Banana streak disease
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Seedborne Aspects
- Vectors and Intermediate Hosts
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Banana streak disease
Other Scientific Names
- banana streak badnavirus
- Banana streak GF virus
- Banana streak Mysore virus
- Banana streak OL virus
International Common Names
- French: mosaïque en tirets du bananier
- BSV000 (Banana streak badnavirus)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
- Family: Caulimoviridae
- Genus: Badnavirus
- Species: Banana streak disease
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Banana Streak Disease (BSD) has a very wide geographical distribution; its cause was for long unrecognized as its symptoms were often mistaken for those of Cucumber mosaic virus and the causal viruses were not recognized until the first was purified and characterized by Lockhart (1986). As banana has long been cultivated in all countries in which BSD occurs, and the disease has probably occurred for much longer than 50 years (Wardlaw, 1961), the causal viruses are now probably best considered as native to these countries.
In Taiwan, Su (1997) first reported the disease on cv. Mysore in the greenhouse of the Taiwan Banana Research Institute. The disease had spread in the nearby area and The Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ) responded by eradicating infected plants between 1997 and 1999. The disease has not been found in banana plantations in Taiwan since the eradication through a monitoring programme conducted by Dr Su.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 12 May 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present, Widespread||Native||Invasive|
|-Zanzibar Island||Present, Localized|
|Portugal||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Spain||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|-Canary Islands||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Native||Invasive|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||Present||Native||Invasive|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Native||Invasive|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Research is being conducted at the University of Gembloux in Belgium to find methods of eradicating virus from infected banana clones.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Ensete has been infected with BSV (Diekmann and Putter, 1996). A badnavirus causing streak symptoms in Ensete ventricosum (enset) in Ethiopia (Tessera and Quimio, 1999) is also probably a strain of BSV (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
A characteristic of infection is the periodicity of symptom expression in leaves. Plants may not show streak symptoms in all leaves and, for several months at a time, emerging leaves may be symptomless or show only slight symptoms. Symptom expression seems to be associated with the change of seasons and fluctuating temperatures may play a role (Dahal et al., 1998a, 2000a,b). The intensity of symptoms has been associated with the concentration of virus in the tissue; the higher the virus concentration, the more severe the symptoms (Dahal et al., 1998b). Plants with BSD may appear symptomless at some stage in their growth cycle as leaves with symptoms are shed and new leaves appear without symptoms due to factors discussed above. Some infected land races show no symptoms even under fluctuating environmental conditions (Dahal et al., 1998a).
Other symptoms associated with BSD are stunting, cigar leaf necrosis, internal necrosis of the pseudostem, a reduction in bunch size, incomplete emergence of bunches and bunches emerging through the side of the pseudostem. Occasionally, dark streak symptoms may be visible on the pseudostem and fingers may be distorted (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
In Australia, broad yellow lines in the leaf lamina parallel to the midrib, leaf twisting, grooves in the base of the pseudostem and an abnormal arrangement of leaves similar to the traveller's palm (Ravenala madagascariensis) have also been associated with banana streak disease in 'Williams' (AAA, Cavendish subgroup) (Daniells et al., 1998).
Three phases of symptom expression have been recognized in commercial Cavendish plantations in Ecuador. The first is the appearance of chlorotic streaks in leaves, the second is the appearance of dark blotches on the pseudostem and midrib and the third is the splitting of the outer leaf sheaths of the pseudostem sometimes as far up as the petiole. This allows entry of a bacterium that cause a soft rot of the base of the pseudostem. If the plant produces a bunch, peel splitting and necrotic spot and streak symptoms can appear on fruit. Similar symptoms have been seen on 'Grand Nain' (AAA, Cavendish subgroup) in Costa Rica (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
In the state of Tamil Nadu in India, leaf and aberrant bunch formation symptoms are common on 'Poovan' and seem to increase in severity with the number of crop cycles (DR Jones, Montpellier, France, 1995, personal communication; Thiribhuvanamala and Sabitha Doraisamy, 2001).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / discoloration|
|Fruit / lesions: black or brown|
|Fruit / reduced size|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / necrotic areas|
|Stems / dieback|
|Stems / internal discoloration|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
It has been shown that genomic sequences are integrated into the genomic DNA of Musa and Ensete. Virus-related sequences have been found in more than 400 Musa genotypes by PCR amplification (LaFleur et al., 1996; Geering et al., 2001; Harper et al., 2002). While all Musa genotypes appear to contain integrated viral sequences, the nature of these sequences is variable. Of two such integrated sequences that have been characterized, one is incapable of giving rise to episomal BSV infection. There is good evidence, however, that a second integrated sequence is the source of de novo episomal BSV infection in banana including a significant number of tetraploid hybrids which have been bred for improved yield and disease resistance. The development of episomal infection from integrated viral sequences is linked to in vitro propagation and possibly other stress factors (Krikorian et al., 1999; Ndowora et al., 1999).
