Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cynodon nlemfuensis
(African Bermuda-grass)

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Datasheet

Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cynodon nlemfuensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • African Bermuda-grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. nlemfuensis is a long-lived perennial grass widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a fast-growing C4 grass that spreads mostly vegetatively (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); habit. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); habit. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); habit. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
HabitCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); habit. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); habit, showing runners. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); habit, showing runners. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); habit, showing runners. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
HabitCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); habit, showing runners. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); seedhead. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); seedhead. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); seedhead. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
SeedheadCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass); seedhead. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

Preferred Common Name

  • African Bermuda-grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Cynodon parodii Caro & E.A. Sanchez

International Common Names

  • English: Bermuda-grass; Rhodesian star grass; robust star grass; star grass
  • Spanish: estrella Africana; estrella comun; estrella morada; grama estrella; pasto estrella; yerba estrella

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: estela-africana
  • Costa Rica: Bermuda; grama Bermuda; hawaiiano; hierba bermuda; pasto Bermuda
  • Cuba: hierba de la Bermuda
  • Indonesia: rumput bintang
  • Kenya: Nakuru grass
  • Nigeria: giant star grass
  • Puerto Rico: estrella
  • Thailand: ya-sata
  • USA: Bermuda grass

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. nlemfuensis is a long-lived perennial grass widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a fast-growing C4 grass that spreads mostly vegetatively (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002). It rapidly colonizes new areas and grows forming dense mats. As in many other African grasses, this species has the potential to alter ecosystem functions by altering fire regimes, hydrological cycles, biophysical dynamics, nutrient cycles, and community composition (D’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992). C. nlemfuensis is well-adapted to drought conditions and plants are very persistent once they are established (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002). The species has the capability to easily re-sprout from stolons and rooted runners. Plants also recover quickly after fire (Cook et al., 2005).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Cynodon
  •                                 Species: Cynodon nlemfuensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Species in the genus Cynodon are described as large, robust, deep-rooted, and non-rhizomatous grasses. The species C. nlemfuensis has two distinct varieties:

  • C. nlemfuensis var. nlemfuensis
  • C. nlemfuensis var. robusta 

C. nlemfuensisvar. nlemfuensis differs from the variety robusta in having shorter inflorescence branches (2-7(up to 10) cm rather than 6-10 cm) and thinner culms (1-1.5 mm rather than 2-5 mm) (Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013).

Description

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Perennial, mat forming, stoloniferous, not rhizomatous grass. Stolons stout, woody, usually lying flat on the ground. Culms 20-60 cm tall, 1-5 mm thick, not becoming woody. Sheaths glabrous; ligules about 0.3 mm, membranous, ciliolate; blades 5-16 cm long, 2-6 mm wide, abaxial surfaces glabrous or with scattered long hairs, adaxial surfaces with scattered long hairs. Panicles with 4-13 branches; branches (2) 4-7 (10) cm, in 1(-3) whorls, lax, usually green, axes triquetrous. Spikelets 2-3 mm. Lower glumes 1.7-2 mm; upper glumes 1.5-2.3(3) mm; lemmas 1.9-2.9 mm, keels not winged, shortly pubescent, at least distally; paleas glabrous. Fruits are caryopses with adherent pericarp (Barkworth et al., 2003).

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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C. nlemfuensis is native to Africa including Angola, Congo Democratic Republic, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe (Cook et al., 2005; Clayton et al., 2013). The variety nlemfuensis occurs mainly in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania with small outliers in the Congo Democratic Republic and Ethiopia and the variety robusta has a similar base with more representation in Ethiopia and eastern Congo Democratic Republic (FAO, 2013). The species is widely naturalized in both tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Clayton et al., 2013; PIER, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
BeninPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
BurundiPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
EswatiniPresentIntroducedZPD (2013)Listed as 'minor problem species'
EthiopiaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
GhanaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
KenyaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
MalawiPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
RwandaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
SomaliaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)Potentially invasive
SudanPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
TanzaniaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
UgandaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
ZambiaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)
ZimbabwePresentNativeClayton et al. (2013)

Asia

PhilippinesPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)

North America

BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al. (2000)
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGonzález-Torres et al. (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
HaitiPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
HondurasPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia (2004)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveMás and García-Molinari (2006)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen (2012)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)
-TexasPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)Weed
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
NiuePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
BoliviaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Soreng et al. (2003)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFilgueiras (2013)Naturalised
ColombiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
EcuadorPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedLaegaard and Pozo García (2004)Potentially invasive in the Galapagos Islands
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)

History of Introduction and Spread

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The date of the initial introduction of C. nlemfuensis into new habitats is uncertain, but most likely it occurred in the mid-1800s (Harlan, 1970). By the mid-1900s C. nlemfuensis had been introduced into the United States and tropical America. In Puerto Rico, it was introduced in 1957 by the USDA Experimental Agriculture Station (Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006). In recent times, several cultivars of this species have been evaluated and intentionally released in Queensland (1976), Nigeria (1979), Florida (1988), and Puerto Rico (1988; Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. nlemfuensis is high. This grass has been intentionally introduced repeatedly in tropical and subtropical regions to be used as a forage and silage crop. It has escaped from cultivation into natural areas, where it rapidly colonizes new areas forming dense mats which are very difficult to control because plants easily re-sprout from remnant stolons and rooted runners (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002; Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013).

