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infection with Perkinsus marinus

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infection with Perkinsus marinus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • infection with Perkinsus marinus
  • Overview
  • Perkinsus marinus is the causative agent of dermo disease in oysters; the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginia, is most susceptible. The parasite infects haemocytes and causes haemolytic anaemia and general degeneration of the ti...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Diagrammatic developmental cycle of Perkinsus marinus within living and dead Crassostrea virginica and free in the marine environment as adapted from Perkins (1996). Within the living oyster, immature trophozoites (a) grow and develop a cytoplasmic vacuole (b). Mature trophozoites (c) have a large eccentric vacuole containing a vacuoplast, thereby displacing the nucleus to the cell periphery (signet-ring stage). Palintomy (d, e) occurs and results in the formation of a schizont (e) from which the immature trophozoites (about four to 64 per schizont) escape through a tear in the wall. When the oyster dies and the tissue becomes anoxic, the mature trophozoite (c) develops into a large prezoosporangium (f). On liberation into the marine environment, the prezoosporangium develops a discharge tube (g) and undergoes palintomy (h), resulting in the formation of numerous biflagellated zoospores (i) capable of initiating a new infection.
TitleCycle of Perkinsus marinus
CaptionDiagrammatic developmental cycle of Perkinsus marinus within living and dead Crassostrea virginica and free in the marine environment as adapted from Perkins (1996). Within the living oyster, immature trophozoites (a) grow and develop a cytoplasmic vacuole (b). Mature trophozoites (c) have a large eccentric vacuole containing a vacuoplast, thereby displacing the nucleus to the cell periphery (signet-ring stage). Palintomy (d, e) occurs and results in the formation of a schizont (e) from which the immature trophozoites (about four to 64 per schizont) escape through a tear in the wall. When the oyster dies and the tissue becomes anoxic, the mature trophozoite (c) develops into a large prezoosporangium (f). On liberation into the marine environment, the prezoosporangium develops a discharge tube (g) and undergoes palintomy (h), resulting in the formation of numerous biflagellated zoospores (i) capable of initiating a new infection.
CopyrightSusan M. Bower
Diagrammatic developmental cycle of Perkinsus marinus within living and dead Crassostrea virginica and free in the marine environment as adapted from Perkins (1996). Within the living oyster, immature trophozoites (a) grow and develop a cytoplasmic vacuole (b). Mature trophozoites (c) have a large eccentric vacuole containing a vacuoplast, thereby displacing the nucleus to the cell periphery (signet-ring stage). Palintomy (d, e) occurs and results in the formation of a schizont (e) from which the immature trophozoites (about four to 64 per schizont) escape through a tear in the wall. When the oyster dies and the tissue becomes anoxic, the mature trophozoite (c) develops into a large prezoosporangium (f). On liberation into the marine environment, the prezoosporangium develops a discharge tube (g) and undergoes palintomy (h), resulting in the formation of numerous biflagellated zoospores (i) capable of initiating a new infection.
Cycle of Perkinsus marinusDiagrammatic developmental cycle of Perkinsus marinus within living and dead Crassostrea virginica and free in the marine environment as adapted from Perkins (1996). Within the living oyster, immature trophozoites (a) grow and develop a cytoplasmic vacuole (b). Mature trophozoites (c) have a large eccentric vacuole containing a vacuoplast, thereby displacing the nucleus to the cell periphery (signet-ring stage). Palintomy (d, e) occurs and results in the formation of a schizont (e) from which the immature trophozoites (about four to 64 per schizont) escape through a tear in the wall. When the oyster dies and the tissue becomes anoxic, the mature trophozoite (c) develops into a large prezoosporangium (f). On liberation into the marine environment, the prezoosporangium develops a discharge tube (g) and undergoes palintomy (h), resulting in the formation of numerous biflagellated zoospores (i) capable of initiating a new infection.Susan M. Bower

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • infection with Perkinsus marinus

International Common Names

  • English: "dermo" disease; dermo; dermo disease; dermo disease of oysters; perkinsosis; perkinsosis of oysters; proliferative disease