Expressible virus integrants have been found in Musa balbisiana and some AAB, ABB and AAAB clones. However, they were not been found in AA or AAA clones tested indicating that de novo synthesis may only occur in cultivars/bred hybrids with the B genome (BEL Lockhart, Minnesota, USA, 1999, personal communication). A distinct virus or strain which was first isolated and characterized from an IITA plantain hybrid ('TMPx 4698') bred in Nigeria (Harper and Hull, 1998), is believed to be the product of these expressible virus integrants (BEL Lockhart, Minnesota, USA, 1999, personal communication).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Attempts to transmit the causal viruses by mechanical inoculation using abrasives have been unsuccessful. The virus, therefore, is unlikely to be transmitted on cutting tools or during cultural operations. It is also not soil-borne (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
However, like some other badnaviruses, those causing BSD are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by mealybugs (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae). The virus is transmitted in a semi-persistent manner from banana to banana by the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri) and an unidentified Pseudococcus sp. (Lockhart and Jones, 1999), and, in screenhouse experiments, by the pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes) and the pink sugarcane mealybug (Saccharicoccus sacchari) (Kubiriba et al., 2001 a,b). The virus does not multiply in the insect vectors and is not transmitted transovarially. Banana and plantain are hosts of a range of mealybug species (Watson and Kubiriba, 2005). Although all possible vectors have not yet been determined, 20 species and 14 genera of mealybugs infest banana and plantain in Africa and probably elsewhere (Watson and Kubiriba, 2005); it is possible that other mealybug species, such as Planococcus musae in Nigeria and Pseudococcus comstocki in Ecuador may also be vectors. The pink sugarcane mealybug, S. sacchari, transmits Sugarcane bacilliform virus from sugarcane to banana (Lockhart and Autry, 1991). In many tropical areas, such as Tamil Nadu in India, sugarcane is grown in close proximity to banana and transmission from the former to the latter may occasionally occur in nature. The pattern of field spread of BSD in Uganda has been reported by Kuririba et al. (2001b).
Observations in many countries suggest that the spread of the causal virus from plant to plant by mealybug vectors may be limited in occurrence. However, mealybugs are common on banana in some locations, such as in Ecuador where the high incidence of infection in commercial plantations may be a result of vector dissemination (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
Studies in Australia with Banana streak Mysore virus have shown that the virus is seedborne (Daniells et al., 1995). Other viruses that induce BSD may also be so transmitted.
Long distance dissemination
The principal means of long-distance dissemination is in vegetative planting material, such as suckers or tissue cultures. Viruses inducing BSD cause systemic infection. All tissue cultures derived from meristems excised from diseased plants have been found to carry BSV (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
Seedborne AspectsTop of page
Studies in Australia with Banana streak Mysore virus (BSMyV) have shown that the virus is seedborne (Daniells et al., 1995). Interestingly, leaf striping in plants of the subgroup Mysore was originally thought to be a genetic trait because the symptom was transferred to progeny in breeding experiments in Trinidad (Wardlaw, 1961). However, it is now known that many clones in the Mysore subgroup are infected with BSMyV because stripe symptoms typical of the virus are often seen in this cultivar. Therefore, the most logical explanation for the above report is that the virus was carried through seed to the progeny.
