Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Barringtonia asiatica
(sea poison tree)

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Datasheet

Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Barringtonia asiatica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sea poison tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. asiatica is a widespread tree present in coastal areas in India, Africa, Asia, Melanesia and the West Indies. This species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Ra...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); habit. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); habit. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); habit. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
HabitBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); habit. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); habit. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); habit. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2006.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); habit. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2006.
HabitBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); habit. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2006.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); leaves and fruit. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2006.
TitleLeaves and fruit
CaptionBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); leaves and fruit. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2006.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); leaves and fruit. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2006.
Leaves and fruitBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); leaves and fruit. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2006.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); fallen flowers. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleFallen flowers
CaptionBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); fallen flowers. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); fallen flowers. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Fallen flowersBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); fallen flowers. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); spent flowers. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleSpent flowers
CaptionBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); spent flowers. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); spent flowers. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Spent flowersBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); spent flowers. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); fallen fruits. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleFallen fruits
CaptionBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); fallen fruits. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); fallen fruits. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Fallen fruitsBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); fallen fruits. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); mature, fallen fruit. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
TitleMature, fallen fruit
CaptionBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); mature, fallen fruit. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Barringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); mature, fallen fruit. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.
Mature, fallen fruitBarringtonia asiatica (Barringtonia, hotu, hutu, shaving brush tree); mature, fallen fruit. Kamalii Park Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz

Preferred Common Name

  • sea poison tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Agasta asiatica (L.) Miers
  • Agasta indica Miers
  • Agasta splendida Miers
  • Barringtonia butonica J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
  • Barringtonia senequei Jard.
  • Barringtonia speciosa J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
  • Butonica speciosa (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Lam.
  • Butonica speciosum (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Britten
  • Mammea asiatica L.
  • Michelia asiatica (L.) Kuntze
  • Mitraria commersonia J.F.Gmel.

International Common Names

  • English: fish poison tree
  • Spanish: arbol de muertos; arzobispo; barringtonia
  • Chinese: bin yu rui

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Asian barringtonia; barringtonia; beach barringtonia
  • Dominican Republic: arbol del seminario; calmante; coco de cofresi
  • Haiti: birrete de arzobispo; bonete de arzobispo
  • Indonesia: bitung; butun; keben-keben
  • Lesser Antilles: arbre a barrette; bishop's cap; bonnet de pretre; bonnet d'eveque; mitre's cap; pain tree
  • Malaysia: butong; putat ayer; putat laut
  • Papua New Guinea: maliou
  • Philippines: bitung; boton; botong
  • Puerto Rico: almendrota; bonete de arzobispo; coco de mar; mudilla
  • Thailand: chik ta lae; don ta lae
  • USA/Hawaii: fish poison tree; putat laut; sea putat

EPPO code

  • BGTAS (Barringtonia asiatica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. asiatica is a widespread tree present in coastal areas in India, Africa, Asia, Melanesia and the West Indies. This species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012), and at present it has only been listed as invasive for the Dominican Republic (Kairo et al., 2003).  However, considering that B. asiatica has a great dispersal capability and its fruits can remain viable and floating on the sea for many months, the likelihood of reaching and colonizing new coastal areas is high. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Theales
  •                         Family: Lecythidaceae
  •                             Genus: Barringtonia
  •                                 Species: Barringtonia asiatica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Lecythidaceae is a pantropical family of trees and shrubs comprising 25 genera and about 340 species (Stevens, 2012). This family is confined to tropical regions where it is best developed in warm and very humid areas. Plants within the family Lecythidaceae (sensu lato) are characterized by alternate, simple leaves, perfect flowers, cortical bundles in the stem, numerous stamens, three-aperturate pollen, axile placentation, and a bitegmic-tenuinucellate ovule (Morton et al., 1997). Currently, Lecythidaceae is included within the order Ericales, and in spite of the fact that its position within the clade is not well-defined, is considered monophyletic (Anderberg et al. 2002). The genus Barringtonia includes 70 species restricted to the Old World (Stevens, 2012). 

Many of the common names of this species reflect its use as a fish poison. The seeds have been used ground to a powder to stun or kill fish for easy capture, suffocating the fish without affecting the flesh.

Description

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B. asiatica is a large tree, 7 to 25 m tall, growing as a mangrove associate on sandy and rocky shores. Branches stout; bark fissured. Leaves sessile, obovate to obovate-oblong, 20-40 × 10-20 cm, leathery, shiny, base cuneate, margin entire, apex obtuse or broadly rounded.  Racemes mostly terminal, erect, 5-15 cm, 5-10(-20)-flowered; bracts ovate, 8-20 mm; bracteoles triangular, 1.5-5 mm. Pedicel 5-9 cm. Flower buds 2-4 cm in diam. Calyx undivided, rupturing at anthesis into 2 or 3 unequal, rounded or acuminate, persistent lobes 3-4 × 2-3 cm and a tube 3-5 mm. Petals 4, white, ovate or elliptic, 5-6 cm. Stamens in 6 whorls; tube 1.5-6 mm; filaments and style white, red-tipped; outer filaments 7-9 cm. Ovary 4-loculed, 5-9 mm; ovules 4 or 5 per locule; style 11-13 cm. Fruit dispersed by floating, broadly pyramidal, smooth, 9-11 cm, apex tapering and crowned by calyx; pericarp spongy, fibrous, green at first than turning brown when ripe and floats on water. The middle layer is spongy (like the coconut) and contains air sacs to help the fruit float (Polunin, 1987; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Distribution

