Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pantherophis guttatus
(corn snake)

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Datasheet

Pantherophis guttatus (corn snake)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pantherophis guttatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • corn snake
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Reptilia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. guttatus is a corn snake native to southeastern USA that has been introduced throughout the Caribbean, to parts of Europe, Hawaii and some mainland US states. All known introductions are via stowaways in car...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Red Cornsnake (Pantherophis guttatus); adult, Monroe County, Florida, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionRed Cornsnake (Pantherophis guttatus); adult, Monroe County, Florida, USA.
Copyright©Gary Nafis - CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Red Cornsnake (Pantherophis guttatus); adult, Monroe County, Florida, USA.
AdultRed Cornsnake (Pantherophis guttatus); adult, Monroe County, Florida, USA.©Gary Nafis - CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); in habitat. USA. March, 2005.
TitleIn habitat
CaptionCorn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); in habitat. USA. March, 2005.
Copyright©Chris Evans/Illinois Wildlife Action Plan/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); in habitat. USA. March, 2005.
In habitatCorn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); in habitat. USA. March, 2005.©Chris Evans/Illinois Wildlife Action Plan/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); Close-up of head. USA. March, 2005.
TitleHead
CaptionCorn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); Close-up of head. USA. March, 2005.
Copyright©Chris Evans/Illinois Wildlife Action Plan/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); Close-up of head. USA. March, 2005.
HeadCorn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); Close-up of head. USA. March, 2005.©Chris Evans/Illinois Wildlife Action Plan/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); in hand, showing distinctive belly pattern and general size. USA. March, 2005.
TitleVentral view
CaptionCorn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); in hand, showing distinctive belly pattern and general size. USA. March, 2005.
Copyright©Chris Evans/Illinois Wildlife Action Plan/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); in hand, showing distinctive belly pattern and general size. USA. March, 2005.
Ventral viewCorn snake (Pantherophis guttatus); in hand, showing distinctive belly pattern and general size. USA. March, 2005.©Chris Evans/Illinois Wildlife Action Plan/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pantherophis guttatus Linnaeus

Preferred Common Name

  • corn snake

Other Scientific Names

  • Callopeltis guttatus Lonnberg
  • Coluber caroliniaus Shaw
  • Coluber compressus Donndorf
  • Coluber floridanus Harlan
  • Coluber guttatus Linnaeus
  • Coluber guttatus guttatus Cope
  • Coluber guttatus sellatus Cope
  • Coluber laetus Boulenger
  • Coluber Maculatus Bonnaterre
  • Coluber molossus Daudin
  • Coluber pantherinus Daudin
  • Coluber rosaceus Cope
  • Coryphodon pantherinus Dumeril, Bibron and Dumeril
  • Elaphe emoryi intermontana Woodbury and Woodbury
  • Elaphe guttata
  • Elaphe guttata Sivak
  • Elaphe guttata Stejneger and Barbour
  • Elaphe guttata guttata Neil
  • Elaphe guttata rosacea Neill
  • Elaphe guttata rosaea Haast and Anderson
  • Elaphe guttatus Dunn
  • elaphe rosacea Barbour
  • Elaphe rosaliae Stejneger and Barbour
  • Elaphew laeta Burt
  • Elaphis alleghanensis Jan and Sordelli
  • Elaphis guttatus Dumeril
  • Natrix guttatus Merrem
  • Natrix maculatus Merrem
  • Natrix pantherinus Merrem
  • Pantherophis guttata Fitzinger
  • Pantherophis guttatus Utiger et al.
  • Pituophis guttatus Burbank
  • Scotophis guttatus Baird and Girard
  • Scotophis laetus Baird and Girard

International Common Names

  • English: eastern corn snake; red ratsnake

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gewohnliche Kornnatter
  • USA: red cornsnake

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. guttatus is a corn snake native to southeastern USA that has been introduced throughout the Caribbean, to parts of Europe, Hawaii and some mainland US states. All known introductions are via stowaways in cargo, plants shipments and pet trade invasion pathways (Kraus, 2009; Giery, 2013). The main ecological impacts of P. guttatus are currently on limited or small populations of native animals that may be consumed as prey, including mammals, birds, frogs and lizards. Additionally, non-native species may be consumed, such as Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) (Meshaka, 2011), Cuban brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), tropical house geckos (Hemidactylus mabouia), and domestic animals such as birds. Despite striking and biting in self-defense, P. guttatus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Reptilia
  •                     Order: Serpentes
  •                         Family: Colubridae
  •                             Genus: Pantherophis
  •                                 Species: Pantherophis guttatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Based on molecular data, Burbrink (2002) recognized three distinct lineages formerly under the name Elaphe guttata. These consist of Pantherophis emoryi, P. guttatus, and P. slowinskii. Utiger et al. (2002) conducted molecular analysis on New World and Old World Elaphe and resurrected the genus Pantherophis for North American rat snakes north of Mexico.

