or almost so, to form a black transverse band. The whitish cross band on the second abdominal segment is less developed. The hind tibiae of the male are distinctly tuberculate before the end. Scutum with anterior supra-alar setae, prescutellar acrostichal setae, two scutellar setae, wing with a reduced pattern (costal band reduced to an apical spot); male with a pecten. The puparium is a dark, shiny yellow. Adults are attracted to open termitaria (Bezzi, 1916).

Distribution

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B. correcta has been recorded in India from Pusa (Bihar), Coimbatore, Guindy and Tiruchirappalli (Tamil Nadu), Bangalore, Balechonnur, Bijapur, Hagari (Karnataka), South Gujarat, Bilaspur (Madya Pradesh), Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Hancock (1991) recorded this species from Thailand. White and Elson-Harris (1992) reported its presence in Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

An unconfirmed record of B. correcta in Florida, USA (NAPPO, 2001) published in previous versions of the Compendium has been removed. There have been rare detections of the pest in Florida but these events have initiated programmes leading to the eradication of the pest (PPQ, 2018). B. correcta is a quarantine pest in the USA and was officially declared eradicated from the USA in 2015 (NAPPO, 2015).

A record of B. correcta in Taiwan (EPPO, 2014) published in previous versions of the Compendium is considered invalid (Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ), Taiwan, correspondence to CABI, 2015). B. correcta is listed as a quarantine pest in Taiwan.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
ChinaPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent2017
-GuizhouPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GoaPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent, Widespread
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MizoramPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent, Widespread
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
JapanAbsent, Intercepted only
LaosPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent, Widespread
Sri LankaPresent, Widespread
TaiwanAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
ThailandPresent, Widespread
VietnamPresent

North America

United StatesAbsent, Eradicated
-CaliforniaAbsent, Eradicated
-FloridaAbsent, Eradicated

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

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In India, this potential pest often occurs with serious pest species such as B. zonata and B. dorsalis (Kapoor, 1989). Mohamed Jalaluddin (1996) reported that B. correcta caused 60-80% fruit damage in Tamil Nadu, India. Carey and Dowell (1989) reported that it posed a serious threat to Californian (USA) agriculture. The host data presented here is based on two recently published host lists that are largely based on host-fruit surveys carried out in Sri Lanka and Thailand (Tsuruta et al., 1997; Allwood et al., 1999). These publications also list numerous wild hosts but few of those were noted as of especial significance.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeMain
AnnonaAnnonaceaeUnknown
Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeOther
    Artabotrys siamensisAnnonaceaeUnknown
    Artocarpus integer (champedak)MoraceaeOther
    Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeOther
    Capparis sepiaria (indian caper)CapparaceaeUnknown
    Careya arborea (tummy wood)LecythidaceaeUnknown
    Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
      Carissa carandas (caranda (plum))ApocynaceaeUnknown
      Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeOther
        Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
        Coccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
        Coffea canephora (robusta coffee)RubiaceaeUnknown
        • Clausen et al. (1965)
        Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
          Dimocarpus longan (longan tree)SapindaceaeOther
            Dipterocarpus obtusifoliusDipterocarpaceaeUnknown
            Elaeocarpus hygrophilusElaeocarpaceaeUnknown
            Flacourtia indica (governor's plum)FlacourtiaceaeOther
            Flacourtia jangomas (Indian plum)FlacourtiaceaeOther
              Garcinia dulcis (yellow mangosteen)ClusiaceaeUnknown
              Garcinia xanthochymusClusiaceaeUnknown
              Irvingia malayanaIrvingiaceaeUnknown
              Madhuca longifolia (honey tree)SapotaceaeOther
              Maerua siamensisCapparaceaeUnknown
              Malpighia emarginataMalpighiaceaeUnknown
              Malpighia glabra (acerola)MalpighiaceaeOther
              Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
              Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeMain
              Mimusops elengi (spanish cherry)SapotaceaeMain
                Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)TiliaceaeMain
                Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeOther
                  Phyllanthus acidus (star gooseberry)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                  Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeOther
                    Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)RosaceaeOther
                    Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
                      Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
                      Schoepfia fragransOlacaceaeUnknown
                      Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeUnknown
                      Spondias purpurea (red mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther
                        Strychnos potatorumLoganiaceaeUnknown
                        Syzygium aqueum (watery rose-apple)MyrtaceaeOther
                        Syzygium cumini (black plum)MyrtaceaeOther
                          Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeOther
                          Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)MyrtaceaeOther
                            Syzygium nervosumMyrtaceaeUnknown
                            Syzygium samarangense (water apple)MyrtaceaeMain
                            Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeMain
                            Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeUnknown
                            ZiziphusRhamnaceaeUnknown
                            Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)RhamnaceaeMain
                            Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeOther
                            Ziziphus nummularia (lotebush)RhamnaceaeUnknown
                            Ziziphus oenopliaRhamnaceaeUnknown

