Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Dreissena polymorpha
(zebra mussel)

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Datasheet

Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 June 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dreissena polymorpha
  • Preferred Common Name
  • zebra mussel
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Bivalvia
  •         Subclass: Heterodonta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • To date, D. polymorpha has been the most aggressive freshwater invader worldwide. Dreissenids are the only freshwater bivalves that attach to hard substrates in high densities and have a planktonic larval stage...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. This SETL-plate (a PVC plate attached to a brick) was overgrown within three months of deployment in water. The Netherlands.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. This SETL-plate (a PVC plate attached to a brick) was overgrown within three months of deployment in water. The Netherlands.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. This SETL-plate (a PVC plate attached to a brick) was overgrown within three months of deployment in water. The Netherlands.
Invasive habitDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. This SETL-plate (a PVC plate attached to a brick) was overgrown within three months of deployment in water. The Netherlands.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
TitleHabit
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
Copyright©Sergej Olenin & Darius Daunys
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
HabitDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.©Sergej Olenin & Darius Daunys
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
TitleHabit
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
Copyright©Sergej Olenin & Darius Daunys
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
HabitDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.©Sergej Olenin & Darius Daunys
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
TitleHabit
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
Copyright©Sergej Olenin & Darius Daunys
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
HabitDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit on a wooden substrate. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.©Sergej Olenin & Darius Daunys
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit in sandy lake bed.  Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
TitleHabit
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit in sandy lake bed. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
Copyright©Sergej Olenin & Darius Daunys
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit in sandy lake bed.  Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.
HabitDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); habit in sandy lake bed. Lake Plateliai, Lithuania.©Sergej Olenin & Darius Daunys
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. This SETL-plate (a PVC plate attached to a brick) was overgrown within three months of deployment in water. The Netherlands.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. This SETL-plate (a PVC plate attached to a brick) was overgrown within three months of deployment in water. The Netherlands.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. This SETL-plate (a PVC plate attached to a brick) was overgrown within three months of deployment in water. The Netherlands.
Invasive habitDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. This SETL-plate (a PVC plate attached to a brick) was overgrown within three months of deployment in water. The Netherlands.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); the morphology of the shell is diagnostic for D. polymorpha.
TitleShell morphology
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); the morphology of the shell is diagnostic for D. polymorpha.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); the morphology of the shell is diagnostic for D. polymorpha.
Shell morphologyDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); the morphology of the shell is diagnostic for D. polymorpha.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. The Netherlands.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. The Netherlands.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. The Netherlands.
Invasive habitDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. The Netherlands.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. The Netherlands.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. The Netherlands.
Copyright©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. The Netherlands.
Invasive habitDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel); specimens tend to overgrow all hard substrata in fresh water systems that are invaded. The Netherlands.©Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771)

Preferred Common Name

  • zebra mussel

Other Scientific Names

  • Mytilus polymorpha Pallas, 1771

International Common Names

  • English: wandering mussel
  • French: moule zebra

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: vandremusling
  • Estonia: tavaline ehk muutlik rändkarp
  • Finland: vaeltajasimpukka
  • Germany: Dreikantmuschel; Schafklaumuschel; Wandermuschel; Zebramuschel; Zebra-Muschel
  • Latvia: svitraina gliemene
  • Lithuania: dreisena
  • Netherlands: driehoeksmossel
  • Poland: racicznica zmienna
  • Sweden: vandringsmussla

Summary of Invasiveness

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To date, D. polymorpha has been the most aggressive freshwater invader worldwide. Dreissenids are the only freshwater bivalves that attach to hard substrates in high densities and have a planktonic larval stage. This life history facilitates their abilities as invaders, and allows them to become enormously abundant when introduced into a new water body. Once introduced their populations can grow rapidly, and the total biomass of a population can exceed 10 times that of all other native benthic invertebrates (Karatayev et al., 2002).

D. polymorpha is native to the drainage basins of the Black, Caspian and Aral Seas. During the nineteenth century its range has expanded westward to most of western Europe, the UK, and North America, where it is found in the Great Lakes and all major river drainages east of the Rocky Mountains and causes multiple economic impacts on fisheries, aquaculture, water attractions and aquatic transport.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Bivalvia
  •                 Subclass: Heterodonta
  •                     Order: Veneroida
  •                         Unknown: Dreissenoidea
  •                             Family: Dreissenidae
  •                                 Genus: Dreissena
  •                                     Species: Dreissena polymorpha

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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One of the most characteristic features of the shell of all Dreissenidae is the possession of an apical shell septum to which the anterior adductor and anterior byssal retractor mussels are attached. An apical septum also occurs in Septifer (Mytiloidea), although in representatives of this genus only the anterior adductor muscle has its attachment to it, the anterior byssal retractor attaching to the posterior face of the shell under the ligament. It has been suggested that the possession of a shell septum in these two bivalve phylogenies is the result of convergent evolution by adaptation to similar modes of life (Nalepa and Schloesser, 1992).

