Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural Food Sources
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards, 1853
Preferred Common Name
- Chinese mitten crab
International Common Names
- English: big gate crab; big sluiceway crab; Chinese freshwater edible crab; Chinese mitten crab; Chinese mitten crab; Chinese mitten-handed crab; Chinese river crab; crabe chinois; hairy crab; mitten crab; river crab; Shanghai crab; villus crab
- Russian: kitajskij mokhnatorukij krab
- Chinese: pangxie
Local Common Names
- Denmark: kinesiske uldhandskrabbe
- Finland: villasaksirapu
- Germany: Chinesische Wollhandkrabbe; Wollhandkrabbe
- Lithuania: kinijos krabas
- Netherlands: Chinese wolhandkrab
- Poland: krab welnistoreki; kraba welnistoreki
- Sweden: kinesisk ullhandskrabba
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
E. sinensis, commonly known as the mitten crab for its dense mat of hair on its claws is native to eastern Asia. It was first found outside its native range in Europe in 1912 near the Weser River in Germany. Since then it has spread widely with a recent new record from Ireland. It is also known from North America with established populations on the west coast in San Francesco Bay and reports from the east coast in Chesapeake Bay. In Germany, in the 1930s, the first mass development occurred and millions of juvenile crabs were observed during their upstream migration to inland freshwater systems. The migrating behaviour supports the rapid spread of this species. It is included in the IUCN and GloBallast lists of problematic alien species. The negative impacts of E. sinensis include competition with native species, predation (including target species for commercial and recreational fishing), increased river bank erosion and clogging of commercial water intakes.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Crustacea
- Class: Malacostraca
- Subclass: Eumalacostraca
- Order: Decapoda
- Suborder: Reptantia
- Unknown: Grapsidoidea
- Family: Grapsidae
- Genus: Eriocheir
- Species: Eriocheir sinensis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
E. sinensis has hairy claws with white tips which make the crab appear to be wearing "mittens" and hence the common name (Gollasch, 2006).
Clark (2006) recently revised the taxonomic classification of R. sinensis moving it from the Grapsidae family to the Varunidae. The taxonomy is often under debate and is believed to include six species (Veilleux and de Lafontaine, 2007).
DescriptionTop of page
E. sinensis is named the ‘mitten crab’ because of the dense mat of hair which occurs on the white-tipped chela (claws) of larger juveniles and adults. Claws and chelipeds are equal in size. The shell (carapace) is markedly convex, has four acute spines on either side and a notch between the eyes. It reaches a width of approximately 3 inches (80 mm). The legs of the adult crab are generally more than twice as long as the width of the carapace. The propodus of the last ambulatory legs are narrow and slender, their dactylus sharply claw shaped. Adult crabs are greyish green, light brown orange-brown or dark brown, sometimes with two pale spots on the carapace (ISSG, 2004). Juveniles are frequently lighter coloured than adults. Females have a wide abdominal flap that extends to the edge of the abdomen when fully mature; males have a narrower abdominal flap.
DistributionTop of page
E. sinensis originates from the Far East, with a native distribution from the province of Fujien, China, at 26°N, northwards to the Korean Peninsula at 40°N (see Naser et al., 2012). In China it is found in coastal provinces and cities such as Liaoning, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Fujian, and inland in Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei and Hunan. With the continuing expansion of aquaculture of this species in China, most provinces have populations of crabs (Zhao et al., 1998).
This species is also found in other temperate zones throughout the world in the northern hemisphere only. It was first recorded in the River Aller near the Weser River in Germany in 1912, and during the 1920s and 1930s it spread rapidly throughout northern Europe, in western Baltic and North Sea estuaries. Its present estimated distribution ranges from Finland, through Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic (Prague), Netherlands, Belgium, the UK and France. The southernmost Atlantic coast record is Portugal. It has extended its range via the Garonne canal system to Sigean, Languedoc-Roussillon, southern France (ISSG, 2004). In the UK its range and prevalence in the Thames Basin increased rapidly during the 1990s (Clark et al., 1998), and there have been other sightings in the rivers Medway, Mersey and Tyne, and on the Devon coast (Herborg et al., 2002). There is also a single record from Ireland (Minchin, 2006).