                            Growth Stages

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                            Fruiting stage

                            Symptoms

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                            Adult fruit flies damage the fruit where they lay their eggs causing blemishes and discoloration. The maggots bore into the fruit, develop inside and pave the way for secondary invaders (fungi or bacteria), which cause extensive rotting and dropping of fruit. Damaged fruits are unfit for human consumption. Damage symptoms do not vary on different crops.

                            List of Symptoms/Signs

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                            SignLife StagesType
                            Fruit / internal feeding
                            Fruit / obvious exit hole

                            Biology and Ecology

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                            The pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods of B. correcta were 14.1, 13.7 and 27.2 days, respectively, at 30±2°C and 70% relative humidity. The incubation, larval and pupal periods were 3.1, 19.0 and 7 days, respectively. The adult longevity was ca 10 days. The sex ratio was observed to be 1:1.

                            A maximum of 80% fruit damage was recorded during the second fortnight of July and August. The fruit fly population was higher during June-September than in October-February. There was no significant positive correlation between trap catches of adult fruit flies and per cent fruit damage.

                            Correlation studies between trap catches and weather factors indicated that there was significant positive correlation between weekly catches and maximum temperature, minimum temperature, thermal units, morning relative humidity and rainfall. More fruit fly activity was seen at a height of ca 1.5 m where the fruit is abundantly distributed on the host tree.

                            (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1996)

                            In India, Shah and Patel (1976) found that males were also attracted to tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum) which yields aromatic oils, 40% of which are methyl eugenol. Adults are found congregating under host leaves during the morning and evening. Maggots damage fruit whereas pupae are found in the soil.

                            Natural enemies

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                            Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                            Biosteres longicaudatus Parasite Larvae
                            Dirhinus Parasite Pupae
                            Eurytoma tibialis Parasite
                            Torymoides kiesenwetteri Parasite

                            Notes on Natural Enemies

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                            Very few parasites and predators were found to suppress the population of B. correcta. In India, it was observed that a solitary parasite, Dirhinus sp., parasitized the puparium of B. correcta (Puttarudriah and Usman, 1954) and a carabid predator Pheropsophus sobrinus was observed preying on the larvae and pupae of B. correcta on the ground. The carabid population peaked in July and August (Mohamed Jalaluddin et al., 1998). In Thailand, Biosteres longicaudatus, a Braconid larval endoparasitoid is a potential parasitoid in biological control (Sangvorn-Kitthawee et al., 1999).

                            Pathway Vectors

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                            VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                            Clothing, footwear and possessionsAir baggage Yes

                            Plant Trade

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                            Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                            Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                            Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                            Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                            Bark
                            Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                            Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                            Leaves
                            Roots
                            Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                            Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                            True seeds (inc. grain)
                            Wood

                            Impact

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                            Detailed studies on crop loss are lacking. In India, B. correcta is one of the important fruit borers of guava and can cause 80% damage. Reductions in the total phenolic content in fruits of susceptible cultivars also causes damage (Manoukas, 1993; Mohamed Jalaluddin and Sadakathulla, 1999).


                            Detection and Inspection

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                            Facial spots are more or less joined together towards the middle, forming a transverse band; male abdomen reddish behind the middle, with a black longitudinal middle stripe; ovipositor red.