Description

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The prominent dark and light banding pattern on the shell is the most obvious characteristic of D. polymorpha. Its specific name, "polymorpha", derives from its many variations in shell colour, pattern and shell shape. The outer covering of the shell (the periostracum) is generally well polished, and light tan in colour with a distinct series of broad, dark, transverse colour bands which may be either smooth or zigzag in shape. Within a population, individual shell colours may range from very light coloured without discernable dark banding to those that are darkly-pigmented overall, obliterating all banding.

The shape of D. polymorpha shells is generally triagonal or triangular with sharply pointed umbos (the hinge end). Underlying the umbos, the hinge plate or myophore plate is broad and well developed with no pseudocardinal or lateral teeth. The valves are joined by a proteinaceous ligament located posterior to the umbos. The valves are quite inflated posteriorly tapering to a more flattened profile along the ventral and anterior margins; an acute ridge runs from the umbos to the posterior point of the ventral margin forming a distinctive "shoulder". The mussel attaches itself to hard surfaces by byssal threads which are secreted from a byssal gland just posterior to the foot. The byssal threads emerge from the between the valves through a byssal notch along the posterior margin. This byssal hold-fast distinguishes D. polymorpha from all other similar-sized or larger North American freshwater bivalves (McMahon, 1990).

D. polymorpha can reach sexual maturity in its first year when as small as 8-10 mm (Ackerman et al., 1994). The young adults continue to grow to a maximum size of 3-5 cm (Mackie et al., 1989).

Distribution

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Zebra mussels originated from the lakes of southeast Russia and have spread along waterways or been transported by shipping to northwest Russia, central and western Europe, Scandinavia, Britain, Ireland and North America. Up to date information on the distribution in North America can be found on the Zebra Mussel and Quagga Mussel Information Resource Page published by the US Geological Survey.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Mediterranean and Black SeaWidespreadNative Not invasive ISSG, 2008Native range includes the Black, Caspian, and Azov seas

Asia

TurkeyPresentNative Invasive ISSG, 2009; Aksu et al., 2017First recorded in as a fouling agent in hydroelectric power plants in 1964. Detailed distribution is provided

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioWidespreadIntroduced1986 Invasive Minchin et al., 2002
-QuebecWidespread1986 Invasive Minchin et al., 2002
MexicoWidespreadIntroduced1993 Invasive Minchin et al., 2002Dispersal has extended to the Gulf of Mexico
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced1994 Invasive USGS, 2008
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced1994 Invasive USGS, 2008Mississippi River
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced2008 Invasive USGS, 2008San Justo Reservoir
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced2008 Invasive USGS, 2008Pueblo Reservoir
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced1992 Invasive USGS, 2008Illinois River
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008
-IowaPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2008Mississippi River
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008Mississippi River
-MassachusettsLocalisedIntroducedBenson et al., 2012
-MichiganWidespreadIntroduced1986 Invasive USGS, 2008Great Lakes
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008
-MississippiPresentIntroducedISSG, 2008Mississippi River
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2008Mississippi River
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced2003 Invasive USGS, 2008Missouri River
-New YorkPresentSpada et al., 2002Onondaga Lake
-North DakotaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedBenson et al., 2012
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2008Lake Erie (2005)
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced2003 Invasive USGS, 2008Missouri River
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSGS, 2008Mississippi River
-TexasLocalisedIntroducedBenson et al., 2012
-VermontPresentUSGS, 2008
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedBenson et al., 2012
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Invasive USGS, 2008