The crab has also been reported from North America with reports from the Detroit River and Great Lakes (without establishment). Evidence suggests that the population in the San Francisco bay area is steadily on the increase (NHM, 2004). There are also records of this species from the Mississippi River (one only), Chesapeake Bay and the St Lawrence seaway (S Gollasch, GoConsult, Germany, personal communication, 2010).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Pacific, Northwest||Present||Native||Not invasive||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|China||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Anhui||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Chongqing||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Fujian||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Guangdong||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Guangxi||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Hainan||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Hebei||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Henan||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Hong Kong||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Hubei||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Hunan||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Jiangsu||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Jiangxi||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Liaoning||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Macau||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Shandong||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Shanghai||Present||CAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001|
|-Sichuan||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Yunnan||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|-Zhejiang||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|Japan||Present||CAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001|
|Korea, DPR||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Native||ISSG, 2004|
|Taiwan||Present||Native||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|Canada||Present||Introduced||1994||DFO, 1994; Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|USA||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004|
|-California||Present||Introduced||1992||Gollasch , 1997; NHM, 2004; USGS, 2016|
|-Louisiana||Present||Introduced||Gollasch , 1997; USGS, 2016|
|-Michigan||Present||Introduced||1965||Gollasch , 1997|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||USGS, 2016|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||USGS, 2016|
|-Ohio||Present||Introduced||1973||Gollasch , 1997; GSMFC, 2003; USGS, 2016|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Introduced||1987||Gollasch , 1997|
|Belgium||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004|
|Czech Republic||Present||Introduced||1926||Gollasch , 1997; NHM, 2004|
|Czechoslovakia (former)||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|Denmark||Present||Introduced||1930||Invasive||Gollasch , 1997; Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004|
|Estonia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Kotta , 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007|
|Finland||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998; NHM, 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007|
|France||Present||Introduced||1960||Invasive||Zhao and et al. , 1998; CIESM, 2003; ISSG, 2004|
|Germany||Present||Introduced||1912||Invasive||Gollasch , 1997; Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004; NHM, 2004; Gollasch, 2006||Near the Weser River|
|Ireland||Present||Minchin, 2006||First recorded 2006|
|Lithuania||Present||Ojaveer et al., 2007|
|Netherlands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Gollasch , 1997; ISSG, 2004; NHM, 2004|
|Norway||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998; Ojaveer et al., 2007|
|Poland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004; NHM, 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007|
|Portugal||Present||Introduced||1988||Cigoña and Ferreira, 1996|
|Russian Federation||Present||Native||Invasive||Zhao and et al. , 1998; NHM, 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007|
|-Russian Far East||Present||CAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001|
|Spain||Present||Introduced||1997||Cuesta et al., 2006|
|Sweden||Present||Introduced||Zhao and et al. , 1998; NHM, 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007|
|UK||Present||Introduced||1935||Invasive||Gollasch , 1997; Clark and et al, 1998; Zhao and et al. , 1998; Herborg and et al. , 2002; ISSG, 2004; NHM, 2004|
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Czech Republic||Germany||1926||Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)||Unknown||Yes||Gollasch (1997)|
|Denmark||Germany||1930||Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)||Unknown||Yes||Gollasch (1997)|
|Netherlands||Germany||1930||Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)||Unknown||Yes||Gollasch (1997)|
|UK||2002||Unknown||Herborg and et al. (2002)|
HabitatTop of page
Juvenile E. sinensis are present in estuaries and marine habitats however as they age they migrated into freshwater and brackish habitats (Sewell, 2016). They do not spend much time on land.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Wetlands||Present, no further details|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details|
|Coastal dunes||Present, no further details|
|Lakes||Present, no further details|
|Rivers / streams||Present, no further details|
|Estuaries||Present, no further details|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
A molecular study examining the variation in the mitochondrial CO1 gene of E. sinensis crabs in Europe, America and China identified seven different haplotypes which were closely related to each other (Veilleux and de Lafontaine, 2007).
E. sinensis has an usual life history, they are catadromous, spending most of their life in freshwater, but must return to the sea to breed. Males and females move downstream during late summer and attain sexual maturity in tidal estuaries. Depending on size, females can produce between 250,000 and 1 million eggs (ADW, 2016).
