Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bauhinia purpurea
(purple bauhinia)

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Datasheet

Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bauhinia purpurea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • purple bauhinia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. purpurea is a fast-growing tree that has a wide natural distribution range and has been introduced worldwide. This species has escaped from cultivation and has successfully established in a wide variety of h...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleAvenue trees
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Avenue trees©K.M. Siddiqui
TitleNursery seedlings
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Nursery seedlings©K.M. Siddiqui
TitleWhole seedling
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Whole seedling©K.M. Siddiqui
A branchlet of B. purpurea with flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionA branchlet of B. purpurea with flowers.
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
A branchlet of B. purpurea with flowers.
FlowersA branchlet of B. purpurea with flowers.©K.M. Siddiqui
TitlePods
Caption
Copyright©K.M. Siddiqui
Pods©K.M. Siddiqui

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bauhinia purpurea L.

Preferred Common Name

  • purple bauhinia

Other Scientific Names

  • Bauhinia castrata Blanco
  • Bauhinia coromandeliana DC.
  • Bauhinia platyphylla Zipp. ex Span.
  • Bauhinia purpurea var. corneri de Wit
  • Bauhinia purpurea var. violacea de Wit
  • Bauhinia rosea Corner
  • Bauhinia triandra Roxb.
  • Bauhinia violacea Corner
  • Caspareopsis purpurea (L.) Pittier
  • Phanera purpurea (L.) Benth.

International Common Names

  • English: butterfly tree; camel's foot tree; geranium tree; Hong Kong orchid tree; orchid tree; orchidtree; pink butterfly tree; purple butterfly tree; purple camel's foot; purple orchid tree
  • Spanish: bauhinia roja; gorro de Napoleón; mariposa; palo de orquídeas; pie de cabra
  • French: arbre à orchidées; fleurs pourpres
  • Chinese: yang ti jia

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: bauhinia; orquídea silvestre; puente de mono
  • India: baswanpada; chambali; devakanchan; kachan; kanchan; kanchivala; kaniar; karar; keolav; khairwal; kolia; kota; kurial; manmadarai; raktakanchan; sono; survannamansaran
  • Malaysia: tapak kuda
  • Nepal: tanki
  • Pakistan: kachan; karar; khairwal
  • Philippines: alibangbang
  • Thailand: sieo dok daen; sieowaan

EPPO code

  • BAUPU (Bauhinia purpurea)

Trade name

  • kachan
  • karar
  • khairwal

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. purpurea is a fast-growing tree that has a wide natural distribution range and has been introduced worldwide. This species has escaped from cultivation and has successfully established in a wide variety of habitats (Connor, 2001; PIER 2015). Once established, it grows displacing native vegetation (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). In this species, seeds form very rapidly and mature trees may show numerous pods (Orwa et al., 2009). Additionally, high germination rates (~ 99%) have been recorded for this species when seeds were placed in moist conditions (Connor, 2001). Currently, B. purpurea is listed as invasive in Cuba, Fiji, New Caledonia and Western Samoa (MacKee, 1994; Space & Flynn, 2002; Smith, 1985; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2015). According to the IFAS Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas (Fox et al., 2008), B. purpurea is invasive and not recommended in Florida.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
  •                                 Genus: Bauhinia
  •                                     Species: Bauhinia purpurea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants. Fabaceae includes about 745 genera and 19,500 species which can be found throughout the world growing in a great variety of climates and environments (Stevens, 2012). Bauhinia is listed within the tribe Cercideae in the Caesalpinoideae subfamily. This genus comprises about 250 species of trees, lianas, and shrubs distributed principally in tropical and temperate regions of the world (Connor, 2001; Stevens, 2012). Bauhinia species are frequently planted as ornamentals for their showy flowers and foliage (Connor, 2001). 

Bauhinia was named by Linnaeus in honour of Jean (1541-1613) and Gaspard (1560-1624) Bauhin, who were Swiss botanists. The two lobes of the leaf exemplify the two brothers. The specific name refers to the purple colour of the flowers (Orwa et al., 2009).