Europe

AustriaPresentNOBANIS, 2008Common and potentially invasive. First recorded 1916
BelarusWidespreadIntroduced1801 Invasive Karatayev et al., 2003; Karatayev et al., 2007First recorded in 1929 by Ovchinnikov (1933) but it is suspected they established between 1800 and 1825
BelgiumWidespreadIntroduced1826 Invasive Belgian Federal Public Service, 2008Rivers, channels and ponds
BulgariaPresentIntroduced Invasive Trichkova et al., 2007First reported in the Danube River by Kreglinger (1870)
CroatiaPresentLajtner et al., 2004Draba River and Dubrava Lake
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced1890 Invasive Blažka, 1893First recorded in Elbe (Labe)
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentStrayer, 1991
DenmarkWidespreadIntroduced1840 Invasive Morton, 1979First recorded in Copenhagen
EstoniaWidespreadIntroduced1801 Invasive NOBANIS, 2008First recorded in Polula Brook, Pärnu Bay, Lake Peipsi
FinlandPresentIntroduced1995 Invasive NOBANIS, 2008
FrancePresentIntroduced1847 Invasive Kinzelbach, 1992French freshwater systems
GermanyWidespreadIntroduced1830 Invasive ISSG, 2008Inland waterway network
GreecePresentStrayer, 1991
HungaryPresent Invasive ISSG, 2008
IrelandWidespreadIntroduced1993 Invasive McCarthy et al., 1997First recorded in Lough Derg, Nenagh
ItalyPresentIntroduced1969 Invasive Giusti and Oppi, 1972First recorded in Lake Garda; Torri del Benaco
LatviaWidespreadIntroduced1801 Invasive Olenin et al., 1999Found in Riga Bay in 1996
LithuaniaWidespreadIntroduced1801 Invasive Olenin, 2005Major lakes, dams and rivers, first recorded in Curonian lagoon
LuxembourgPresentStrayer, 1991
NetherlandsWidespreadIntroduced1826 Invasive Kearney and Morton, 1970First recorded in the River Maas, now occurs all over The Netherlands in freshwater lakes, canals and rivers
PolandWidespreadIntroduced1800 Invasive Olenin, 2005Mainly in the northern half of the country territory but single sites are known from the upper drainage basins of the Odra and Vistula
PortugalPresentStrayer, 1991Oporto; regarded by some as spurious
RomaniaPresentNative Not invasive Son, 2007
Russian FederationPresent Invasive NOBANIS, 2008Common. First recorded in 1990. The European part of Russia
SerbiaPresentStrayer, 1991
SlovakiaPresentSporka and Nagy, 1998Danube River
SloveniaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2009
SpainPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Binimelis et al., 2007Ebro River
SwedenPresentIntroduced1920 Invasive Jansson, 1994Present in Swedish lakes (Mälaren, Hjälmaren, and other lakes in Uppland connected to them)
SwitzerlandWidespreadIntroduced1960 Invasive Binder, 1965Geneva, Zurich and Constance
UKPresentIntroduced1820 Invasive ISSG, 2008
UkrainePresentNative Not invasive Gollasch and Leppäkoski, 1999

History of Introduction and Spread

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The spread of D. polymorpha from the Black Sea and Aralo-Caspian Sea basins has largely taken place in the past 200 years. How the initial expansion took place is unclear. D. polymorpha may have penetrated via the Oginskij Canal (completed in 1804) from Dnieper to the River Neman and further to the Curonian Lagoon in the southeast Baltic (Olenin, 2005), in which case the Black Sea is the probable origin. However it may have come via canals using the Volga and its tributaries and lakes Onega and Ladoga at the beginning of the eighteenth century and so originate from the Caspian region. Outside the Baltic Sea region it was found in England, in the London docks, in the 1820s (ISSG, 2008). By 1827 it was found in the mouth of the Rhine, and 1838 in the Elbe River. During the nineteenth century D. polymorpha occupied most of the inland water systems of western and central Europe: in the 1920s it appeared in Sweden (Jansson, 1994), in the 1960s it was found in alpine lakes around the Alps, and it had reached Ireland by 1993 (McCarthy et al., 1997). In 1990 it was reported from brackish water in the eastern partof the Gulf of Finland after being present for 150 years in the nearby freshwater Lake Ladoga (NOBANIS, 2008). In 1988 D. polymorpha first appeared in Lake St. Clair and it then rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes of North America (Olenin et al., 1999). Spread beyond the Great Lakes Basin to many other parts of North America began in 1991 (Benson et al., 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of further introduction is increasing. Further range expansions are expected in fresh water and some brackish areas in temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Future expansions to South America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand are possible due to extensive shipping trade, utilization and development of navigable routes (Olenin et al., 1999).

Habitat

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Inhabits larger estuaries and inland waters, hard and soft bottom habitats (Starobogatov, 1994). The typical habitats colonised are estuaries, rivers and lakes, particularly where there are firm surfaces suitable for attachment (Olenin et al., 1999).

In marine and lacustrine environments, D. polymorpha usually inhabits littoral and sublittoral zones in localities where substrata and food are available, and ice abrasion is absent. As a rule, freshwater lakes with Dreissena are mesotrophic, have a relatively high pH, have moderate alkalinity, and have moderate amounts of dissolved mineral salts in the water (Orlova and Nalepa, 2003).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Inland saline areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Inland saline areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Lagoons Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lagoons Principal habitat Natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Intertidal zone Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Intertidal zone Principal habitat Natural
Marine
Inshore marine Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Inshore marine Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The haploid genome size of D. polymorpha is estimated to be approximately 1.70±0.1 pg (Gregory, 2003).

D. polymorpha has a karyotype with 2n=32 composed of 12 pairs of biarmed chromosomes (meta- and sub-metacentrics) and 4 pairs of uniarmed chromosomes (subtelo- and acrocentric) and the number of chromosomes arms NF equals 56 (Marsden et al., 1996; Wo Nicki and Boron, 2003; Boron et al., 2004).