Description

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P. guttatus is extremely variable in colour pattern. Adults are orangish-brown with black bordered orange, red, or brownish blotches. The belly is usually a black and white checkerboard pattern, though orange may also be present; underside of the tail has 2 black stripes; there is a spear-shaped pattern on the head and neck; scales are weakly keeled; pupil is round; and there are 27–29 dorsal scale rows at midbody (Conant and Collins, 1998). Juveniles are similar in appearance to adults, but may be more brownish in colouration. Natural populations of anerythristic (genetic mutation where red colouration is replaced by gray) snakes exist in southern Florida. It attains a total length (TL) up to 182.9 cm (Conant and Collins, 1998; Jensen et al., 2008), but median size is ca. 60 cm TL.

Distribution

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P. guttatus is native to southeastern USA, from southern New Jersey south to the Florida Keys and west to eastern Louisiana (Conant and Collins, 1998; Burbrink, 2002). Isolated populations occur in Kentucky and southern Arkansas (Ernst and Ernst, 2003). It has been introduced throughout the Caribbean, to parts of Europe, Hawaii and some mainland US states.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

Spain
-Canary IslandsAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedPleguezuelos, 2004

North America

USA
-CaliforniaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1935 Not invasive Jennings, 1987; Brown, 1997; Jennings, 2004
-ColoradoAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1976 Not invasive Livo et al., 1998
-HawaiiAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1990s Not invasive Kraus and Cravalho, 2001
-MassachusettsAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1980-1981 Not invasive Cardoza et al., 1993

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Hodge et al., 2003
Antigua and BarbudaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Kairo et al., 2003; Powell and Henderson, 2003
BahamasPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1993Buckner and Franz, 1994; Hayes et al., 2004; Lee, 2004; Knapp et al., 2011; Henderson and Breuil, 2012; Giery, 2013
BonaireAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced2002Perry et al., 2003; Buurt van, 2005; Buurt van, 2006
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Perry and Gerber, 2006; Perry and Gerber, 2006Peter Island
Cayman IslandsPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1985Franz et al., 1987; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Seidel and Franz, 1994; Echternacht et al., 2011
CuraçaoAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced2003Perry et al., 2003; Buurt van, 2006
French West IndiesAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1996 Not invasive Breuil, 2002; Hodge et al., 2003; Questel and Vitry, 2012St. Barthelemy
MartiniqueAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Breuil, 2009
Sint MaartenAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Powell et al., 2005; Powell, 2006
Turks and Caicos IslandsAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Reynolds and Niemiller, 2010
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1990sHodge et al., 2003; Perry et al., 2003; Platenberg and Boulon, 2006; Perry and Platenberg, 2007; Platenberg, 2007

South America

BrazilAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1990sEterovic and Duarte, 2002

Europe

GermanyAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1980sMünch, 1992; Geiger and Waitzmann, 1996
SpainAbsent, formerly present2001Introduced1996 Not invasive Pleguezuelos, 2004; Kraus, 2009