Habitat

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C. nlemfuensis occurs in disturbed areas in grassland, cattle paddocks, pastures, and along roadsides mostly in wet and moist habitats (Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013). This species does not tolerate prolonged flooding or shaded conditions, but can survive waterlogging for 2-3 days. C. nlemfuensis is well adapted to drought but its growth rates are reduced during periods of moisture stress (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002; Cook et al., 2005).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. nlemfuensis is mostly 2n = 18 and rarely 2n = 36 (Barkworth et al., 2003; Cook et al., 2005).

Reproductive Biology

Evidence available suggests that C. nlemfuensis may be an outcrossing species and that flowers are probably wind-pollinated (Cook et al., 2005).

Physiology and Phenology

C. nlemfuensis is a perennial fast-growing grass (Barkworth et al., 2003). In South Africa, it has been recorded flowering from January to March, but in tropical America it can flower all year long (Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006). Fruit and seed production is very poor outside its native distribution range (Cook et al., 2005).

Associations

In actively managed pastures C. nlemfuensis is often intercropped with low-growing legumes to improve forage quality and reduce the harmful effects of its prussic acid content. Good results are reported with Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema pubescens, Trifolium repens, and Lotononis bainesii. In Brazil, C. nlemfuensis has been intercropped with Arachis pintoi (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002). 

Environmental Requirements

C. nlemfuensis is limited to lower elevations with an average annual rainfall between about 600 and 3000 mm (commonly 800-1200 mm) and to areas where temperatures do not fall below -4°C (Cook et al., 2005; PROTA4U, 2013). Within its native distribution range, it occurs from sea level up to 2300 m elevation, representing a range in average annual temperature from about 20 to 27ºC (Cook et al., 2005). C. nlemfuensis grows on a wide range of soil types ranging from sands to heavy clays, although it performs best in moist, well-drained, lighter textured soils. It is adapted to soils with a pH between about 4.5 and 8, but ideally between about 5.5 and 7. It does not tolerate salty or shaded conditions, but is well adapted to drought (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002; Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
15 15

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -4
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 27

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The major diseases affecting C. nlemfuensis are rust caused by Puccinia graminis, Puccinia cynodontis, and Helminthosporium. There are also records of leaf blight disease caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris during the rainy season, black choke on inflorescences and leaves caused by Ephelis sp., a smut caused by Ustilago cynodontis, and a spikelet disease caused by Fusarium spp. Several nematodes have been isolated from Cynodon grasses including:

  • stubby root nematode (Trichodorus)
  • spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus)
  • stealth nematode (Hemicycliophora)
  • ring nematode (Hemicriconemoides)
  • stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus)
  • awl nematode (Dolichodorus)
  • and lance nematode (Hoplalaimus)

Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and spittlebug (Prosapia bicinata) are the major insect pests (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002; Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. nlemfuensis spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stolons and root runners. However, seed production is very poor. When produced, seeds are wind-dispersed, but they can also be dispersed attached to animals and vehicles. Seeds may also be spread as a contaminant in agricultural produce (i.e., fodder, hay, and silage). Stolons and root runners may be broken off and dispersed to new locations by humans, wild animals, livestock and vehicles (Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionPastures, forage, hay, silage Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
DisturbancePlants escaped from cultivation often colonize disturbed areas Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
ForageWidely introduced in tropical regions Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Habitat restoration and improvementSometimes planted to control soil erosion Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Seed tradeSeeds are widely commercialized Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesFibrous - resilient stolens Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
LivestockSeeds, stolens Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Plants or parts of plantsSeeds are widely commercialized Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
WindSeeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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C. nlemfuensis is an aggressive grass that spreads through vegetative growth forming dense monospecific mats which completely out-compete native vegetation. It also has the potential to alter ecosystem functions by altering fire regimes, hydrological cycles, nutrient cycles, and community composition. The dense litter that accumulates beneath plants considerably reduces the probabilities of seedlings of native plants becoming established (Goldstein, 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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C. nlemfuensis is used as a forage and silage crop in its native Africa and throughout the tropics. This grass is also planted to control soil erosion and as a ground cover in agroforestry systems to preserve valuable topsoil on sloping fields (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002; Cook et al., 2005).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. nlemfuensis can be mistaken for Cynodon dactylon. However, C. nlemfuensis is less hardy, and unlike C. dactylon, it has no underground rhizomes (Smith and Valenzuela, 2002; Cook et al., 2005).

