Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Broad bean wilt virus
(lamium mild mosaic)

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Datasheet

Broad bean wilt virus (lamium mild mosaic)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Broad bean wilt virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lamium mild mosaic
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Picornavirales
  •         Family: Secoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Damage symptoms on pods, seeds, leaf, and stem of faba bean.
TitleSymptoms on faba bean
CaptionDamage symptoms on pods, seeds, leaf, and stem of faba bean.
CopyrightL. Bos
Damage symptoms on pods, seeds, leaf, and stem of faba bean.
Symptoms on faba beanDamage symptoms on pods, seeds, leaf, and stem of faba bean.L. Bos
Damage symptoms on leaves of faba bean. Leaf symptoms include discoloration, mosaic, ringspot and streaks.
TitleSymptoms on faba bean leaves
CaptionDamage symptoms on leaves of faba bean. Leaf symptoms include discoloration, mosaic, ringspot and streaks.
CopyrightK.M. Makkouk
Damage symptoms on leaves of faba bean. Leaf symptoms include discoloration, mosaic, ringspot and streaks.
Symptoms on faba bean leavesDamage symptoms on leaves of faba bean. Leaf symptoms include discoloration, mosaic, ringspot and streaks.K.M. Makkouk
Symptoms caused by broad bean wilt fabavirus on pea plants; note stunting, wilt and necrosis. 
.
TitleSymptoms on pea
CaptionSymptoms caused by broad bean wilt fabavirus on pea plants; note stunting, wilt and necrosis. .
CopyrightK.M. Makkouk
Symptoms caused by broad bean wilt fabavirus on pea plants; note stunting, wilt and necrosis. 
.
Symptoms on peaSymptoms caused by broad bean wilt fabavirus on pea plants; note stunting, wilt and necrosis. .K.M. Makkouk
Symptoms caused by broad bean wilt fabavirus on chickpea plants; note stunting and wilt.
TitleSymptoms on chickpea
CaptionSymptoms caused by broad bean wilt fabavirus on chickpea plants; note stunting and wilt.
CopyrightK.M. Makkouk
Symptoms caused by broad bean wilt fabavirus on chickpea plants; note stunting and wilt.
Symptoms on chickpeaSymptoms caused by broad bean wilt fabavirus on chickpea plants; note stunting and wilt.K.M. Makkouk
Broad bean wilt fabavirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from Rothamsted Experimental Station.
http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
TitleVirus particles
CaptionBroad bean wilt fabavirus particles. Reproduced with permission from Rothamsted Experimental Station. http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
CopyrightIACR-Rothamsted
Broad bean wilt fabavirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from Rothamsted Experimental Station.
http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
Virus particlesBroad bean wilt fabavirus particles. Reproduced with permission from Rothamsted Experimental Station. http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/IACR-Rothamsted

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Broad bean wilt virus

Preferred Common Name

  • lamium mild mosaic

Other Scientific Names

  • broad bean wilt fabavirus
  • catalpa chlorotic leaf spot virus
  • nasturtium ringspot virus Smith, 1949
  • nasturtium white spot virus
  • P.O. pea streak virus Kim & Hagedorn, 1959
  • patchouli mild mosaic virus
  • patchouli mild mottle virus
  • petunia ringspot virus Rubio-Huertos, 1959
  • tropaeolum ringspot virus

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Ackerbohnenwelke-Virus; Ringmosaikvirus der Kapuzinerkresse
  • Netherlands: Tuinboneverwelkingsvirus

English acronym

  • BBWV

EPPO code

  • BBWV00 (Broad bean wilt fabavirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Picornavirales
  •                 Family: Secoviridae
  •                     Subfamily: Comovirinae
  •                         Genus: Fabavirus
  •                             Species: Broad bean wilt virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentMakkouk et al. (1990); Makkouk et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2004)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
MoroccoPresentMakkouk et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2004)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
SudanPresentMakkouk et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2004)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
TunisiaPresentMakkouk et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2004)