The females are thought to continue seaward after mating, overwintering in deeper water before returning to brackish water in the spring to hatch their eggs. The adults are semelparous in that they mate once and then die. Larval development probably occurs in the lower estuary, with juvenile crabs gradually moving upstream into fresh water to complete the lifecycle.
The lifespan of E. sinensis is dependent upon a number of factors such as water temperature and salinity for example but can range from one to five years (ADW, 2016).
E. sinensis is omnivorous and consumes both plants and small invertebrates. Feeding habits shift during the lifecycle with larvae feeding on phyto and zooplankton, juveniles on aquatic plants and adults with a carnivorous diet (ISSG, 2016). E. sinensis has a voracious appetite, which is at its height during the growth season in July, August and September (in China). They normally feed at night, but when close to sexual maturity they also forage and feed during the daytime. Food reserves are saved up in the liver. E. sinensis can endure starvation of ten or more days without food (Lin, 1994).
E. sinensis can tolerate a broad range of water temperatures and salinities. It has been reported that an adult crab can surive at temperature from 4-32 °C (Veilleux and de Lafontaine, 2007).
Natural Food SourcesTop of page
|Food Source||Life Stage||Contribution to Total Food Intake (%)||Details|
|aquatic plants||Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval||(Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton crispus, Wolffia arrhiza, Lemna spp., Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera and Najas)|
|benthic animals (snails, clams, river scallop and freshwater annelids)||Adult/Broodstock|
|Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval||zooplankton (protozoa, rotifers, Daphnia magna, and copepods)|
|phytoplankton (diatoms, dinoflagelates, unicellular and filamentous algae)||Fry/Larval|
|zooplankton (protozoa, rotifers, Daphnia magna, copepods)||Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Ardeidae||Predator||Fry/Larval||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|Cybister sugillatus||Predator||Fry/Larval||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|Ictalurus punctatus||Predator||Fry/Larval||ISSG, 2004|
|Morone saxatilis||Predator||Fry/Larval||ISSG, 2004|
|Rana||Predator||Fry/Larval||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
|Rattus nitidus||Predator||Fry/Larval||Zhao and et al. , 1998|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
There is little information with regard to the natural enemies of E. sinensis however juveniles are likely to be consumed by larger crustaceans, fish, birds and mammals (Sewell, 2016).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
E. sinensis will naturally migrate towards the sea to reproduce. Distances of 1500 km have been reported (Sewell, 2016). Juveniles will also naturally migrate upstream to freshwater.
E. sinensis has been accidentally introduced into new locations in ballast water.
E. sinensis has been intentionally introduced into new lcoations for aquarium purposes.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||Negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
The burrowing activity of crabs, especially large numbers of juveniles, accelerates the erosion of dykes, stream banks and levées in European countries.
E. sinensis have affected commercial and recreational fishing. Crabs caught in the nets can damage the nets and kill netted species. They also are responsible for bait loss and damage to fishing gear. Water intakes were reported to be clogged by mitten crabs during mass developments.
In China, crabs may consume rice shoots.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
The burrowing activity of crabs, especially large numbers of juveniles, accelerates the erosion of dykes, stream banks and levées in European countries. Crabs probably damage the aquatic food chain of freshwater and estuarine habitats. During 1998, large numbers of migrating adult crabs disrupted endangered fish salvage operations at water diversion facilities in California, USA. The crabs followed moving water into the facility and clogged the fish holding tanks (ISSG, 2004).
Crabs probably damage the aquatic food chain of freshwater and estuarine habitats. They are omnivorous and non-discriminatory in their diet. They affect other species through competition, overlapping in dietary and habitat preferences. In the UK they may threaten populations of native crayfish (NHM, 2004).