D. polymorpha belongs to 10 species characterized by the highest levels of genetic variability (Boron et al., 2004). High levels of genetic variability have been reported for European populations with heterozygosity values at allozyme loci between 0.27 and 0.49 for the 3-15 polymorphic allozyme loci. Similar high levels have also been reported for North American populations: 0.30-0.50 for the 6-17 polymorphic loci (Astenei et al., 2005).

There might be a risk of hybridization between D. polymorpha and D. bugensis. D. polymorpha and D. bugensis hybrids were created by pooling gametes collected after exporsure to serotonin in the laboratory, indicating that interspecies fertilization may be feasibly (Mills et al., 1996; NOBANIS, 2008). There is evidence for species-specific sperm attractants suggesting that interspecific fertilization may be rare in nature (Spidle et al., 1995; Mills et al., 1996).

Reproductive Biology

D. polymorpha have separate sexes, usually with a ratio 1:1. Females generally reproduce in their second year. Eggs are expelled by the females and fertilized outside the body by the males; this process usually occurs in the spring or summer, depending on water temperature. Over 40,000 eggs can be laid in a reproductive cycle and up to one million in a spawning season. Spawning begins at 12-15ºC, and can be profuse at 18-20ºC; and may take place over a period 3-5 months. After the eggs are fertilized, the larvae (veligers) emerge within 3 to 5 days and are free-swimming for up to a month. Dispersal of larvae is normally passive by being carried downstream with the flow. The larvae begin their juvenile stage by settling to the bottom where they crawl about on the bottom by means of a foot, searching for suitable substratum. They then attach themselves to it by means of a byssus, an organ outside the body near the foot consisting of many threads. Although the juveniles prefer a hard or rocky substrate, they have been known to attach to vegetation. As adults, they have a difficult time staying attached when water velocities exceed two meters per second. D. polymorpha are filter feeders having both inhalant and exhalant siphons. They are capable of filtering about one liter of water per day while feeding primarily on algae (Starobogatov, 1994; Olenin et al., 1999).

Physiology and Phenology

Although D. polymorpha have well defined environmental preferences, they are capable of tolerating a wide range of conditions outside the norm. They can tolerate starvation for extended periods, desiccation, extremes of high and low temperatures, and highly variable dissolved oxygen levels.

The mussels appear capable of adapting to a variety of temperature regimes, being found from Sweden to Italy. They have been found in lakes with highly variable acidity and calcium content. Large numbers have been reported growing in the static conditions of lakes and reservoirs and in the swift currents of pipes and rivers. They can be found in nutrient poor (oligotrophic) and nutrient rich (eutrophic) lakes. While normally considered as freshwater species, D. polymorpha can adapt and inhabit brackish areas. They are capable of tolerating a certain degree of pollution, although they are absent from heavily polluted waters. When presented with acute, adverse conditions, the animal will close its shell and remain closed up to 2 weeks before reopening (Claudi and Mackie, 1994).

Nutrition

D. polymorpha feeds by filtering microscopic plankton organisms <53 µm and organic particles from the water (Olenin et al., 1999). Higher filtration activity of D. polymorpha population coincides with the location of higher biomasses. Maximum population grazing rates can reach 65 L/h/m2, the lowest values are around 0.005 L/h/m2 (Kotta et al., 1998).

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) >110 Optimum >0 tolerated
Depth (m b.s.l.) 2 9 Optimum 0-45 tolerated
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 8 10 Optimum
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 30 50 Optimum >5 tolerated
Salinity (part per thousand) 0.5 3.5 Optimum 0-11 tolerated
Water pH (pH) 7.4 8.5 Optimum
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 17 25 Optimum 0-32 tolerated; optimal temperature for spawning is 14-16, optimal temperature for larval development is 20-22

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aythya affinis Predator Adult not specific
Aythya ferina Predator Adult not specific
Aythya fuligula Predator Adult not specific
Bucephala clangula Predator Adult not specific
Bucephalus polymorphus Parasite Adult not specific
Fulica atra Predator Adult not specific
Neogobius melanostomus Predator Adult not specific
Orconectes propinquus Predator Adult not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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According to the most recent literature review (Molloy et al., 1997), there are approximately 200 species that may be considered predators or parasites of D. polymorpha. These are birds and fishes that feed on attached mussels and larval stages, as well as copepods, coelenterates, leeches, crabs, crayfishes and rodents. Among organisms that compete with mussels for hard substrates are sponges, coelenterates, amphipods, bryozoans and other mussel species with the same life-style. Also included in the review is intra- and interspecific competition in mixed populations of Dreissenids. In Europe, the most common parasite is Bucephalus polymorphus (Plathelmintes,Trematoda). The frequency of occurrence usually does not exceed 10- 20% of the Dreissenid population (Zdun et al., 1994).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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There are many ways that D. polymorpha are able to spread from place to place. There are naturally occurring vectors of dispersal and there are human-mediated means. Human-mediated means of dispersal tend to occur on a larger scale and over a longer period of time. There is very little chance that enough D. polymorpha could be moved by a naturally occurring vector to establish a substantial population.