                            Males are highly attracted to methyl eugenol. Mohamed Jalaluddin (1996) devised a modified new trap which was more efficient at attracting B. correcta males than a conventional model. The frequency distribution of B. correcta catches per trap per day in different entrance port sizes (5 to 30 mm diameter) varied. Orange and yellow coloured traps attracted more fruit flies, recording 4.34 and 4.18 numbers/day respectively, compared with green, red, white, violet and blue. Traps placed at heights of between ca 1.5 and 2.1 m caught the highest numbers of B. correcta. Traps placed at the border of the orchard intercepted the invading adults and attracted greater numbers of invading adults and more male adults. Twelve new attractant traps with methyl eugenol were hung by nylon fishing line. Each week, trapped files were collected and counted and fresh bait was added. Since the sex ratio is 1:1, the population can be intercepted, monitored and timely control measures can be applied.

                            Prevention and Control

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                            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                            Phytosanitary Measures

                            Since B. correcta occurs on tropical and subsistence fruit, the possibility of introduction to other countries is limited.

                            Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

                            Collect and destroy affected fruit to reduce the inoculum. Rake the soil and flood fields for 24 hours to kill the pupae.

                            Host-Plant Resistance

                            In India, a few commercial guava varieties have shown resistance to or tolerance of B. correcta. The shape of the fruit influenced the damage. The non-preference mechanism played a major role in the mechanism of resistance in guava fruits. Gibberellic acid treatment of fruits given prior to 'colour break' enhanced the resistance of fruits against oviposition and fly development (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1996).

                            Biological Control

                            A few species of parasites and predators were effective in combating this pest in Thailand and India. However, effective biological control studies are required for controlling this pest.

                            Chemical Control

                            A bait spray application of malathion killed congregating adults (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1996). Soil drenching with azadirachtin (a neem oil product) or neem seed kernal extract (NSKE) also killed pupating larvae (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1999).

                            Early Warning System

                            Since the sex ratio is 1:1 the emerged males can easily be lured and killed with modified methyl eugenol, in an orange coloured attractant trap (Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1996). The traps can be situated at a rate of 12/hectare on orchard borders to intercept invading adults.

                            Economic Threshold Levels

                            ETL for B. correcta have not been determined.

                            Integrated Pest Management

                            IPM programmes combining cultural, chemical and host-plant resistance are being devised and implemented, especially in India and Thailand (see Mohamed Jalaluddin, 1999 and Sangvorn-Kitthawee et al., 1999 for further details).

                            References

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                            Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Drew RAI, Hamacek EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad C, Jipanin JC, Jirasurat M, Krong CK, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S, 1999. Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Asia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 47(Supplement 7):1-92; 26 ref

                            Bezzi M, 1916. On the fruit-flies of the genus Dacus (s.l.) occurring in India, Burma and Ceylon. Bulletin Entomological Research, 7:99-121

                            CABI/EPPO, 2003. Bactrocera correcta. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 640. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

                            Carey JR, Dowell RV, 1989. Exotic fruit pests and California agriculture. California Agriculture, 43(3):38-40

                            CDFA, 2013. Proclamation of an eradication project for the guava fruit fly. California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), July 8, 2013., USA: California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/pdep/treatment/pep/PEP-GFF-SanJose-SantaClaraCounty-071513.pdf

                            Chen, 2015. Investigation of important quarantine pest in Taiwan. Symposium on Trans-Century Plant Protection and Quarantine Technologies. Taichung, Taiwan

                            Chinajariyawong, A., Clarke, A. R., Jirasurat, M., Kritsaneepiboon, S., Lahey, H. A., Vijaysegaran, S., Walter, G. H., 2000. Survey of opiine parasitoids of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand and Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 48(1), 71-101.

                            Clarke, A. R., Allwood, A., Chinajariyawong, A., Drew, R. A. I., Hengsawad, C., Jirasurat, M., Krong, C. K., Kritsaneepaiboon, S., Vijaysegaran, S., 2001. Seasonal abundance and host use patterns of seven Bactrocera Macquart species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 49(2), 207-220.

                            Clausen CP, Clancy DW, Chock QC, 1965. Biological Control of the Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and Other Fruit Flies in Hawaii. United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin, No. 1322

                            Clausen, C. P., Clancy, D. W., Chock, Q. C., 1965. Biological control of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and other fruit flies in Hawaii. Technical Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture, 1322, 102 pp.