Description

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The following description comes from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015):

Trees or erect shrubs, 7-10 m tall. Bark grayish to dark brownish, thick, smooth; branches puberulent when young, later glabrous. Petiole 3-4 cm; leaf blade suborbicular, 10-15 × 9-14 cm, stiffly papery, abaxially almost glabrous, adaxially glabrous, primary veins 9-11, secondary and higher order veins protruding, base shallowly cordate, apex bifid to 1/3-1/2, lobes slightly acute or rarely rounded at apex. Inflorescence a raceme with few flowers, or a panicle with up to 20 flowers, axillary or terminal. Flower buds fusiform, 4- or 5-ridged, with an obtuse apex. Pedicel 7-12 mm. Calyx open as a spathe into 2 lobes, one with 2 teeth and other 3-toothed. Petals light pink, oblan­ceolate, 4-5 cm, clawed. Fertile stamens 3; filaments ca. as long as petals. Staminodes 5 or 6, 6-10 mm. Ovary stalked, velvety; style curved; stigma slightly enlarged, peltate. Legume linear, flat, 12-25 × 2-2.5 cm; valves woody. Seeds compressed, sub­orbicular, 12-15 mm in diameter.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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B. purpurea is native to southern and southeastern Asia, although the extent of the native distribution varies between authorities. The Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015) suggests that it is probably only native from Nepal through continental monsoon Asia (i.e., Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam), while Orwa et al. (2009) list it as also native to Indonesia, Japan and Taiwan. It has been actively planted as an ornamental in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and now it can be found naturalized in North America, Central America, the West Indies, Africa, and on islands in the Indian and Pacific Ocean (Orwa et al., 2009; ILDIS, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009; Contu, 2012
BhutanPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009; Contu, 2012
CambodiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
ChinaPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009; Contu, 2012South China
-AnhuiPresentNativeContu, 2012
-FujianPresentIntroducedContu, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as ornamental
-GansuPresentNativeContu, 2012
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedContu, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as ornamental
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedContu, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as ornamental
-GuizhouPresentNativeContu, 2012
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as ornamental
-HebeiPresentNativeContu, 2012
-HeilongjiangPresentNativeContu, 2012
-HenanPresentNativeContu, 2012
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
-HubeiPresentNativeContu, 2012
-HunanPresentNativeContu, 2012
-JiangsuPresentNativeContu, 2012
-JiangxiPresentNativeContu, 2012
-JilinPresentNativeContu, 2012
-LiaoningPresentNativeContu, 2012
-NingxiaPresentNativeContu, 2012
-ShaanxiPresentNativeContu, 2012
-ShandongPresentNativeContu, 2012
-ShanxiPresentNativeContu, 2012
-SichuanPresentNativeContu, 2012
-YunnanPresentIntroducedContu, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as ornamental
-ZhejiangPresentNativeContu, 2012
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativeContu, 2012
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNativeContu, 2012
-AssamPresentNativeContu, 2012
-BiharPresentNativeContu, 2012
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentNativeContu, 2012
-DamanPresentNativeContu, 2012
-DelhiPresentNativeContu, 2012
-DiuPresentNativeContu, 2012
-GoaPresentNativeContu, 2012
-GujaratPresentNativeContu, 2012
-HaryanaPresentNativeContu, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeContu, 2012
-Indian PunjabPresentNativeContu, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNativeContu, 2012
-KarnatakaPresentNativeContu, 2012
-KeralaPresentNativeContu, 2012
-MaharashtraPresentNativeContu, 2012
-ManipurPresentNativeContu, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentNativeContu, 2012
-MizoramPresentNativeContu, 2012
-NagalandPresentNativeContu, 2012
-OdishaPresentNativeContu, 2012
-RajasthanPresentNativeContu, 2012
-SikkimPresentNativeContu, 2012
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeContu, 2012
-TripuraPresentNativeContu, 2012
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeContu, 2012
-West BengalPresentNativeContu, 2012
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009; ILDIS, 2015
IraqPresentIntroducedContu, 2012
JapanPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
LaosPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
MalaysiaPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009; ILDIS, 2015
MyanmarPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
PhilippinesPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
SingaporePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015Cultivated
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
TaiwanPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as ornamental
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
VietnamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017
EgyptPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
KenyaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
MadagascarPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
MalawiPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
MauritiusPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
NigeriaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
RéunionPresentIntroducedLavergne, 2006
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
South AfricaPresentIntroducedContu, 2012
UgandaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
ZambiaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2015