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. guttatus began to be introduced within the USA in the 20th century. It only really began to spread throughout the Caribbean and further afield from the 1980s onwards.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Anguilla   No No Hodge et al. (2003); Hodge et al. (2011) Cargo
Antigua and Barbuda   No No Kairo et al. (2003); Powell and Henderson (2003)
Bahamas Florida 1993-2012 Nursery trade (pathway cause) Yes No Buckner and Franz (1994); Giery (2013); Hayes et al. (2004); Knapp et al. (2011); Lee (2004)
Bahamas   No No Henderson and Breuil (2012) Guana Cay
Bonaire   No No Buurt van (2005); Buurt van (2006); Perry et al. (2003)
Brazil 1990s Pet trade (pathway cause) No No Eterovic and Duarte (2002)
British Virgin Islands   No No Perry and Gerber (2006) Peter Island
British Virgin Islands   No No Perry and Gerber (2006) Tortola
California 1935 Pet trade (pathway cause) No No Brown (1997); Jennings (1987); Jennings (2004) Cargo
Canary Islands   Pet trade (pathway cause) No No Pleguezuelos (2004)
Cayman Islands 1985 Nursery trade (pathway cause) Yes No Echternacht et al. (2011); Franz et al. (1987); Schwartz and Henderson (1991); Seidel and Franz (1994)
Colorado 1976 No No Livo et al. (1998) Cargo
French West Indies 1996 Nursery trade (pathway cause) No No Breuil (2002); Hodge et al. (2003); Questel and Vitry (2012)
Germany 1980s Pet trade (pathway cause) No No Geiger and Waitzmann (1996); Münch (1992)
Hawaii 1990s Pet trade (pathway cause) No No Kraus and Cravalho (2001)
Martinique   No No Breuil (2009)
Massachusetts 1980-1981 No No Cardoza et al. (1993)
Sint Maarten   No No Powell (2006); Powell et al. (2005)
Spain 1996-2001 Pet trade (pathway cause) No No Pleguezuelos (2004)
Turks and Caicos Islands   No No Reynolds and Niemiller (2010)
United States Virgin Islands 1990s No No Hodge et al. (2003); Perry and Platenberg (2007); Perry et al. (2003); Platenberg (2007); Platenberg and Boulon (2006) Cargo

Risk of Introduction

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P. guttatus has the potential to reduce limited or small populations of native wildlife species by preying upon them or competing for habitat or food. The main ecological impacts are currently on native animals that may be consumed as prey, including mammals, birds, frogs and lizards. Additionally, non-native species may be consumed, such as Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) (Meshaka, 2011), Cuban brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), tropical house geckos (Hemidactylus mabouia), and domestic animals such as birds. Despite striking and biting in self-defense, P. guttatus likely does not pose a threat to humans.

Habitat

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P. guttatus inhabits pinelands, hardwood hammocks, swamps, mangroves, agricultural fields and residential areas (Conant and Collins, 1998; Jensen et al., 2008). It is primarily active at night and is both a terrestrial burrower and extremely good climber. It is commonly found under rocks and logs (Jensen et al., 2008), in trees under bark and within palm fronds.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Wetlands Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Natural
Mangroves Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

There are currently no subspecies recognized.

Reproductive Biology

P. guttatus lays eggs. Breeding occurs from April-June (Seigel and Ford, 1991Jensen et al., 2008), 3–40 eggs are laid during the summer, and newborns hatch in July-September.

Longevity

P. guttatus can live up to 32 years in captivity (de Magalhaes and Costa 2009).

Activity Patterns

P. guttatus is primarily active at night and is both a terrestrial burrower and extremely good climber. It only preys on nests at night, which is potentially dangerous to adult birds on the nest. Often shows up after other snakes have found the nest, potentially following them to the nest (DeGregorio et al., 2016).

Nutrition

P. guttatus is an opportunistic generalist predator in its native range that actively hunts at night for mammals, birds and their eggs, frogs and lizards.

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
birds and their eggs
crab
crayfish
crocodiles and their eggs
Cuban brown anole All Stages
domestic cat
fish
Hemidactylus mabouia All Stages
lizzard All Stages
mussels
All Stages
snake
turtle

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
39.5 24.5

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) Optimum Unknown
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) Optimum Unknown
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) Optimum Unknown
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) Optimum Unknown
Depth (m b.s.l.) Optimum Unknown
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) Optimum Unknown
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) Optimum Unknown
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum
Salinity (part per thousand) 35 Harmful
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) Optimum Unknown
Velocity (cm/h) Optimum Unknown
Water pH (pH) Optimum Unknown
Water temperature (ºC temperature) Optimum Unknown

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Predators of P. guttatus include carnivorous mammals, including domestic dogs and cats, birds and snakes, including kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula) and eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon couperi) (Jensen et al., 2008).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Because of its general habitat requirements, P. guttatus has successfully expanded its range to include edificarian situations and offshore islands, including the Florida Keys, where it is likely in its highest population density.