                            Drew RAI, Raghu S, 2002. The fruit fly fauna (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the rainforest habitat of the Western Ghats, India. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 50(2):327-352. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/50/50rbz327-352.pdf

                            EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

                            EPPO, 2018. EPPO Global Database. Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

                            Fletcher TB, 1919. Annotated list of Indian Crop Pests. Proc. Ent. mtg. Pusa, 3:33-34

                            Foote RH, Blanc FL, Norrbom AL, 1993. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Ithaca, USA: Comstock

                            Galande, S. M., Ukey, N. S., Jadhav, S. S., Shelke, S. S., 2010. Composition of fruit fly species in Pune region of Maharashtra and losses caused to guava crop in the region. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 18(1/2), 290-294.

                            Ganesh Bhat U, 1989. Faunistic and some ecological studies on fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) of Bangalore and Kodagu districts. MSc, (Ag.) Thesis. Bangalore, India: University of Agriculture Science

                            Hancock DL, 1991. New Species and records of Thailand Dacinae (Dipt:Teph) Aronoldia Thailand, 9:299-314

                            IPPC, 2015. Bactrocera correcta (Guava fruit fly) - removal of quarantine area in Long Beach, Los Angeles County, California. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. USA-63/1. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

                            Jalaluddin SM, Natarajan K, Sadakathulla S, Balasubramaniyan S, 1999. Discovery of the guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Entomon, 24(2):195-196; 3 ref

                            Jalaluddin SM, Natarajan K, Sadakathulla S, Rajukkannu K, 1998. A carabid predator for guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Insect Environment, 3(4):113

                            Jalaluddin SM, Sadakathulla S, 1999. Development and survival of Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on selected guava cultivars. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 5(1):24-27; 6 ref

                            Kapoor VC, 1989. Fruitflies, Indian subcontinent. In Robinson AS, Hooper G (eds). World Crop Pests, Volume 3B, Fruit Flies, their biology, natural enemies and control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science

                            Kapoor VC, Agarwal ML, 1983. Fruit flies and their natural enemies in India. In: Cavalloro R, ed. Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982 A.A. Balkema Rotterdam Netherlands, 104-105

                            Kunprom, C., Sopaladawan, P. N., Pramual, P., 2015. Population genetics and demographic history of guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northeastern Thailand. European Journal of Entomology, 112(2), 227-234. http://www.eje.cz/artkey/eje-201502-0003_Population_genetics_and_demographic_history_of_guava_fruit_fly_Bactrocera_correcta_Diptera_Tephritidae_in_no.php#.VT73Z9Kqqko

                            Liu, Q.-G., Ou, Z.-G., Gong, D.-Y., 2011. Preliminary Report on Control Techniques of Bactrocera correcta in Guava in Guizhou. (贵州番石榴果实蝇防治技术研究初报). Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi, 23(5), 100-102. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-JXNY201105033.htm

                            LüWenGang, Deng YuLiang, Li ZhiHong, Lin Wei, Wan FangHao, Wang ZhiLing, 2010. A predication of potential geographical distribution of guava fruit fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) correcta (Bezzi) in China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 37(6):529-534. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn

                            Mani M, 1993. Bactrocera correcta or grapevine in India. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40(4):162-163

                            Mani, M., 1992. Bactrocera correcta on grapevine in India. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40(4), 162.

                            Mathaji, B. G., 2009. Studies on Comparative Biology, Population Dynamics and Management of Orchard Flies (Bactrocera spp.). India: Navsari Agricultural University. https://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/65033

                            Mohamed Jalaluddin S, 1996. Bioecology and management of guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Thesis submitted to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Madurai Campus)

                            Mohamed Jalaluddin S, 1999. Integrated pest management of guava fruit fiy. Indian Farming, 48(10):14

                            Mondal, C. K., Garain, P. K., Maitra, N. J., Atit Maji, 2015. Bio-friendly management of Guava fruit fly (Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) through wrapping technique. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 7(1), 358-363. http://ansfoundation.org/abstract/abstract7162

                            Monouka AG, 1993. The effect of some phenols on the larval performance of the olive fruit fly, Docus Oleae Gmel. (Dipt:Tephritidae). Journal of Applied Entomology (Germany), 116:303-307