Asia

BangladeshPresentAkanda et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2004)
ChinaPresentWang and Pu (1993); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-AnhuiPresentLiang (1986); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-BeijingPresentSui et al. (2009); Li et al. (2012)
-ChongqingPresentQing Ling et al. (2010)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-HubeiPresentXu et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-JiangsuPresentShong and Pu (1991); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-SichuanPresentXu et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-ZhejiangPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2004)
IndiaPresentMali et al. (1977); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
IranPresentParvin and Izadpanah (1978); CABI and EPPO (2004)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
JapanPresentYamashita (1990); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-ShikokuPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
JordanPresentAl-Musa et al. (1986); CABI and EPPO (2004)
North KoreaPresentChang and Chung (1987); CABI and EPPO (2004)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
SingaporePresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
South KoreaPresentChang and Chung (1987); CABI and EPPO (2004); Seo et al. (2014); Kwon et al. (2016)
SyriaPresentMakkouk et al. (1990); Mouhanna et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2004)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
TurkeyPresentErkan and Schlösser (1985); CABI and EPPO (2004)

Europe

BulgariaPresentYankulova and Kaitazova (1979); CABI and EPPO (2004)
CzechiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
CzechoslovakiaPresentChod and Jokeš (1986); CABI and EPPO (2004)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentŠarić et al. (1984); CABI and EPPO (2004)
FrancePresentMigliori et al. (1987); Migliori et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2004)
GermanyPresentKleinhempel (1991); CABI and EPPO (2004)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
HungaryPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
ItalyPresentDavino et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2004)
PolandPresentSchmelzer (1975); CABI and EPPO (2004)
SlovakiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
SloveniaPresentMehle et al. (2008)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
United KingdomPresentSmith (1949); Bailiss et al. (1975); CABI and EPPO (2004)

North America

United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-FloridaPresentBreman et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-MinnesotaPresentLockhart and Betzold (1982); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-New YorkPresentRist and Lorbeer (1991); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-VermontPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentShukla and Gough (1983); CABI and EPPO (2004)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
New ZealandPresentOchoa-Corona et al. (2010)

South America

ArgentinaPresentGracia and Gutiérrez (1982); CABI and EPPO (2004)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / dwarfing

References

Top of page

Akanda AM; Tsuno K; Wakimoto S, 1991. Serodiagnosis of viruses infecting some crops of Bangladesh. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 35(3-4):121-129

Al-Musa AM; Al-Haj HA; Monayer LO, 1986. Light and electron microscopy of the Jordanian isolate of broad bean wilt virus. Dirasat, 13(8):57-62.

Bailiss KW; Brunt AA; Dale WT, 1975. The natural occurrence of broad bean wilt virus in rhizomatous iris and spinach. Plant Pathology, 24(1):60-61

Boccardo G; Conti M, 1973. Purification and properties of nasturtium ringspot virus. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 78:14.

Breman LL; Brown LG; Scott SW; Christie RG, 1995. First report of broan bean wilt fabavirus in Florida. Plant Disease, 79(10):1075

Brown F, 1989. The classification and nomenclature of viruses: summary of results of meetings of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in Edmonton, Canada 1987. Intervirology, 30(4):181-186

CABI/EPPO, 2004. Broad bean wilt virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 925. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Chang MU; Chung JD, 1987. Studies on viruses isolated from Lilium spp. in Korea. I. Broad bean wilt virus and cucumber mosaic virus. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 3(3):233-235

Chod J; Jokes M, 1986. Incidence of broad bean wilt virus on carrot (Daucus carota) in Czechoslovakia. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 22(4):241-248

Cooper JL, 1994. Fabaviruses. In: Webster RG, Granoff A, eds. Encyclopedia of Virology Vol. 1. London, UK: Academic Press, 451-454.