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Larval D. polymorpha are free-swimming, microscopic, and planktonic. These factors contribute to their rapid spread from one body of water to another. Any body of water downstream of an infected area has a high probability of being infected if there is continuous water flow from the upstream area.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Substrates with high densities of D. polymorpha in shallow areas are the preferred foraging areas, and these mussel colonies can be located rather quickly by migrating waterfowl. Migrating waterfowl may carry larval or juvenile mussels in their feathers or on their feet, but it is highly unlikely that they disperse mussels from one waterbody to another.

Crayfish can be the site of D. polymorpha settlement. If they are moved from an infected area to an uninfected area after settlement, but prior to their molting event, it is possible that they could transport mussels.

Adult D. polymorpha will settle on and colonize submerged aquatic plants. If plants are transported from an infected lake to an uninfected body of water, it is likely that adult D. polymorpha may well be transported, too. Some possible means of unintentional transport include plants attached to boat trailers and plants in or on bait buckets or other fishing gear.

Accidental Introduction

Human-mediated dispersal mechanisms (e.g., artificial waterways, ships, fishing activities, amphibious planes and recreational equipment) are the most probable means for rapid spread of the species.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture Yes Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Yes
Interconnected waterways Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes Yes
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Machinery and equipment Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes
Ship ballast water and sediment Yes Yes
Ship hull fouling Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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The tendency of D. polymorpha to form dense aggregates on hard surfaces has led to serious economic impact in municipal, industrial and private water systems. When large numbers of larvae settle in man-made raw water systems they accumulate in great numbers forming thick mats which can restrict water flow even in large diameter piping, increase in the corrosion of iron or steel piping and riveting, as well as the fouling of pumps, forbays, and holding tanks, trashracks, and condenser units (Kovalak et al., 1993; Minchin et al., 2002). Illustrations and descriptions of damage to structures in the Turkish water industry are provided in Aksu et al. (2017).  

Environmental Impact

Top of page Impact on Habitats

They remove particles from the water column, increasing water clarity and reducing pollution. Some particles are consumed as food, and faeces are deposited on the lake floor. Non-food particles are combined with mucus and other matter and deposited on lake floors as pseudofaeces (Minchin et al., 2002). D. polymorpha causes a decrease of oxygen concentrations from mussel respiration and elimination of phytoplankton; it cause an increase of dissolved nutrients from excretion; accumulation, biosedimantation and deposition of pollutants and trace elements and deposition of organic matter that is contained in faeces and pseudofaeces (http://www.issg.org/).

Impact on Biodiversity

D. polymorpha attach to crayfish, turtle shells as well as other mussels. When a native mussel has D. polymorpha attached, the native mussel loses its ability to move, feed, breath, and breed. Eventually this will lead to the death of the native mussel. Loss of native mussel populations has increased dramatically where D. polymorpha are present, particularly in the Great Lakes and Hudson and Mississippi rivers. Dense colonization of hard substrates is beneficial to benthic invertebrates, as habitat complexity increases as does availability of organic matter. Spawning reefs of fishes such as lake trout are negatively affected by D. polymorpha colonies.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Acipenser brevirostrum (shortnose sturgeon)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesConnecticut; Maryland; Massachusetts; New York; Pennsylvania; VirginiaAltered food webNational Marine Fisheries Service, 1998
Epioblasma brevidens (Cumberlandian combshell)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAlabama; Kentucky; Mississippi; Tennessee; VirginiaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesButler and Biggins, 2004
Epioblasma triquetra (snuffbox)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFoulingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Quadrula cylindrica strigillata (rough rabbitsfoot)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTennesseeEcosystem change / habitat alterationButler and Biggins, 2004
Quadrula fragosa (winged mapleleaf)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesMinnesotaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Villosa fabalis (rayed bean)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFoulingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Villosa perpurpurea (purple bean)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFoulingButler and Biggins, 2004

Social Impact

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The occurrence of D. polymorpha in shallow areas where bathing occurs has resulted in an increase in foot lacerations with possible consequences of infection from a number of freshwater organisms that may include Leptospira interogans that causes Weil’s disease (Minchin et al., 2002).

Along shorelines, windrows of mussels destroy beaches and the decaying mussels produce an extremely foul smell (Zebra Mussel Research Program, 1993). The sharp shell of the D. polymorpha is razor-like and is a hazard to barefoot swimmers and beachcombers. This combination spoils the most pristine of locations and prohibits recreational activities.