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
ImpactTop of page
In Nigeria and Rwanda, internal necrosis results in plant death. BSD symptoms have been seen on plants in just over half the villages surveyed in southern Nigeria and southern Cameroon with incidence ranging from 0.5 to 17% (Gauhl et al., 1999a, b).
In India, yield losses from infected 'Poovan' (AAB, syn. 'Mysore') are thought to be very high in the third crop cycle when bunches can 'choke' on emergence or emerge through the side of the pseudostem. As a consequence, 'Poovan' plantations need to be replanted every 3 years.
In plantations of Cavendish cultivars in Costa Rica and Ecuador, BSD results in severe symptoms on fruit, which makes them unmarketable. In addition, the virus causes the pseudostem to split resulting in a bacterial infection that eventually kills the plant. Drastic methods, which can include the destruction of all plants in a 50 m², are sometimes taken in an effort to control the disease in export plantations in Ecuador (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
Actual yield losses in some banana and plantain cultvars will be difficult to assess because clones seem to be universally affected. Symptoms of BSD can be seen at some time on almost all 'Mysore' and 'Cuerno' (AAB, Plantain subgroup) plants. Most accessions of plantain in the in vitro germplasm collection at the INIBAP Transit Centre at Leuven, Belgium, have indexed positive for a virus causing BSD (I Van den Houwe, Leuven, Belgium, 1999, personal communication). This may reflect the widespread occurrence of BSV in plantain cultivars. In Australia, infection can result in an 18 day delay in harvest and a 6% loss of yield annually (Daniells et al., 2001).
DiagnosisTop of page
The ability of several viruses to cause BSD, has posed the most serious obstacle to the reliable detection of the virus in infected tissue. Serological heterogeneity has made it difficult to develop routine virus indexing protocols capable of detecting the complete range of virus isolates (Lockhart and Olszewski, 1993). A significant improvement in detection by ELISA was achieved by developing assay protocols using polyclonal antibodies produced in two different animal species (Ndowora, 1998), or using monoclonal antibodies in assays (Agindotan et al., 2003). In spite of marked improvements in the reliability of virus detection by ELISA, there remain isolates or viruses that are detected weakly or not at all if heterologous antisera are used. However, these and all other strains or viruses can be detected by immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) using partially purified leaf-tissue extracts (Bouhida et al., 1993; Ndowora and Lockhart, 2000; Garrido et al., 2005). Unfortunately, this is expensive and laborious and requires specialised equipment and skills (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
Genome-based methods of virus detection (EG nucleic acid hybridization, PCR amplification), which are potentially highly sensitive, are seriously compromised by both genomic heterogeneity among viruses inducing BSD and the occurrence of integrated virus sequences in the Musa genome (LaFleur et al., 1996; Ndowora et al., 1999). However, the use of IC-PCR (Thottapilly et al., 1997; Harper et al., 1999, 2002b; Cherian et al., 2004; Garrido et al., 2005; Rao et al., 2005) avoids false positives due to integrated viral sequences and is a potential tool in diagnosing infection.
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Plants may be symptomless (see Symptoms) and tests need to be undertaken to determine if the virus is present or absent (see Diagnostic Methods).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Many isolates of BSV and Sugarcane bacilliform virus are serologically related (Lockhart and Olszewski, 1993).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Infected plants should be destroyed and replaced with virus-tested plants. Although such plants are usually obtained by meristem tip culture (e.g., Helliot et al., 2001; Hernandez et al., 2002; Rao et al., 2005), they are also obtainable by using cryopreservation (Helliot et al., 2002) or by treating micro-plants with acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues such as adefovir or tenovir (Helliot et al., 2003a). Only tissue cultures derived from meristems from virus-tested plants should move internationally and be mass multiplied. Even then, care must be taken because of the possible de novo synthesis of the virus in tissue culture.
Mealybug vectors should be controlled if virus incidence is high and the disease appears to be spreading from plant to plant. The virus is unlikely to be spread on cutting tools or by mechanical means.
In Ecuador, where banana streak is a serious problem in some commercial Cavendish plantations, plants with symptoms are quickly destroyed after spraying with insecticide in an effort to contain the outbreak. If 10 plants with symptoms are seen in a 50 m² area, then all plants in that area are destroyed. However, these practices have failed to stop spread and more drastic action is being considered (Lockhart and Jones, 1999).