Davino M; Areddia R; Polizzi G; Grimaldi V, 1989. Observations on pitting in pepper fruit in Sicily. Difesa delle Piante, 12(1-2):65-73

Doel TR, 1975. Comparative properties of type, nasturtium ringspot and petunia ringspot strains of broad bean wilt virus. Journal of General Virology, 26(1):95-108

Edwardson JR; Christie RG, 1986. Fabaviruses In: CRC Handbook of Viruses Infecting Legumes. London, UK: CRC Press, 263-274.

Erkan S; Schlosser E, 1985. Virus diseases on lettuce in Turkey. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 92(2):127-131

Fischer HU, 1979. The identification and differentiation of virus infections of broad bean. Awamia, 57:41-72

Frowd JA; Tomlinson JA, 1972. Relationships between a parsley virus, nasturtium ringspot virus and broad bean wilt virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 72:189-195.

Gamal-Edlin AS; El Amrety AA; Mazyad HM; Rizkallah LR, 1982. Effects of bean yellow mosaic and broad bean wilt viruses on broad bean yield. Agricultural Research Review (Egypt), 60:195-204.

Gracia O; Gutierrez LS, 1982. Broad bean wilt virus in pepper crops in Argentina. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 21(2/3):107-109

Hagedorn DJ; Walker JC, 1949. Wisconsin pea streak. Phytopathology, 39:837-847.

Hull R; Plaskitt A, 1973. The in vivo behaviour of broad bean wilt virus and three of its strains. Intervirology, 2(5/6):352-359

Kim WS; Hagedorn DJ, 1959. Streak-inciting viruses of canning pea. Phytopathology, 49:656-664.

Kleinhempel H, 1991. On the aetiology of Helleborus ringspot disease. Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 27(5):415

Kwon SJ; Cho IS; Yoon JY; Choi SK; Choi GS, 2016. First report of Broad bean wilt virus 2 in Dioscorea opposita Thunb. in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(2):538. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Li GF; Wei MS; Ma J; Zhu SF, 2012. First report of Broad bean wilt virus 2 in Echinacea purpurea in China. Plant Disease, 96(8):1232. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Liang XY, 1986. Faba bean diseases in China. FABIS Newsletter, Faba Bean Information Service, ICARDA, No. 15:49-51; 5 ref.

Lisa V; Luisoni E; Boccardo G; Milne RG; Lovisolo O, 1982. Lamium mild mosaic virus: a virus distantly related to broad bean wilt. Annals of Applied Biology, 100(3):467-476

Lockhart BEL; Betzold JA, 1982. Broad bean wilt virus in begonia in Minnesota. Plant Disease, 66(1):72-73

Makkouk KM; Kumari SG; Bos L, 1990. Broad bean wilt virus: host range, purification, serology, transmission characteristics, and occurrence in faba bean in West Asia and North Africa. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 96(5):291-300

Makkouk KM; Rizkallah L; Madkour M; El-Sherbeeny M; Kumari SG; Amriti AW; Sohl MB, 1994. Survey of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) for viruses in Egypt. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 33(3):207-211

Mali VR; Vyanjane NT; Ekbote AU, 1977. Petunia ringspot virus disease - a new record for India. Current Science, 46(16):567-568

Marrou J; Dutiel M; Leclant F; Cadilhac-Delecolle B; Esva C, 1976. Mise en evidence du virus du fletrissement de la feve Broad Bean Wilt (BBWV) dans des laitues presentant des symptomes de marbrure. Annales de Phytopathologie, 8:461.

Mehle N; Znidaric MT; Tornos T; Ravnikar M, 2008. First report of Broad bean wilt virus 1 in Slovenia. Plant Pathology, 57(2):395. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01673.x

Migliori A; Gillet H; Fouville D; Marzin H, 1989. Viruses infecting Japanese artichoke. Phytoma, No. 408:12-14

Migliori A; Homo E; Corre J; Marzin H; Legal V; Curvale JP, 1987. Distribution, frequency and harmfulness of viruses of globe artichoke in Brittany. Revue Horticole, No. 274:29-36

Mouhanna AM; Makkouk KM; Ismail ID, 1994. Survey of virus diseases of wild and cultivated legumes in the coastal region of Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 12(1):12-19

Murphy FA; Fauquet CM; Bishop DHL; Ghabriel SA; Jarvis AV; Martelli GP; Mayo MA; Summers MD, 1995. Virus taxonomy, classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplement 10. Vienna, Austria/New York, USA: Springer Verlag.