The two varieties can be distinguished based on the following information (Cook et al., 2005):

  • C. nlemfuensis var. nlemfuensis: Culms to about 40 cm tall, 1-1.5 mm diameter; leaf blades 2-5 mm wide; racemes 3-9, each 3.5-7 cm long.
  • C. nlemfuensis var. robusta: Culms to about 90 cm tall, 2-3 mm diameter; leaf blades 5-6 mm wide; racemes 6-13, each 6-11 mm long.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

A combination of manual and chemical methods is recommended for the management of large infestations of C. nlemfuensis. In the case of smaller infestations, plants can be cut out and all stolons must be removed. Larger infestations can be controlled by mowing the foliage and the aboveground segments of the grass. Burning is not recommended because fire can stimulate growth of new plants. Long-term control of treated areas is recommended. Re-sprouts can be sprayed with a foliar application of glyphosate (Goldstein, 2003).

References

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Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Barkworth ME; Capels KM; Long S; Piep MB, 2003. Cynodon. Flora of North America, volume 25. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/

Chacón E; Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Clayton WD; Govaerts R; Harman KT; Williamson H; Vorontsova M, 2013. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Cook B; Pengelly B; Brown S; Donnelly J; Eagle D; Franco A; Hanson J; Mullen B; Partridge I; Peters M; Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F (Qld), CIAT and ILRI. http://www.tropicalforages.info/

D'Antonio CM; Vitousek PM, 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global chance. Annual Review in Ecology and Systematics, 23:63-87.

FAO, 2013. Grassland Species Profiles. Detailed decription of more than 600 grassland species. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/GBASE/Default.htm

Filgueiras TS, 2013. Cynodon in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil ([English title not available]). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB111621

Goldstein L, 2003. Effectiveness of Late Growing Season Treatments on Four Species of Invasive Grasses at the Lousy 10. Florida, USA: Archbold Biological Station. http://www.archbold-station.org/station/html/linkpgs/invasivePlControl/exptrt.html

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Gould KW; Shaw RB, 1983. Grass Systematics. Second Edition., USA: Texas A&M University Press, 412 pp.

Harlan JR, 1970. Cynodon species and their value for grazing and hay. Herbage Abstracts, 40(3):233-238.

Laegaard S; Pozo García P, 2004. Invasive grasses in the Galapagos Islands. Lyonia [Papers presented at the 2nd Congress of Conservation of Biological and Cultural Diversity in the Andes and the Amazon Basin, Loja, Ecuador, 2003.], 6(2):171-175. http://www.lyonia.org/articles/volume_13/volume.pdf

Mas EG; Garcia-Molinari O, 2006. Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico (Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico)., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico and USDA-NRCS, 303.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Prota4U, 2013. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Smith J; Valenzuela H, 2002. Stargrass., USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR). [Sustainable Agriculture Cover Crops SA-CC-5.] http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/CoverCrops/stargrass.pdf

Soreng RJ; Davidse G; Peterson PM; Zuloaga FO; Judziewicz EJ; Filgueiras TS; Morrone O, 2014. Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae). http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CNWG

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA: Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2012. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu

ZPD, 2013. Swaziland's Alien Plants Database. http://www.sntc.org.sz/alienplants/index.asp

Distribution References

Anon, 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba). In: Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6 [ed. by González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palmarola A]. 1-140.

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85 1-246.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. [English title not available]. (Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica)., San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2013. World Checklist of Poaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Filgueiras TS, 2013. ([English title not available]). (Cynodon in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB111621

Laegaard S, Pozo García P, 2004. Invasive grasses in the Galapagos Islands. Lyonia. 6 (2), 171-175. http://www.lyonia.org/articles/volume_13/volume.pdf

Más EG, García-Molinari O, 2006. (Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico)., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico and USDA-NRCS. viii + 303 pp.

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii., Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA: Bishop Museum Press. 1919 pp.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2012. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu

ZPD, 2013. Swaziland's Alien Plants Database., http://www.sntc.org.sz/alienplants/index.asp

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
FAO Grassland species profileshttp://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/gbase/Default.htm
PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota4u.org/
Tropical Forages: An Interactive Selection Toolhttp://www.tropicalforages.info/
Tropicoshttp://www.tropicos.org/

Contributors

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10/01/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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