                            NAPPO, 2001. Phytosanitary Alert System: Second Guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta, detected in Florida this year. NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/viewArchNewsStory.cfm?nid=78&keyword=bactrocera%20correcta

                            NAPPO, 2015. Phytosanitary Alert System: Bactrocera correcta (Guava Fruit Fly) - Removal of Quarantine Area in Long Beach, Los Angeles County, California. NAPPO. https://www.pestalerts.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=639&keyword=bactrocera%20correcta

                            Narayanan ES, Batra HN, 1960. Fruit Flies and their Control. New Delhi, India: ICAR Pub

                            Orankanok, W., Chinvinijkul, S., Sawatwangkhoung, A., Pinkaew, S., Orankanok, S., 2013. Methyl eugenol and pre-release diet improve mating performance of young Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera correcta males. Journal of Applied Entomology, 137(s1), 200-209. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01677.x

                            PPQ, 2018. Status of Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in the United States. Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC). United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), Raleigh, NC. 10 pp

                            Puttarudriah M, Usman S, 1954. Mysore Dacinae and their natural parasites. Mysore Agricultural Journal, 30:257-262

                            Sangvorn Kitthawee, Siripong Singhapong, Visut Baimai, 1999. Metaphase chromosomes of parasitic wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Thailand. Cytologia, 64(1):111-115; 14 ref

                            Satarkar VR, Krishnamurthy SV, Faleiro JR, Verghese A, 2009. Spatial distribution of major Bactrocera fruit flies attracted to methyl eugenol in different ecological zones of Goa, India. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 29(4):195-201. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

                            Satoh I, Yamabe M, Satoh S, Ohki A, 1985. Study on the frequency of finding of the fruit flies infesting the fruits imported as air baggage. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 21:71-73

                            Shah AH, Vora VJ, 1974. Occurrence of Dacus correctus Bezzi (Tephritidae: Diptera) on mango and chiku in south Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36(1):76

                            Shah AH, Vora VJ, 1975. Occurrence of D. correcta (Bezzi) (Teph. Dipt.) on mango and chiku in South Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36:76

                            Somta, C., Winotai, A., Ooi, P. A. C., 2010. Fruit flies reared from Terminalia catappa in Thailand. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 13(1), 27-30. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2009.09.003

                            Tigvattananont, S., 1986. Host plants of the fruit flies in Thailand. King Mongkut's Agricultural Journal, 4(1), 1-15. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=TH8621322

                            Tsuruta K, White IM, Bandara HMJ, Rajapakse H, Sundaraperuma SAH, Kahawatta SBMUC, Rajapakse GBJP, 1997. A preliminary note on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia, No. 37:149-160; 7 ref

                            Weems HV Jr, 1987. Guava fruit fly, Dacus (Strumeta) correctus (Bezzi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 291:4pp

                            White IM, Elson-Harris MM, 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 601 pp

                            Win Nan [Win, N. Z. ], Mi KhinMi, Oo ThiTar, Win KyawKyaw, Park JinYoung, Park JongKyun, 2014. Occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in fruit orchards from Myanmar. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 53(4), 323-329. http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/IS_mvpopo001P.do?method=multMain&poid=entomo&free=

                            Distribution References

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                            Bezzi M, 1916. On the fruit-flies of the genus Dacus (s. l.) occurring in India, Burma and Ceylon. Bulletin Entomological Research. 99-121.

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                            Jiang F, Li Z H, Deng Y L, Wu J J, Liu R S, Buahom N, 2013. Rapid diagnosis of the economically important fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on a species-specific barcoding cytochrome oxidase I marker. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 103 (3), 363-371. DOI:10.1017/S0007485312000806

                            Kapoor V C, Agarwal M L, 1983. Fruit flies and their natural enemies in India. In: Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982 [Fruit flies of economic importance. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC International Symposium, Athens, Greece, 16-19 November 1982], [ed. by Cavalloro R]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. 104-105.