Accidental Introduction

P. guttatus has been accidentally introduced to many areas via cargo and plant shipments, as well as by escaping from the enclosures of pet owners (Kraus, 2009). Comparing its Caribbean distribution from before 2000 with 2013 illustrates a range expansion probably due to independent introductions (Giery, 2013).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationThis species is imported for the pet trade, but some snakes escape locally within their native range Yes Yes Kraus, 2009
Nursery tradeThis species has been introduced via cargo and nurseries. Yes Yes Kraus, 2009
Pet tradeA once common pet trade species. Yes Enge, 1994

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - wood Yes Kraus, 2009
Pets and aquarium speciesPet trade Yes Yes Enge, 1994

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Economic Impact

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The invasion of P. guttatus is relatively recent and economic impacts have not yet been examined. Large individuals will consume rodents which might otherwise eat crops, so in this way they may provide an economically beneficial pest control service.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

P. guttatus is unlikely to have any negative impacts on habitats. It does altar or create habitats to live in. It is found under rocks and logs (Jensen et al., 2008), in trees under bark and within palm fronds.

Impact on Biodiversity

The main ecological impacts of P. guttatus are currently the reduction of limited or small populations of native animals that may be consumed as prey, including mammals, birds, frogs and lizards. Additionally, non-native species may be consumed such as Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) (Meshaka, 2011), Cuban brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), tropical house geckos (Hemidactylus mabouia) and domestic animals such as birds.

Social Impact

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Fear of snakes is mostly irrational, especially of non-venomous species. Nonetheless, many people are afraid of snakes, which could cause them to panic when a snake is encountered. P. guttatus is too small to prey upon or kill domestic dogs or cats, but large individuals will consume rodents, which may make them be seen in a positive light by residents.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Impact mechanisms
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

During a two-year period from 1990 to 1992, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) conducted a study to collect data on the scope and magnitude of the commercial pet trade in native herpetofauna, to better manage wildlife resources (Enge, 1994). P. guttatus was the second most commonly collected and sold native species (n = 13,827), behind only the Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis; n = 14,097). P. guttatus has been one of the most popular species in the pet trade for more than three decades, likely due to the plethora of artificial colour pattern phenotypic mutations observed in cross-breeding experiments (Love and Love, 2000).

Social Benefit

P. guttatus is extremely common in the pet trade, and most world-wide exhibitors at reptile expos commonly sell, trade, and discuss techniques of captive husbandry.

Uses List

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General

  • Pet/aquarium trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. guttatus can be mistaken for the mole kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster), but it has a light Y-shaped pattern on the back of the head and neck, a clouded brownish belly, and lacks a distinct neck.

Prevention and Control

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There does not appear to be any quarantine or certification measures associated with importation of P. guttatus, or early detection and rapid response. There are also no known dedicated eradication programs or control measures for P. guttatus. Individual animals are found and removed opportunistically by humans.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Although little is known about P. guttatus in its invasive range, studying these animals in the wild there should be secondary to dedicated eradication attempts. Nonetheless, in areas where eradication is unfeasible studies should be conducted on gathering life history data to help manage introduced populations, as well as determining its origin in its native distribution via genetic testing to produce a needed thorough phylogeographic study.

References

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Breuil M, 2002. Natural history of amphibians and terrestrial repitles the Guadeloupean archipelago: Guadeloupe, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthelemy. (Histoire naturelle des amphibiens et repitles terrestres de l'archipel Guadeloupéen: Guadeloupe, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthélemy.) Patrimoines Natureles, 54:1-339.

Breuil M, 2009. The terrestrial herpetofauna of Martinique: Past, present, future. Applied Herpetology, 6:123-149.

Brown PR, 1997. A field guide to snakes of California. Houston, Texas, USA: Gulf Publishing.

Buckner SD, Franz R, 1994. Geographic distribution: Elaphe guttata. Herpetological Review, 25:166.

Buckner SD, Franz R, Reynolds RG, 2012. Bahama Islands and Turks & Caicos Islands. Island lists of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, 51:85-166.

Burbrink FT, 2002. Phylogeographic analysis of the cornsnake (Elaphe guttata) complex as inferred from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 25:465-476.

Buurt G van, 2005. Field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. Frankfurt, Germany: Edition Chimaira.

Buurt G van, 2006. Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire. Applied Herpetology, 3:307-321.

Cardoza JE, Jones GS, French TW, Halliwell DB, 1993. Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts, 2nd edition. Fauna of Massachusetts Series, no. 6. Westborough, Massachusetts, USA: Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife.

Conant R, Collins JT, 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. In: A Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin, 608 pp.

DeGregorio BA, Weatherhead PJ, Sperry JH, 2016. Ecology and predation behaviour of corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) on avian nests, Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 11(1):150-159

Echternacht AC, Burton FJ, Blumenthal JM, 2011. The amphibians and reptiles of the Cayman Islands: Conservation issues in the face of invasions. In: Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Volume 2: Regional Accounts of the West Indies [ed. by Hailey, A. \Wilson, B. S. \Horrocks, J.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 129-147.