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015Chiapas, Puebla, Tuxtlas, Tamaulipas, Veracruz
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedImada et al., 2013Cultivated
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
PanamaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015Naturalized
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007

South America

VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008Naturalized in Aragua, Carabobo, Amacuro, Lara, Miranda, Esparta and Sucre

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2000Cultivated
AustraliaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013Cultivated
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1985
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2013Cultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedHerrera et al., 2010
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
PalauPresentIntroducedSpace et al., 2009Cultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2015
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedHancock and Henderson, 1988Cultivated

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of B. purpurea is moderate to high, principally in areas near cultivation. This species has been actively introduced to be used as an ornamental and produces seeds that are dispersed by wind, water, and by humans. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and successfully established and naturalized in natural and disturbed areas throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Connor, 2001; Orwa et al., 2009). 

Habitat

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B. purpurea grows in tropical and subtropical climates. It can be found growing in many vegetation types such as evergreen lowland rainforests, mountain forests, savanna, scrublands, dry deciduous forests and swamp forests on various soils (Contu, 2012). It can also grow in disturbed areas, secondary forest, along roadsides and in gardens, parks, and disturbed sites near urban areas (PROTA, 2015). In the West Indies (i.e., Puerto Rico and Cuba), B. purpurea grows in areas that annually receive at least 1500 to 2500 mm of rainfall, with well-drained and moist soils (Connor, 2001). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for B. purpurea is 2n = 28 (Kumari and Bir, 1989).

Physiology and Phenology

B. purpurea is a fast-growing, small tree to medium sized evergreen shrub, reaching 7.6 m in height and 17.8 cm in diameter. It can reach a height of 4.6 m in less than 2 years. Trees start flowering at a very early age of 2-3 years and yield viable seeds (Connor, 2001; Orwa et al., 2009).

In China, B. purpurea produces flowers from September to November and fruits from February to March (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In other Asiatic areas, it flowers from September to November when the plant is leafless and the seed ripens between February and May, with a tendency to be later in the west than in eastern Asia (Orwa et al., 2009).

Environmental Requirements

B. purpurea grows at elevations from about 500 to 2000 (-3000) metres. It prefers to grow in moist areas with mean annual temperature ranging from 12 to 21ºC and mean annual rainfall between 1000 and 5000 mm. It grows on a variety of sandy, loamy and gravelly soils in full sun in fertile, moisture-retentive but well-drained soils (Orwa et al., 2009). It demands plenty of light and requires good drainage. Severe frost kills the leaves of seedlings and saplings. The species is frost-hardy but less drought-hardy than other species of Bauhinia, though flowers best on dry soils (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 5 500 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1 10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 21
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 43
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 7 11

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration46number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10005000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Within its native distribution range, borers, mites and larvae of several insects feed on this plant species. Leaf spot and leaf scorch are the two diseases reported for B. purpurea.  It is also susceptible to the viruses Clitoria yellow vein virus and Turnip rosette virus (Orwa et al., 2009).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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B. purpurea spreads by seeds. The seeds disperse from the pods and germinate on sites with favourable light and moisture conditions, while in unfavourable niches the radicle dries up (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized along roadsides Yes Yes MacKee, 1994
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Garden waste disposalOften grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Ornamental purposesPlanted for showy flowers Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesOften planted as ornamental Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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B. purpurea is very fast growing with the potential to invade and displace native vegetation (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2015). It is now invading insular forests in Cuba, New Caledonia, Fiji, and Western Samoa (MacKee, 1994; Space and Flynn, 2002; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2015).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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B. purpurea is primarily cultivated as an ornamental shrub and for erosion control. The leaves and flowers are used as fodder. This species has also medical uses such as a febrifugal, antidiarrhoeal and antidysenteric remedy and it is also used as an astringent. The bark is used for dyeing and tanning (Contu, 2012). The wood is used for making agricultural implements and for fuel (Connor, 2001; Orwa et al., 2009). 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Dyestuffs
  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Pesticide
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Wood Products