ReferencesTop of page
Agindotan BO; Thottappilly G; Uwaifo A; Winter S, 2003. Production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against a Nigerian isolate of banana streak virus. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2(7): 171-178.
Brioso PST; Cordeiro ZJM; Rezende JAM; Kitajima EW; Pimentel JP; Figueiredo AR, 2000. Mixed infection by cucumber mosaic (CMV) and banana streak (BSV) viruses in banana in Brazil. Summa Phytopathologica, 26(2):254-257; 19 ref.
Cherian AK; Baranwal VK; Malathi VG; Pant RP; Ahlawat YS, 2004. Banana streak virus from India and its detection by polymerase chain reaction. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 3(3): 409-413.
Dahal G; Hughes Jd'A; Gauhl F; Pasberg-Gauhl C; Nokoe KS, 2000. Symptomatology and development of banana streak, a disease caused by banana streak badnavirus, under natural conditions in Ibadan, Nigeria. Acta Horticulturae, No. 540:361-375; 18 ref.
Dahal G; Hughes Jd'A; Thottappilly G; Lockhart BEL, 1998. Effect of temperature on symptom expression and reliability of banana streak badnavirus detection in naturally infected plantain and banana (Musa spp.). Plant Disease, 82(1):16-21; 24 ref.
Dahal G; Ortiz R; Tenkouano A; Hughes Jd'A; Thottappilly G; Vuylsteke D; Lockhart BEL, 2000. Relationship between natural occurrence of banana streak badnavirus and symptom expression, relative concentration of viral antigen, and yield characteristics of some micropropagated Musa spp. Plant Pathology, 49(1):68-79; 51 ref.
Dahal G; Pasberg-Gauhl C; Gauhl F; Thottappilly G; Hughes Jd'A, 1998. Studies on a Nigerian isolate of banana streak badnavirus: II. Effect of intraplant variation on virus accumulation and reliability of diagnosis by ELISA. Annals of Applied Biology, 132(2):263-275; 19 ref.
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Garrido MJ; Ordosgoitti A; Lockhart BEL, 2004. Presence of banana streak virus ol in dessert bananas in Maracay, Venezuela. Journal of Plant Pathology, 86(3): 263.
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Gauhl F; Pasberg-Gauhl C; Bopda-Waffo A; Hughes Jd'A; Chen JS, 1999. Occurrence of banana streak badnavirus on plantain and banana in 45 villages in southern Cameroon, Central Africa. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 106(2):174-180; 17 ref.
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Geering ADW; Olszewski NE; Dahal G; Thomas JE; Lockhart BEL, 2001. Analysis of the distribution and structure of integrated Banana streak virus DNA in a range of Musa cultivars. Molecular Plant Pathology, 2(4):207-213; 18 ref.
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Helliot B; Panis B; Frison E; Clercq Ede; Swennen R; Lepoivre P; Neyts J, 2003. The acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues, adefovir, tenofovir and PMEDAP, efficiently eliminate banana streak virus from banana (Musa spp.). Antiviral Research, 59(2): 121-126.
Helliot B; Panis B; Locicero A; Reyniers K; Muylle H; Vandewalle M; Michel C; Swennens R; Lepoivre P, 2001. Development of in vitro techniques for elimination of virus diseases from Musa. Acta Horticulturae, No.560:535-538; 2 ref.
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Krikorian AD; Irizarry H; Goenaga R; Scott ME; Lockhart BEL, 1999. Stability in plant and bunch traits of a 'French-type' dwarf plantain micropropagated from the floral axis tip and five lateral corm tips of a single mother plant: good news on the tissue culture and bad news on banana streak virus. Scientia Horticulturae, 81(2):159-177; 57 ref.
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Lockhart BEL; Olszewski NE, 1993. Serological and genomic heterogeneity of banana streak badnavirus; implications for virus detection in Musa germplasm. In: Ganry J, ed. Breeding Banana and Plantain for Resistance to Diseases and Pests, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Genetic Improvement of Bananas to Diseases and Pests organized by CIRAD-FLHOR, Montpellier, France, 7-9 September 1992. CIRAD, Montpellier, France, 105-113.