Enge KM, 1994. Herptile use and trade in Florida. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Comm. Nongame Wildlife Program Final Performance Report. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, 102 pp.

Ernst CH, Ernst EM, 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Washington D.C., USA: Smithsonian Books.

Eterovic A, Duarte MR, 2002. Exotic snakes in São Paulo City, southeastern Brazil: why xenophobia? Biodiversity and Conservation, 11:327-339.

Franz R, Morgan GS, Davies JE, 1987. Some recent introductions of reptiles in the Cayman Islands, West Indies. Herpetological Review, 18:10-11.

Geiger A, Waitzmann M, 1996. Survivability of introduced amphibians and reptiles in Germany: implications for species conservation. (Überlebensfähigkeit allochthoner Amphibien und Reptilien in Deutschland: Konsequenzen für den Artenschutz.) In: Gebietsfremde Tiergarten [ed. by Gebhart, H. \Kinzelbach, R. \Schmidt-Fischer, S.]. Landsberg, Germany: Ecomed, 227-239.

Giery ST, 2013. First records of red cornsnakes (Pantherophis guttatus) from Abaco Island, The Bahamas, and Notes on Their Current Distribution in the Greater Caribbean Region. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians, 20:36-39.

Hayes WK, Barry RX, McKenzie Z, Barry P, 2004. Grand Bahama's Brown-headed Nuthatch: A distinct and endangered species. Bahamas Journal of Science, 12:21-28.

Henderson RW, Breuil M, 2012. Lesser Antilles. Island lists of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, 51:85-166.

Hodge KVD, Censky EJ, Powell R, 2003. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Anguilla. The Valley, Anguilla: Anguilla National Trust.

Hodge KVD, Powell R, Censky EJ, 2011. Conserving the herpetofauna of Anguilla. In: Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Volume 2: Regional Accounts of the West Indies [ed. by Hailey, A. \Wilson, B. S. \Horrocks, J.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 3-15.

Jennings MR, 1987. Annotated check list of the amphibians and reptiles of California, 2nd, revised edition. Special Publication no. 3 of the Southwestern Herpetologists Society. California, USA: Southwestern Herpetologists Society.

Jennings MR, 2004. An annotated check list of the amphibians and reptiles of California and adjacent waters (third revised edition). California Fish and Game, 90:161-213.

Jensen JB, Camp CD, Gibbons W, Elliott MJ, 2008. Amphibians and Reptiles of Georgia. Athens, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Press.

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp.

Knapp CR, Iverson JB, Buckner SD, Cant SV, 2011. Conservation of Amphibians and Reptiles in The Bahamas. In: Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Volume 2: Regional Accounts of the West Indies [ed. by Hailey, A. \Wilson, B. S. \Horrocks, J.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 53-87.

Kraus F, 2009. Invading nature: Springer series in invasion ecology 4. Springer, 563 pp.

Kraus F, Cravalho D, 2001. The risk to Hawaii from snakes. Pacific Science, 55:409-417.

Lee DS, 2004. Additional reptiles and amphibians introduced to the Bahamas: a growing conservation concern. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society, 39:161-164.

Lee DS, 2005. Reptiles and amphibians introduced to the Bahamas: a potential conservation crisis. Bahamas Journal of Science, 12:2-6.

Livo LJ, Hammerson GA, Smith HM, 1998. Summary of amphibians and reptiles introduced into Colorado. Northwestern Naturalist, 79:1-11.

Love K, Love B, 2000. Corn Snake Manual, Advanced Vivarium Systems.

Magalhaes Jde, Costa J, 2009. A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 22:1770-1774.

Meshaka WE Jr, 2011. A runaway train in the making: the exotic amphibians, reptiles, turtles, and crocodilians of Florida. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 6(Monograph 1):iii + 94 pp. http://herpconbio.org/Volume_6/Monographs/Meshaka_2011.pdf

Münch D, 1992. Abandoned amphibian and reptile species in Dortmund. (Ausgesetzte Amphibien- und Reptilienarten in Dortmund und weitere herpetologische Kurzmitteilungen.) Dortmunder Beiträge zur Landeskunde, Naturwissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 26:34-45.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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10/12/13 Original datasheet by:

Kenneth Krysko, University of Florida, USA

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