Social ImpactTop of page
This species is a host for lung fluke (Paragonimus westermani) in Asia. Mammals, including humans are also hosts of this parasite after consuming raw or inadequately cooked crab. Lung fluke has not yet been reported in the crab's European range (Gollasch, 2006).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts livelihoods
- Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
UsesTop of page
In Southeast Asia, E. sinensis is one of the most commercially valuable crabs in East and Southeast Asia (e.g., see Peng, 1986; Zhao et al., 1988; Ng, 1998; Lai and Lu, 1992), where the gonads, which develop during the annual downstream migration, are regarded as a delicacy. Eating the developing mitten crab gonads has been part of Chinese culture for many centuries dating back to the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), when skilled craftsmen made a set of gold utensils for eating a crab that included a mallet, scissors, a shell cracker, a round salver, scoop, spoon, a long fork and combined scraper and pricker. Today, E. sinensis command a high price in Souteast Asian restaurants (e.g., ca. $40 for a single crab in the right condition) during the autumnal months when they are harvested during their brackish estuarine water and marketed. Typically while in season, E. sinensis can be purchased from street markets as in Hong Kong. However, wild Chinese populations have dramatically declined due to overexploitation, increased demand, river pollution and irrigation schemes that have disrupted the natural migration patterns of this species (Hymanson et al., 1999). But, local and international demands for E. sinensis have been met by an intensive aquaculture programme and this species has been farmed throughout China for the last 40 years (Sui et al., 2009) especially along the Yangtze valley (Jin et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2006). This industry is estimated to be worth ca. US$ 1.25 billion annually.
Mitten crabs have also been a popular subject for beautiful brush-stroke paintings in China. E. sinensis may also be used as bait for fishing.
Uses ListTop of page
Human food and beverage
- Cured meat
- Eggs (roe)
- Fish meal
- Fresh meat
- Frozen meat
- Live product for human consumption
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
There are a number of related species in Southeast Asia: E. japonicus De Haan, 1835, E. hepuensis Dai, 1991, and E. ogasawaraensis Komai, Yamasaki, Kobayashi, Yamamoto and Watanabe, 2006.
ReferencesTop of page
ADW, 2016. Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Nesticella/classification/
Bai JinHai et al, 1994. New Practical Technologies on the Resource Enhancement and Culture of River Crab. Beijing, China: China Agricultural Press, 102.
CIESM, 2003. Atlas of exotic crustaceans in the Mediterranean 2003. CIESM online. http://www.ciesm.org/atlas/Metapenaeusmonoceros.html . Accessed on 4 May 2004.
Cigoña EFde la; Ferreira S, 1996. [English title not available]. (Tres Crustáceos del Bajo Miño: el carangrejo chino Eriocheir sinensis; el carangrejo de río Ibérico Austrapotamobius pallipes y el carangrejo de río Americano Procambarus clarkii.) In: Actas do I Simpósio Ibérico sbre a bacia Hidrográfica do rio Minho, 26-28 Junho de 1996, Vila Nova de Cerveira, Portugal.
Clark PF, et al. , 1998. The alien Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura), in the Thames catchment. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK, 78,1215-1221.
Cuesta JA; González-Ortegón E; Rodríguez A; Baldó F; Vilas C; Drake P, 2006. The decapod crustacean community of the Guadalquivir Estuary (SW Spain): Seasonal and inter-year changes in community structure. Hydrobiologia, 557:85-95.
DFO, 1994. National Report for Canada - Aquaculture and Habitat Science Branch, Department of Fisheries and Oceans. ICES Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organism, Mystic, Connecticut, USA, 20-22 April 1994, CM1994/ENV:7, Ref: F, 26-33 p.
Doi W; Watanabe S; Carlton JT, 2011. Alien marine crustaceans of Japan: a preliminary assessment. In: Alien marine crustaceans: distribution, biology and impacts, Invading Nature. Springer Series in Invasion Ecology 6 [ed. by Galil, B. S. \Clark, P. F. \Carlton, J. D.]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 419-450.
FishStat, 2003. Fishstat Plus version 2.3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Gollasch S, 1997. Eriocheir sinensis. In: Baltic Research Network on Ecology of Marine Invasions and Introductions. Olenin S, Daunys D, eds. Online at http://www.ku.lt/nemo/mainnemo.htm. Accessed 02 June, 2004.
GSMFC, 2003. Fact sheet for Eriocheir sinensis – Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Online at http://nis.gsmfc.org/nis_factsheet.php?toc_id=132. Accessed 03 June, 2004.
Herborg LM; Bentley MG; Clare AS, 2002. First confirmed record of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) from the River Tyne, United Kingdom. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 82(5):921-922.
Hymanson Z; Wang J; Sasaki T, 1999. Lessons from the home of the Chinese mitten crab. IEP Newsletter, 12:25-32.