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                            Liu Q-G, Ou Z-G, Gong D-Y, 2011. Preliminary Report on Control Techniques of Bactrocera correcta in Guava in Guizhou. (贵州番石榴果实蝇防治技术研究初报). Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi. 23 (5), 100-102. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-JXNY201105033.htm

                            Liu XiaoFei, Jin Yan, Ye Hui, 2013. Recent spread and climatic ecological niche of the invasive guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta, in mainland China. Journal of Pest Science. 86 (3), 449-458. DOI:10.1007/s10340-013-0488-8

                            Liu XiaoFei, Zhang LiYun, Haack R A, Liu Jiang, Ye Hui, 2019. A noteworthy step on a vast continent: new expansion records of the guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, 1916) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in mainland China. BioInvasions Records. 8 (3), 530-539. https://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2019/3/BIR_2019_Liu_etal.pdf

                            Madhura H S, Verghese A, 2004. A guide to identification of some common fruit flies (Bactrocera spp.) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystem. 10 (1), 1-10. http://aapmhe.in/index.php/pmhe/article/view/524/480

                            Mani M, 1993. Bactrocera correcta or grapevine in India. In: FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 40 (4) 162-163.

                            Mathaji B G, 2009. Studies on Comparative Biology, Population Dynamics and Management of Orchard Flies (Bactrocera spp.). India: Navsari Agricultural University. https://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/65033

                            Mohamed Jalaluddin S, 1996. Bioecology and management of guava fruit fly Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). In: Thesis submitted to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Madurai Campus),

                            Mondal C K, Garain P K, Maitra N J, Atit Maji, 2015. Bio-friendly management of Guava fruit fly (Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) through wrapping technique. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 7 (1), 358-363. http://ansfoundation.org/abstract/abstract7162

                            Narayanan ES, Batra HN, 1960. Fruit Flies and their Control., New Delhi, India: ICAR Pub.

                            Orankanok W, Chinvinijkul S, Sawatwangkhoung A, Pinkaew S, Orankanok S, 2013. Methyl eugenol and pre-release diet improve mating performance of young Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera correcta males. Journal of Applied Entomology. 137 (s1), 200-209. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01677.x

                            PPQ, 2018. Status of Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in the United States. Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops (TASC)., Raleigh, NC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ).

                            Puttarudriah M, Usman S, 1954. Mysore Dacinae and their natural parasites. Mysore Agricultural Journal. 257-262.

                            Qin YuJia, Buahom N, Krosch M N, Du Yu, Wu Yi, Malacrida A R, Deng YuLiang, Liu JiaQi, Jiang XiaoLong, Li ZhiHong, 2016. Genetic diversity and population structure in Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mtDNA cox1 and microsatellite markers. Scientific Reports. 6 (1), 38476. DOI:10.1038/srep38476

                            Satarkar V R, Krishnamurthy S V, Faleiro J R, Verghese A, 2009. Spatial distribution of major Bactrocera fruit flies attracted to methyl eugenol in different ecological zones of Goa, India. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 29 (4), 195-201. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI DOI:10.1017/S174275840999035X

                            Satoh I, Yamabe M, Satoh S, Ohki A, 1985. Study on the frequency of finding of the fruit flies infesting the fruits imported as air baggage. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan. 71-73.

                            Shah A H, Vora V J, 1974. Occurrence of Dacus correctus Bezzi (Tephritidae: Diptera) on mango and chiku in south Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology. 36 (1), 76.

                            Somta C, Winotai A, Ooi P A C, 2010. Fruit flies reared from Terminalia catappa in Thailand. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 13 (1), 27-30. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2009.09.003

                            Tsuruta K, White I M, Bandara H M J, Rajapakse H, Sundaraperuma S A H, Kahawatta S B M U C, Rajapakse G B J P, 1997. A preliminary note on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia. 149-160.

                            White I M, Elson-Harris M M, 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. xii + 601 pp.

                            Win Nan [Win N Z ], Mi KhinMi, Oo ThiTar, Win KyawKyaw, Park JinYoung, Park JongKyun, 2014. Occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in fruit orchards from Myanmar. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 53 (4), 323-329. http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/IS_mvpopo001P.do?method=multMain&poid=entomo&free=

                            Yugendra K, Gopali J B, Athani S I, Tulsiram K, 2020. Survey and surveillance of fruit fly on guava across Karnataka. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India. 23 (1), 485-489. http://www.connectjournals.com/jez

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