Overview

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Perkinsus marinus is the causative agent of dermo disease in oysters; the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginia, is most susceptible. The parasite infects haemocytes and causes haemolytic anaemia and general degeneration of the tissues. Infection is often fatal, depending on host and environmental conditions (Andrews, 1996; Burreson and Ragone Calvo, 1996). P. marinus has caused severe mortalities of C. virginica in the USA since 1950 (Burreson and Ragone Calvo, 1996; Smolowitz, 2013) and is also found in Mexico (Huicab-Pech et al., 2012). Ongoing research efforts are attempting to develop oysters resistant to the disease (reviewed by Smolowitz, 2013). ‘Infection with Perkinsus marinus’ is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Crassostrea ariakensis (Suminoe oyster)Experimental settingsAquatic|Adult
Crassostrea corteziensis (Cortez oyster)
Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster)Experimental settingsAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Broodstock; Aquatic|FryEnclosed systems/Ponds; Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds; Open water systems/Enhancements and culture-based fisheries (inc. ranching and stock enhacement); Open water systems/Hard substrate, bottom culture; Open water systems/Line/rope, column culture (buoyed or staked); Open water systems/Net, column culture (buoyed or staked); Open water systems/Rack, column culture; Open water systems/Raft, column culture; Open water systems/Soft substrate/sediment, bottom culture; Open water systems/Stake, column culture; Open water systems/Tray, column culture
Crassostrea rhizophorae (mangrove oyster)
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster)Domesticated host; Wild hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Broodstock; Aquatic|FryEnclosed systems/Cages; Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds; Enclosed systems/Tanks; Open water systems/Hard substrate, bottom culture; Open water systems/Line/rope, column culture (buoyed or staked); Open water systems/Net, column culture (buoyed or staked); Open water systems/Rack, column culture; Open water systems/Raft, column culture; Open water systems/Soft substrate/sediment, bottom culture; Open water systems/Stake, column culture; Open water systems/Tray, column culture

Hosts/Species Affected

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The Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is the most susceptible species; the Pacific oyster C. gigas and suminoe oyster, C. ariakensis, can be infected, but infections are usually light (Calvo et al., 1999; Calvo et al., 2001). Prevalence in the softshell clam, Mya arenaria, and Baltic macoma, M. balthica, in nature is less than 10% (Reece et al., 2008). Perkinsus marinus infection of the Cortez oyster, C. corteziensis, requires more study, but this host appears to be intermediate in susceptibility between C. virginica and C. gigas and C. ariakensis (Cáceres-Martínez et al., 2008).

Distribution

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P. marinus is found along the East coast of North America from Maine, USA to Campeche, Mexico. It has recently been introduced to the Pacific coast of Mexico (Cáceres-Martínez et al., 2008).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GhanaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
MauritiusAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MayotteAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
ChinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SpainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
United StatesPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Papua New GuineaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2020
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

References

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Andrews JD, 1996. History of Perkinsus marinus, a pathogen of oysters in Chesapeake Bay 1950-1984. Journal of Shellfish Research, 15(1):13-16.

Burreson EM; Ragone Calvo LM, 1996. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus disease of oysters in Chesapeake Bay, with emphasis on data since 1985. Journal of Shellfish Research, 15(1):17-34.

Cáceres-Martínez J; Vásquez-Yeomans R; Padilla-Lardizábal G; Portilla MAdel R, 2008. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 99(1):66-73. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJV-4S2F5V6-1&_user=6686535&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2008&_rdoc=12&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236888%232008%23999009998%23696660%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6888&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=21&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=2078e55e5fd8ec20e3c967b203e0cbe5

Calvo GW; Luckenbach MW; Allen SK Jr; Burreson EM, 1999. Comparative field study of Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) in relation to salinity in Virginia. Journal of Shellfish Research, 18(2):465-473.

Calvo GW; Luckenbach MW; Allen SKJr; Burreson EM, 2001. A comparative field study of Crassostrea ariakensis (Fujita 1913) and Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791) in relation to salinity in Virginia. Journal of Shellfish Research, 20(1):221-230.

Huicab-Pech ZG; Curiel-Ramírez S; Castañeda-Chávez M; Lango-Reynoso F; Carrillo-Alejandro P, 2012. Seasonal variation of Perkinsus marinus in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica from the Carmen-Machona-Pajonal lagoon system in Tabasco, Mexico. (Variación estacional de Perkinsus marinus en el ostión Americano Crassostrea virginica del sistema lagunar Carmen-Machona-Pajonal en Tabasco, México.) Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 15(Suppl. 2):S40-S50. http://www.veterinaria.uady.mx/ojs/index.php/TSA/article/view/1743/772

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Reece KS; Dungan CF; Burreson EM, 2008. Molecular epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus and P. chesapeaki infections among wild oysters and clams in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 82(3):237-248.

Smolowitz R, 2013. A review of current state of knowledge concerning Perkinsus marinus effects on Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) (the eastern oyster). Veterinary Pathology, 50(3):404-411. http://vet.sagepub.com/content/50/3/404.short

Distribution References

Burreson E M, Ragone Calvo L M, 1996. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus disease of oysters in Chesapeake Bay, with emphasis on data since 1985. Journal of Shellfish Research. 15 (1), 17-34.

Cáceres-Martínez J, Vásquez-Yeomans R, Padilla-Lardizábal G, Portilla M A del R, 2008. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 99 (1), 66-73. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJV-4S2F5V6-1&_user=6686535&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2008&_rdoc=12&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236888%232008%23999009998%23696660%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6888&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=21&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=2078e55e5fd8ec20e3c967b203e0cbe5 DOI:10.1016/j.jip.2008.03.005

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

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