In the past 125 years, over 100 ships have sunk in or near Thunder Bay, Lake Huron, which has created an attraction to the recreational diver. These wrecks are now host to D. polymorpha infestation (ZMIS, 2002).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Filtration
  • Fouling
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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There are two bivalves that are most likely to be confused with Dreissena polymorpha are the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis and the false dark mussel, Mytilopsis leucophaeta. M.leucophaeta is found in salt marsh habitats, and differs from both species of Dreissena in having a narrow myophore plate with a well-developed apophysis. Both D. bugensis and M. leucophaeta attach to various substrates using byssal attachments and grow to approximately the same maximum size as D. polymorpha.

If one examines the ventral shell margin and ventral shell edge of the mussels, differences are visible. D. polymorpha has a concave or flattened bottom and acutely angled shell margin. Both features provide additional stability for the attached mussel. If one places representatives from all three species in a flat dish, D. polymorpha will be the only one able to stay upright. Both D. bugensis and M. leucophaeta have a convex ventral edge and a round ventral or bottom margin (ZMIS, 2002).

Prevention and Control

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Physical/mechanical control

Dreissena often form thick encrustations on man-made structures or within raw water systems, negatively affecting their operation and efficiency. There are various methods of physical/mechanical control of these mussels, including scraping, scrubbing, pigging, high-pressure water jetting, heated water treatment, carbon dioxide pellet blasting, freezing and dessication, etc. (ZMIS, 2002; Aksu et al., 2017). Divers may be employed for manual and mechanical cleaning (Aksu et al., 2017). Low-voltage AC currents and acoustic vibrations have also been investigated for preventing settlement and attachment (Aksu et al., 2017).

Various different materials and coatings for pipes and equipment have been assessed for their impact on mussel adhesion (Aksu et al., 2017).

Biological control

In recent trials with the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A, Molloy et al. (2004) achieved >90% adult Dreissena kill. The mussels (both D. polymorpha and D. rostriformis bugensis) were found to die from intoxication due to a natural product present within bacterial cells. In a separate study of the P. fluorescens CL0145A toxicity, neither native North American unionid mussels (Molloy, 1998) nor several other not-target species demonstrated any mortality (Daniel P Molloy, New York State Museum, personal communication, 2008). The method applying this bacterial strain for Dreissena control has been patented and currently is being developed for commercialization.

Chemical control

The main control technologies for Dreissena macrofouling focus on molluscicides such as chlorine, bromine, ozone, aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and quaternary ammonium compounds. Although many chemical treatments have been tested (Waller et al., 1993; Claudi and Mackie, 1994; EPRI 1993; McMahon et al., 1994), chlorination is most widely used. The main advantage of using chemical treatments is that they can be engineered to protect almost the entire facility (Claudi and Mackie, 1994). However, toxic materials have to be discharged back to the environment, where they cause serious negative impacts on numerous non-target species. Therefore, new methods for targeted removal and control of zebra mussles are under continuous investigation.

Monitoring and Surveillance 

Monitoring is extremely important not only for initial detection of Dreissena but also for gathering additional information such as the life cycle stage that invading mussels are in, their abundance, and the effectiveness of implemented control. Therefore, an effectively run monitoring programme may be of great value for developing economically-effective control strategies (ZMIS, 2002).

 There are two categories of Dreissena monitoring strategies (ZMIS, 2002):

  • Initial inspection: intended to determine if infestation is currently exist, where the mussels are located, and if the population densities require control measures. The focus of this strategy is to examine large volumes of water for planktonic mussel larvae and/or to inspect large surface areas for attached mussels.

  • Long-term monitoring programmes: including long-term records of spawning, settlement times and rates, and growth rates. Such record keeping can provide reliable information for the future on: 1) time of initial detection of the mussels in any of their life cycle stages; 2) seasonal/annual patterns of settling/colonisation, and 3) planning and evaluating control activities.

Detailed descriptions of the methods used in both strategies of monitoring can be found in the Zebra Mussel Information System (ZMIS, 2002).

References

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Ackerman JD, Sim B, Nichols SJ, Claudi R, 1994. A review of the early life history of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha): Comparisons with marine bivalves. Can. J. Zool, 72:1169-1179.

Aksu S, Yildiz D, Güngör PA, 2017. The Zebra Mussel in Turkey. Report No: 7. Ankara, Turkey: Hydropolitics Association, 40 pp. https://supolitikalaridernegiblog.files.wordpress.com/2017/01/the-zebra-mussel-in-turkey-report2.pdf

Astanei I, Gosling E, Wilson J, Powell E, 2005. Genetic variability and phylogeography of the invasive zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Molecular Ecology, 14:1655-1666.