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B. asiatica is native to tropical coasts and islands of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. It has been introduced into East Africa, Hawaii, and the West Indies, where it has naturalized. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
Cocos IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedFlowers of India, 2014Cultivated
IndonesiaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-JavaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-KalimantanPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-MoluccasPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-SulawesiPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-SumatraPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-SabahPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
-SarawakPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
MaldivesPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
MyanmarPresentNativeYaplito, 2001
PhilippinesPresentNativeYaplito, 2001
Sri LankaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
TaiwanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Listed as both native and introduced
ThailandPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
VietnamPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014

Africa

ComorosPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
MadagascarPresentNative Natural Govaerts and Tulig, 2014
MauritiusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
RéunionPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
SeychellesPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014
-ZanzibarPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2014

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised - Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
DominicaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
MontserratPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2014Naturalised
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2014Naturalised - St Croix

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentNative Natural Govaerts and Tulig, 2014
Cook IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
FijiPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
Marshall IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
NiuePresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
PalauPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
SamoaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
TongaPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
TuvaluPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
VanuatuPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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In the West Indies, B. asiatica was probably introduced late in the 1800s. The oldest botanical records at the US National Herbarium report the occurrence of large trees of B. asiatica for the islands of Antigua in 1913 and Haiti in 1926. 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of B. asiatica is moderate. This species produces fruits that can survive on the sea for long distances and for periods up to 2 years, facilitating its dispersal capability (Polunin, 1987; Yaplito, 2001).

Habitat

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B. asiatica grows as a mangrove associate in coastal locations including sandy and rocky seashores, coral-sand flats, and mangrove swamp from sea level up to 350 m altitude. It is a common plant in mangroves and wetlands on islands in the Indian and Pacific oceans (Polunin, 1987; Yaplito, 2001; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). It can also be found in gardens and city parks where it is grown along streets for decorative and shade purposes. Even when B. asiatica is an almost exclusively littoral species, in some localities trees may grow further inland on calcareous hills or cliffs (Yaplito, 2001). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Mangroves Principal habitat Natural
Mangroves Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for B. asiatica is 2n = 26 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

Within and outside its native distribution range, B. asiatica produces flowers and fruits almost all year-round (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Anthesis is nocturnal; flowers are showy and fragrant and attract large moths and nectar-feeding bats. The next morning, flowers are also visited by bees (Polunin, 1987).    

Associations

In Asia and the Pacific Ocean, B. asiatica is commonly associated with Intsia bijuga, Hibiscus tilliaceus and Calophyllum inophyllum close to the beach.

Environmental Requirements

B. asiatica grows in sandy and rocky beaches in wet tropical, moist topical and wet subtropical climatic zones with uniform rainfall pattern. This species does not tolerate frost and prefer areas with warm temperatures (20 - 35°C). B. asiatica grows in coastal coral soils with pH 5.1 - 8.5 and tolerates shallow, saline and infertile soils. 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 34.5

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall11504300mm; lower/upper limits

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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B. asiatica colonizes coastal areas where it competes with native coastal and mangrove related vegetation and eventually grows out of suppression. 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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In the Philippines, the leaves of B. asiatica are heated and externally applied for stomach-ache. Fresh leaves are topically applied against rheumatism, and the seeds are employed as a vermifuge. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the fruit or seed is used as a fish poison. In the Bismarck Archipelago, the fresh nut is scraped and applied directly to a sore. The dried nut is ground, mixed with water and drunk to treat coughs, influenza, sore throat and bronchitis. Externally it is applied to wounds and a swollen spleen after an attack of malaria. In Fiji, a decoction of the leaves is used to treat hernias and a decoction of the bark to treat constipation and epilepsy. In Australia, the aborigines use the plant as a fish poison and sometimes to alleviate headache. In Indo-China the young fruits are consumed as a vegetable after prolonged cooking. It is often planted as a shade tree along boulevards and avenues along the sea. The wood is light and soft and is used for light work, carving and turnery (Yaplito, 2001). 

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anderberg AA; Rydin C; Källersjö M, 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Ericales s.l.: analyses of molecular data from five genes from the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. American Journal of Botany, 89(4):677-687.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flowers of India, 2014. Flowers of India. http://www.flowersofindia.net/

Govaerts R; Tulig M, 2014. World Checklist of Lecythidaceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Morton CM; Mori SA; Prance GT; Karol KG; Chase MW, 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of Lecythidaceae: a cladistic analysis using rbcL sequence and morphological data. American Journal of Botany, 84(4):530-540.

Polunin I, 1987. Plants and Flowers of Singapore., Singapore: Times Editions, 68 pp.

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Rojas-Sandoval J; Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2014. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Yaplito MA, 2001. Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz. Record from Prosea base. PROSEA base [ed. by Valkenburg, J. L. C. H. van \Bunyapraphatsara, N.]. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation. http://www.proseanet.org

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flowers of Indiahttp://www.flowersofindia.net/
National Tropical Botanical Gardenhttp://ntbg.org/plants/
Plant Resources for South-East Asiahttp://proseanet.org/prosea/
Plants of the Eastern Caribbeanhttp://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Contributors

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18/06/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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