Nawrocka BZ; Eckenrode CJ; Uyemoto JK; Young DH, 1975. Reflective mulches and foliar sprays for suppression of aphid-borne viruses in lettuce. Journal of Economic Entomology, 68(5):694-698

Novak JB; Lanzova J, 1977. Serological demonstration of broad bean wilt virus in the leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. esculenta (Salisb.) Guerke) and three further host plants in Czechoslovakia. Ochrana Rostlin, 13(3/4):223/229

Ochoa-Corona FM; Tang J; Lebas BSM; Rubio L; Gera A; Alexander BJR, 2010. Diagnosis of Broad bean wilt virus 1 and Verbena latent virus in Tropaeolum majus in New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology, 39(2):120-124. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm

Panno S; Ferriol I; Rangel EA; Olmos A; Han ChengGui; Martinelli F; Rubio L; Davino S, 2014. Detection and identification of Fabavirus species by one-step RT-PCR and multiplex RT-PCR. Journal of Virological Methods, 197:77-82. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01660934

Parvin S; Izadpanah K, 1978. Broadbean wilt virus - identification, host range and distribution in the Fars province of Iran. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(2):81-90

Polak I, 1981. Studies of virus diseases of sugar beet and its resistance to these diseases in Czechoslovakia. Principles of plant resistance to diseases and pests. Res. Inst. Plant Protection Bucharest Romania, 9-12

Provvidenti R, 1988. Inheritance of resistance to broad bean wilt virus in bean. HortScience, 23(5):895-896

Provvidenti R; Robinson RW; Shail JW, 1984. Incidence of broad bean wilt virus in lettuce in New York State and sources of resistance. HortScience, 19(4):569-570

Putz C; Kuszala M, 1973. Two new viruses on broad bean in France. I. Identification and evaluation of their economic importance. Annales de Phytopathologie, 5(4):447-460

Qing Ling; Bao LingYun; Zhou ChangYong; Yang ShuiYing; Sun XianChao, 2010. ELISA detection of infectious pathogenic viruses and variation of CMV from squash in Chongqing. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 37(3):405-412. http://yyxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Rist DL; Lorbeer JW, 1989. Occurrence and overwintering of cucumber mosaic virus and broad bean wilt virus in weeds growing near commercial lettuce fields in New York. Phytopathology, 79(1):65-69

Rist DL; Lorbeer JW, 1991. Relationships of weed reservoirs of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and broad bean wilt virus (BBWV) to CMV and BBWV in commercial lettuce field in New York. Phytopathology, 81(4):367-371

Rubio-Huertos M, 1959. Nota previa sobre un virus de tipo 'ringspot' encontrado en Petunia hybrida Vilm. Microbiologia Espanola, 12:325-327.

Saric A; Stefanac Z; Wrischer M, 1984. Two rare types of particle aggregates in infections caused by a Yugoslavian isolate of broad bean wilt virus. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 23(1):88-90

Schmelzer K, 1960. Untersuchungen uber das Ringmosaik-Virus der Kapuzinerkresse. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten, Pflanzenpathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 67:193.

Schmelzer K, 1975. Tobacco rattle and broad bean wilt viruses on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 11(2):169-170

Schmidt HE, 1981. The diagnosis of viruses of legume crops in German Democratic Republic as a prerequisite for breeding broad bean (Vicia faba L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), pea (Pisum sp.) and lupin (Lupinus sp.) for resistance to virus diseases. Principles of plant resistance to diseases and pests. Res. Inst. Plant Protection Bucharest Romania, 25-33

Schroeder WT; Provvidenti R, 1970. A destructive blight of Spinacea oleracea incited by a strain of broad bean wilt virus. Phytopathology, 60:1405-1406.