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Ndowora TCR, 1998. Banana streak virus: development of an immunoenzymatic assay for detection and characterization of sequences that are integrated in the genome of the host. PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, 90 pp.
Pasberg-Gauhl C; Lockhart BE, 2000. First outbreak of banana streak badnavirus infection in commercial export bananas in Costa Rica. Plant Disease, 84(10):1152; 2 ref.
Pasberg-Gauhl, C., Lockhart, B. E. L., Castro-Mendivil, F., Llanque, J. C. R., 2007. Banana streak virus identified for the first time in Peru in Cavendish banana (Musa AAA). Plant Disease, 91(7), 906. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-7-0906B
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Brioso P S T, Cordeiro Z J M, Rezende J A M, Kitajima E W, Pimentel J P, Figueiredo A R, 2000. Mixed infection by cucumber mosaic (CMV) and banana streak (BSV) viruses in banana in Brazil. (Infecção mista em bananeiras pelos vírus do mosaico do pepino (cucumber mosaic virus - CMV) e da risca da bananeira (banana streak virus - BSV) no Brasil.). Summa Phytopathologica. 26 (2), 254-257.
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CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Dahal G, Hughes J d'A, Gauhl F, Pasberg-Gauhl C, Nokoe K S, 2000a. Symptomatology and development of banana streak, a disease caused by banana streak badnavirus, under natural conditions in Ibadan, Nigeria. Acta Horticulturae. 361-375.
Dahal G, Ortiz R, Tenkouano A, Hughes J d'A, Thottappilly G, Vuylsteke D, Lockhart B E L, 2000. Relationship between natural occurrence of banana streak badnavirus and symptom expression, relative concentration of viral antigen, and yield characteristics of some micropropagated Musa spp. Plant Pathology. 49 (1), 68-79. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3059.2000.00420.x
Daniells J W, Geering A D W, Bryde N J, Thomas J E, 2001. The effect of Banana streak virus on the growth and yield of dessert bananas in tropical Australia. Annals of Applied Biology. 139 (1), 51-60. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2001.tb00130.x
Furuya N, Suastika G, Natsuaki K T, 2012. First report and molecular characterization of exogenous banana steak Mysore virus from banana in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology. 6 (2), 41-47. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ajppaj.2012.41.47&org=10
Gauhl F, Pasberg-Gauhl C, Bopda-Waffo A, Hughes J d'A, Chen J S, 1999. Occurrence of banana streak badnavirus on plantain and banana in 45 villages in southern Cameroon, Central Africa. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 106 (2), 174-180.
Hernández R, Bertrand H, Lepoivre P, González J E, Rojas X, Pairol A, González Y, González G, Cortés C, 2002. Diagnosis and elimination of banana streak virus (BSV) in Musa spp. (Diagnóstico y saneamiento de Banana Streak Virus (BSV) en Musa ssp.). Centro Agrícola. 29 (2), 42-47.
Kubiriba J, Legg J P, Tushemereirwe W, Adipala E, 2001. Disease spread patterns of Banana streak virus in farmers' fields in Uganda. Annals of Applied Biology. 139 (1), 31-36. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2001.tb00127.x
Lockhart BEL, Jones DR, 1999. Banana streak virus. In: Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, [ed. by Jones DR]. Wallingford, UK: CAB Publishing. 263-274.
Pasberg-Gauhl C, Lockhart B E L, Castro-Mendivil F, Llanque J C R, 2007. Banana streak virus identified for the first time in Peru in Cavendish banana (Musa AAA). Plant Disease. 91 (7), 906. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-7-0906B
Sebasigari K, Stover RH, 1988. Banana Diseases and Pests in East Africa. In: Report of a Survey in November 1987, Montpellier, France: INIBAP.
Thomas JE, McMichael LA, Dietzgen RG, Searle C, Matalevea S, Osasa A, 1994. Banana strak virus in Australia, Western Samoa and Tonga. In: International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 4th Sugar Cane Pathology Workshop, Brisbane, Australia, 40.
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