ISSG, 2004. Global invasive species database entry for Eriocheir sinensis. Online at www.issg.org. Accessed 26 May, 2004.
ISSG, 2016. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/
Jin G; Li Z; Xie P, 2001. The growth patterns of juvenile and precocious Chinese mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis (Decapoda, Grapsidae), stocked in the freshwater lakes of China. Crustaceana, 74:261-273.
Kotta J, 2004. Invasive species of Estonia. Online at http://www.sea.ee/Sektorid/merebioloogia/MASE/Benthic_invertebrates.htm. Accessed 01 June, 2004.
Lai W; Lu J, 1992. Study on the decapod crustacean community in Chiangjiang River estuary. Transactions of the Chinese Crustacean Society, 3:23-29.
Lin FuShen, 1987. Valuable and Rare Aquatic Animals in China. Survey and Zoning of China Fishery Resources (Volume 13). Zhejiang, China: Zhejiang Scientific and Technological Press, 170.
Lin LeFeng, 1994. Culture and Trade on River Crab. Beijing, China: China Agricultural Press, 138.
Lin LeFeng, 1999. Cyclopedia of Culture and Trade on River Crab. Beijing, China: China Agricultural Press, 367.
Naser MD; Page TJ; Ng NK; Apel M; Yasser AG; Bishop JM; Ng PKL; Clark PF, 2012. Invasive records of Eriocheir hepuensis Dai, 1991 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae): implications and taxonomic consideration. BioInvasions Records, 1(1):71-86.
Naser MD; Page TJ; Ng NK; Apel M; Yasser AG; Bishop JM; Ng PKL; Clark PF, 2012. Invasive records of Eriocheir hepuensis Dai, 1991 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae): implications and taxonomic considerations. BioInvasions Records, 1(1):71-86. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2012/1/BIR_2012_1_Naser_etal.pdf
NHM, 2004. The Chinese mitten crab. Online at www.nhm.ac.uk/zoology/crab. Accessed 27 May, 2004.
Ojaveer H; Gollasch S; Jaanus A; Kotta J; Laine AO; Minde A; Normant M; Panov VE, 2007. Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in the Baltic Sea - a supply-side invader? Biological Invasions, 9(4):409-418. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e734g626348r00hu/?p=8b0427c7a5184d71872cb2dd53622be3&pi=4
Peng W, 1986. Preliminary study on the problem of variation of Eriocheir sinensis in Zhujiang river valley. Information of Fisheries Science and Technology, 2:19-22.
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Robbins RS; Sakari M; Baluchi SN; Clark PF, 2006. The occurrence of Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Varunidae) from the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Aquatic Invasions, 1(1):32-34. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2006/AI_2006_1_1_Robbins_etal.pdf
Sewell J, 2016. Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. 3 pp. http://www.nonnativespecies.org/factsheet/downloadFactsheet.cfm?speciesId=1379
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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Images of confiscated mitten crab. New York fish importer sentenced to prison for illegally importing mitten crab. Online at http://northeast.fws.gov/mittencr.html. Accessed 27 May, 2004.
USGS NAS, 2016. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida, USA: USGS. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/
Veilleux E; Lafontaine Yde, 2007. Biological synopsis of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 2812. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/330849.pdf
Wang HZ; Wang HJ; Liang XM; Cui FB, 2006. Stocking models of Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir japonica sinensis) in Yangtze lakes. Aquaculture, 255:456-465.
Wang KeXing; et al, 1997. Studies on the stock enhancement and culture technologies on shrimps and crabs (special for aquaculture). Beijing, China: China Agricultural Press, 314.
Xu BuShao, 1996. New Technology on Crab Culture. Beijing, China: Jindun Press, 199.
Zhao NaiGang; Shen DeJin; Wang YiPing, 1998. New Technology on River Crab Culture. Beijing, China: China Agricultural Press, 156.
ContributorsTop of page
15/05/2014 Updated by:
01/03/10 Updated by:
Stephan Gollasch, GoConsult, Grosse Brunnenstr. 61, 22763 Hamburg, Germany
Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No. 150, Qing Ta Cun, Yong Ding Road, Beijing 100039, China
Ouyang Haiying & Yan Caiping
Distribution MapsTop of page
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