Selassie-Gebre K; Marchoux G; Quiot JB, 1976. A method of identifying broad bean wilt virus (BBWV) isolated from Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi. Annales de Phytopathologie, 8(3):331-342

Seo JK; Shin OJ; Kwak HR; Kim MK; Choi HS; Lee SH; Kim JS, 2014. First report of Broad bean wilt virus 2 in Leonurus sibiricus in Korea. Plant Disease, 98(12):1748-1749. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Shong RH; Pu ZQ, 1991. Studies of Taizhisheng (Pseudostellaria heterophylla) virus diseases. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 7(2):80-85

Shukla DD; Gough KH, 1983. Tobacco streak, broad bean wilt, cucumber mosaic, and alfalfa mosaic viruses associated with ring spot of Ajuga reptans in Australia. Plant Disease, 67(2):221-224

Smith KM, 1949. A new virus disease of Tropaeolum and other plants. The Gardeners Chronicle, 125:160.

Smith KM, 1950. Some new virus diseases of ornamental plants. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 75:350-353.

Stubbs LL, 1947. A destructive vascular wilt virus disease of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) in Victoria. Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, 46:323-332.

Stubbs LL, 1960. Aphid transmission of broad bean wilt virus and comparative transmission efficiency of three vector species. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 11:723.

Su JY; Xia JK; Pu ZQ, 1989. Feeding and dispersal behaviour of Myzus persicae and Aphis craccivora related to BBWV transmission. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(4):39-45

Sui C; Wei JH; Zhan QQ; Zhang J, 2009. First report of Broad bean wilt virus 2 infecting Bupleurum chinense in China. Plant Disease, 93(8):844. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Tadesse N; Ali K; Gorfu D; Yusuf A; Abraham A; Ayalew M; Lencho A; Makkouk KM; Kumari SG, 1999. Survey for chickpea and lentil virus diseases in Ethiopia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 38(3):149-158; 23 ref.

Taylor RH; Stubbs LL, 1972. Broad bean wilt virus. CMI/AAB Description of Plant Viruses No. 81, 4 pp.

Uyemoto JK; Provvidenti R, 1974. Isolation and identification of two serotypes of broad bean wilt virus. Phytopathology, 64(12):1547-1548

Wang SB; Pu ZQ, 1993. Identification of celery staple viruses in Nanjing. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 9(3):76-82

Weidemann HL; Lesemann D; Paul HL; Koenig R, 1975. Broad bean wilt virus as the cause of a new yellows disease of spinach in Germany. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 84(3):215-221

Xu ZG; Cockbain AJ; Woods RD; Govier DA, 1988. The serological relationships and some other properties of isolates of broad bean wilt virus from faba bean and pea in China. Annals of Applied Biology, 113(2):287-296

Yamashita K, 1990. Mosaic diseases occurred on gentian and prairie gentian in Aomori Prefecture. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 41:80-82

Yankulova M; Kaitazova P, 1979. Broad bean wilt virus - a new virus on pepper in Bulgaria. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 16(4):48-57

Distribution References

Akanda A M, Tsuno K, Wakimoto S, 1991. Serodiagnosis of viruses infecting some crops of Bangladesh. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 35 (3-4), 121-129.

Al-Musa A M, Al-Haj H A, Monayer L O, 1986. Light and electron microscopy of the Jordanian isolate of broad bean wilt virus. Dirasat. 13 (8), 57-62.

Bailiss K W, Brunt A A, Dale W T, 1975. The natural occurrence of broad bean wilt virus in rhizomatous iris and spinach. Plant Pathology. 24 (1), 60-61.

Breman L L, Brown L G, Scott S W, Christie R G, 1995. First report of broan bean wilt fabavirus in Florida. Plant Disease. 79 (10), 1075.