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Pulp

  • Short-fibre pulp

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For light construction

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. purpurea looks similar to Bauhinia monandra and B. variegata. All these species have been listed as naturalized and invasive in many tropical and subtropical countries. These three Bauhinia species can be distinguished by the following differences (Weeds of Australia, 2015):

  • Bauhinia variegata is a small tree with relatively large leaves (up to 15 cm wide). Its flowers vary from entirely white to various shades of pink or purple with darker pink or reddish-purple markings and have five fertile stamens.
  • Bauhinia monandra is a small tree with relatively large leaves (up to 20 cm wide). Its flowers are pale pink or whitish with darker pink or reddish-purple markings and have a single fertile stamen.
  • Bauhinia purpurea is a small tree with relatively large leaves (up to 20 cm wide). Its flowers vary from pale purple to bright pinkish-purple and have three fertile stamens.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ali MS, Saikia UN, Ahmed N, 1996. Coelomycetes of Assam - III. Indian Phytopathology, 49(3):238-242

Ali SI, 1973. Flora of Pakistan. Caesalpiniaceae. Karachi, Pakistan: University of Karachi

Amara DS, Mansaray SD, 1989. Fast-growing trees for agroforestry in Sierra Leone. Trees for development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Proceedings of a regional seminar held by the International Foundation for Science (IFS), ICRAF House, Nairobi, Kenya, February 20-25, 1989., 58-65; 11 ref

Amatya SM, Lindley DK, 1992. Sample size estimation for fodder biomass yields in Nepal. Banko Janakari, 3(3):21-23; 2 ref

Anil Kumar, Ramakrishnan PS, 1989. Ecological implications of some cash crop ecosystems in north-eastern India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Plant Sciences, 99(3):211-221; 29 ref

Anjani Kumar, 1992. Micropropagation of a mature leguminous tree - Bauhinia purpurea. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 31(3):257-259; [3 pl.]; 11 ref

Balakrishna M, Bhattacharjee SK, 1991. Studies on propagation of ornamental trees, through stem cuttings. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 48(1):87-94; 14 ref

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Connor KF, 2001. Bauhinia purpurea. In: Tropical Tree Seed Manual [ed. by Vozzo, J. A.]. Washington, USA: USDA Forest Service, 329-331. [Agriculture Handbook 721.]

Contu S, 2012. Bauhinia purpurea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T19891953A20027617.en

Das GP, 1990. Biology of Dasychira mendosa Hubner (Lymantriidae: Lepidoptera) polyphagous pest in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 18(2):147-156

Devarnavadagi SB, Murthy BG, 1995. Performance of different tree species on eroded soils of northern dry zone of Karnataka. Advances in Agricultural Research in India, 4: 73-77

Dhyani SK, Chauhan DS, 1990. Nitrogen fixing trees suitable for agro-forestry in Meghalaya. Indian Journal of Hill Farming, 3(2):65-68

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fox AM, Gordon DR, Dusky JA, Tyson L, Stocker RK, 2008. IFAS Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas: Status Assessment. http://assessment.ifas.ufl.edu/assessments/

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilization. New Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH

Gupta RK, Agarwal MC, Nirmal Kumar, 1996. Effect of lopping intensities on growth and biomass production of Bauhinia purpurea L. in north-west Himalaya low hill region. Indian Forester, 122(5):396-403; 15 ref

Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp

Hussain A, Ranjha AM, Sharar MS, Ghaffar A, 1990. Release of nitrogen during decomposition of legume tree leaves. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 8: 51-53; 8 ref

ILDIS, 2015. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Imada CT, Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2013. Annotated Checklist of Cultivated Plants of Hawaii. http://nsdb.bishopmuseum.org/

Jim CY, 1991. Diversity of amenity-tree species in Hong Kong. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 85(4):233-243

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01/12/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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