Bax N, Hayes K, Marshall A, Parry D, Thresher R, 2002. Man-made marinas as sheltered islands for alien marine organisms: Establishment and eradication of an alien invasive marine species. Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species [ed. by Veitch, C. R. \Clout, M. N.]. Auckland: Invasive Species Specialist Group of The World Conservation Union (IUCN), 26-39. [Invasive Species Specialist Group of The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Occasional Paper 27.]

Belgian Federal Public Service, 2008. The zebra mussel and the Asiatic clam. https://portal.health.fgov.be/portal/page?_pageid=56,13806570&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL

Benson AJ, Raikow D, Larson J, Fusaro A, 2012. Dreissena polymorpha. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida, USA: United States Geological Survey. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=5

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Binimelis R, Monterroso I, Rodriguez-Labajos B, 2007. A Social Analysis of the Bioinvasions of Dreissena polymorpha in Spain and Hydrilla verticillata in Guatemala. Environ Manage, 40:555-566.

Blažka F, 1893. "Do Cech zavlecená slávka: Dreissena polymorpha Pall". Vesmír, 22(15):177-178.

Boron A, Wo Nicki P, Skuza L, Zielinski R, 2004. Cytogenetic characterization of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) from Miedwie Lake, Poland. Folia biologica (Krakow), 52:33-38.

Butler, R. S., Biggins, R. G., 2004. In: Recovery Plan for Cumberland Elktoe (Alasmidonta atropurpurea), Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), Cumberlandian Combshell (Epioblasma brevidens), Purple Bean (Villosa perpurpurea), and Rough Rabbitsfoot (Quadrula cylindrica strigillata). US Fish and Wildlife Service, ix + 168 pp..

Claudi R, Mackie G, 1994. Practical manual for zebra mussel monitoring and control. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publishers.

EPRI, 1993. Hazard identification of commercially available biocides to control zebra mussels and Asiatic clams. Electric Power Research Institute. [TR-103175, prepared by the Syracuse Research Corporation, Syracuse, NY.]

GBIF, 2009. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://data.gbif.org

Giusti F, Oppi E, 1972. Dreissena polymorpha new record newly discovered in Italy (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, 20:45-50.

Gollasch S, Leppäkoski E, 1999. Initial Risk Assesment of Alien Species in Nordic Coastal Water. Copenhagen, Denmark: Nordic Council of Ministers.

Gregory TR, 2003. Genome size estimates for two important freshwater molluscs, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the schistosomiasis vector snail (Biomphalaria glabrata). Genome, 46(5):841-844.

ISSG, 2005. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

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Jansson K, 1994. Alien species in the marine environment. Introduction to the Baltic Sea and the Swedish west coast. Swedish Environment Protection Agency Report., 1-68.

Karatayev AY, Burlakova LE, Paddila DK, 2002. Impacts of zebra mussel on aquatic communities and their role as ecosystem engineers. In: Invasive aquatic species of Europe. Distribution, impacts and management [ed. by Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S] Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 433-446.

Karatayev AY, Burlakova LE, Padilla DK, 2007. Dreissena polymorpha in Belarus: history of spread, population biology, and ecosystem impacts. In: The zebra mussels in Europe [ed. by Velde, G. der \Rajagopal, S. \Bij Vaate, A. de]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers BV.

Karatayev AY, Burlakova LE, Padilla DK, Johnson LE, 2003. Patterns of Spread of the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas)): the Continuing Invasion of Belarussian Lakes. Biological Invasions, 5(3):213-221.

Kearney MP, Morton BS, 1970. The distribution of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in Britain. Journal of Conchology, 27:97-100.

Kinzelbach R, 1992. The main features of the phylogeny and dispersal of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. In: The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, Ecology, Biological Monitoring and First Application in Water Quality Management [ed. by Neuman D, Jenner HA] Stuttgart, Germany: Gustav Fisher, 5-17.

Kotta J, Orav H, Kotta I, 1998. Distribution and filtration activity of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, 47(1):32-41.

Kovalak WP, Longton GD, Smithee RD, 1993. Infestation of power plant water systems by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). In: Zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control [ed. by Nalepa, T. F. \Schloesser, D. W.]. Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers, 358-380.

Lajtner J, Maruši´c Z, Klobucar GIV, Maguire I, Erben R, 2004. Comparative shell morphology of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha in the Drava river (Croatia). Biologia, Bratislava, 59(5):595-600.

Mackie GL, Gibbons WN, Muncaster BW, Gray IM, 1989. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: a synthesis of European experiences and a preview for North America. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Ministry of Environment, vi + 110 pp.

Marsden JE, Spidle AP, May B, 1996. Review of genetic studies of Dreissena spp. Amer. Zool, 36:259-270.

McCarthy TK, Fitzgerald J, O'Connor W, 1997. The occurrence of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas 1771), an introduced biofouling freshwater bivalve in Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal, 25:413-416.