CABI, EPPO, 2004. Broad bean wilt virus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 925.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chang M U, Chung J D, 1987. Studies on viruses isolated from Lilium spp. in Korea. I. Broad bean wilt virus and cucumber mosaic virus. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology. 3 (3), 233-235.

Chod J, Jokeš M, 1986. Incidence of broad bean wilt virus on carrot (Daucus carota) in Czechoslovakia. (Vyskyt viru vadnutí bobu na mrkvi (Daucus carota) v ČSSR.). Sborník ÚVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin. 22 (4), 241-248.

Davino M, Areddia R, Polizzi G, Grimaldi V, 1989. Observations on pitting in pepper fruit in Sicily. (Osservazioni su una butteratura delle bacche di peperone in Sicilia.). Difesa delle Piante. 12 (1-2), 65-73.

Erkan S, Schlösser E, 1985. Virus diseases on lettuce in Turkey. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 92 (2), 127-131.

Gracia O, Gutiérrez L S, 1982. Broad bean wilt virus in pepper crops in Argentina. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 21 (2/3), 107-109.

Kleinhempel H, 1991. On the aetiology of Helleborus ringspot disease. (Zur Ätiologie der Christrosen-Ringfleckigkeit.). Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz. 27 (5), 415.

Kwon S J, Cho I S, Yoon J Y, Choi S K, Choi G S, 2016. First report of Broad bean wilt virus 2 in Dioscorea opposita Thunb. in Korea. Plant Disease. 100 (2), 538. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0752-PDN

Li G F, Wei M S, Ma J, Zhu S F, 2012. First report of Broad bean wilt virus 2 in Echinacea purpurea in China. Plant Disease. 96 (8), 1232. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-12-0409-PDN

Liang X Y, 1986. Faba bean diseases in China. FABIS Newsletter, Faba Bean Information Service, ICARDA. 49-51.

Lockhart B E L, Betzold J A, 1982. Broad bean wilt virus in begonia in Minnesota. Plant Disease. 66 (1), 72-73. DOI:10.1094/PD-66-72

Makkouk K M, Kumari S G, Bos L, 1990. Broad bean wilt virus: host range, purification, serology, transmission characteristics, and occurrence in faba bean in West Asia and North Africa. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology. 96 (5), 291-300. DOI:10.1007/BF02000170

Makkouk K M, Rizkallah L, Madkour M, El-Sherbeeny M, Kumari S G, Amriti A W, Sohl M B, 1994. Survey of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) for viruses in Egypt. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 33 (3), 207-211.

Mali V R, Vyanjane N T, Ekbote A U, 1977. Petunia ringspot virus disease - a new record for India. Current Science. 46 (16), 567-568.

Mehle N, Žnidarič M T, Tornos T, Ravnikar M, 2008. First report of Broad bean wilt virus 1 in Slovenia. Plant Pathology. 57 (2), 395. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01673.x DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01673.x

Migliori A, Gillet H, Fouville D, Marzin H, 1989. Viruses infecting Japanese artichoke. (Le point sur les virus du crosne du Japon.). Phytoma. 12-14.

Migliori A, Homo E, Corre J, Marzin H, Legal V, Curvale J P, 1987. Distribution, frequency and harmfulness of viruses of globe artichoke in Brittany. (Répartition, fréquence et nuisibilité des virus chez l'artichaut en Bretagne.). Revue Horticole. 29-36.

Mouhanna A M, Makkouk K M, Ismail I D, 1994. Survey of virus diseases of wild and cultivated legumes in the coastal region of Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection. 12 (1), 12-19.

Ochoa-Corona F M, Tang J, Lebas B S M, Rubio L, Gera A, Alexander B J R, 2010. Diagnosis of Broad bean wilt virus 1 and Verbena latent virus in Tropaeolum majus in New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology. 39 (2), 120-124. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm DOI:10.1071/AP09070

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