McMahon RF, 1990. The Zebra Mussel: U.S. Utility Implications. Research Project 1689-24. EPRI GS-6995. Palo Alto, California, USA: Electric Power Research Institute.

McMahon RF, Ussery TA, Clarke M, 1994. Control of zebra mussels in service water. Dreissena polymorpha Information Review (Zebra Mussel Information Clearinghouse Newsletter), 2-3.

Mills EL, Rosenberg G, Spidle AP, Ludyansky M, Pligin Y, 1996. A review of biology and ecology of the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), a second species of freshwater dreissenid introduced to North America. American Zoologist, No. 36:271-286.

Minchin D, Lucy F, Sullivan M, 2002. Zebra mussel: Impacts and spread. Distribution, Impacts and Management. In: Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe [ed. by Leppäkoski, E. \Gollasch, S. \Olenin]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 135-146.

Molloy DP, 1998. The potential for using biological control technologies in the management of Dreissena spp. Journal of Shellfish Research, 17(1):177-183.

Molloy DP, Gaylo MJ, Mayer DA, Presti KT, 2004. Progress in the biological control of zebra mussels: results of laboratory and power plant tests. Abstracts of the 13th International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, 20-24 September 2004, Sligo, Ireland, pp 88.

Molloy DP, Karataev AYu, Burlakova LT, Kurandina DP, Laurelle F, 1997. Natural emenies of Zebra Mussels: predators, parasites, and ecological competitors. Fisheries Science, 5(1):27-97.

Morton BS, 1979. Studies on the biology of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas): Population dynamics. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 38:471-482.

Nalepa TF, Schloesser DW, 1992. Zebra mussel: biology, impacts, and control. CRC Press, 810 p.

National Marine Fisheries Service, 1998. In: Recovery Plan for the Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). National Marine Fisheries Service, 104 pp..

NOBANIS, 2008. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org

Nuttall CP, 1990. Review of the Caenozoic heterodont bivalve superfamily Dreissenaceae. Palaeontology, 33:707-737.

Olenin S, 2005. Invasive aquatic species in the Baltic states. Monograph. Klaipeda University Press, 42 pp.

Olenin S, Orlova M, Minchin D, 1999. Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771). In: Case histories on introduced species: their general biology, distribution, range expansion and impact [ed. by Gollasch S, Minchin D, Rosenthal H, Voigt M] Berlin, Germany: Logos-Verlag, 37-42.

Orlova MI, Nalepa TF, 2003. Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771). http://www.zin.ru/projects/invasions/gaas/drepol.htm

Ovchinnikov IF, 1933. Contemporary spreading of Dreissena polymorpha Pallas (Mollusca) in the BSSR - Zoogeographical essay. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1:365-373.

Son MO, 2007. Native range of the zebra mussel and quagga mussel and new data on their invasions within the Ponto-Caspian Region. Aquatic Invasions, 2(3):174-184. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2007/AI_2007_2_3_Son.pdf

Spada ME, Ringler NH, Effler SW, Matthews DA, 2002. Invasion of Onondaga Lake, New York, by the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Following Reductions in N Pollution. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 21(4):634-650.

Spidle AP, Mills EL, May B, 1995. Absence of naturally occurring hybridization between the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) and the zebra mussel (D. polymorpha) in the lower great Lakes. Can. J. Zool, 73:400-403.

Sporka F, Nagy S, 1998. The macrozoobenthos of parapotamon-type side arms of the Danube river in Slovakia and its response to flowing conditions. Biológia (Bratislava), 53(5):633-643.

Starobogatov JI, 1994. Freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pall.) (Bivalvia, Dreissenidae): systematics, ecology, practical meaning. Moscow, Russia: Nauka, 241 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Baltic Sea Alien Species Databasehttp://www.ku.lt/nemo/mainnemo.html
Group on Aquatic Alien Species (Zoological Institute, Russia)http://www.zin.ru/projects/invasions/index.html
NOAA GLERL Great Lakes Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Information Systemhttp://www.glerl.noaa.gov
Sea Grant National Aquatic Nuisance Species Clearinghousehttp://aquaticinvaders.org

Organizations

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Lithuania: Coastal Research and Planning Institute (Lithuania), Klaipeda University, H. Manto 84, Klaipeda, LT92294, http://www.corpi.ku.lt/

Russian Federation: Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, http://www.zin.ru/

USA: NOAA: Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/

Contributors

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26/08/08 Original text by:

Rasa Bukontaite, Klaipedos Universiteto, jaun. mokslo darbuotoja, Baltijos pajurio aplinkos, tyrimu ir planavimo, LT-92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania

Anastasija Zaiko, Klaipeda University, Coastal Research and Planning Institute, H. Manto 84, Klaipeda, LT-92294, Lithuania

Distribution Maps

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