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Datasheet

Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Vector of Animal Disease
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eriocheir sinensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese mitten crab
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. sinensis, commonly known as the mitten crab for its dense mat of hair on its claws is native to eastern Asia. It was first found outside its native range in Europe in 1912 near the Weser River in Germany. Si...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); adult, hairy claws with white tips, normally equal in size.
TitleAdult
CaptionEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); adult, hairy claws with white tips, normally equal in size.
CopyrightLi Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); adult, hairy claws with white tips, normally equal in size.
AdultEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); adult, hairy claws with white tips, normally equal in size.Li Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); juvenile, note light brown colouration.
TitleJuvenile
CaptionEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); juvenile, note light brown colouration.
CopyrightLi Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); juvenile, note light brown colouration.
JuvenileEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); juvenile, note light brown colouration.Li Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); life history.
TitleLife history
CaptionEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); life history.
CopyrightLi Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); life history.
Life historyEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); life history.Li Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); different abdomen of male (a) and female crab (b). The male crab has an apron that is shaped like an inverted "T". An adult female's apron is broad and rounded.
TitleMale and female crab abdomens
CaptionEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); different abdomen of male (a) and female crab (b). The male crab has an apron that is shaped like an inverted "T". An adult female's apron is broad and rounded.
CopyrightPan H. Q.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); different abdomen of male (a) and female crab (b). The male crab has an apron that is shaped like an inverted "T". An adult female's apron is broad and rounded.
Male and female crab abdomensEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); different abdomen of male (a) and female crab (b). The male crab has an apron that is shaped like an inverted "T". An adult female's apron is broad and rounded.Pan H. Q.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); big-eye larva.
TitleLarva
CaptionEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); big-eye larva.
CopyrightLi Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); big-eye larva.
LarvaEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); big-eye larva.Li Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); eggs.
TitleEggs
CaptionEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); eggs.
CopyrightLi Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); eggs.
EggsEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); eggs.Li Y. S. & He W. H.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); shape of mature and pre-mature female crab. An adult female's apron is broad and rounded while that of an immature female is more triangular.
TitleMature and pre-mature female crabs
CaptionEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); shape of mature and pre-mature female crab. An adult female's apron is broad and rounded while that of an immature female is more triangular.
CopyrightPan H. Q.
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); shape of mature and pre-mature female crab. An adult female's apron is broad and rounded while that of an immature female is more triangular.
Mature and pre-mature female crabsEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab); shape of mature and pre-mature female crab. An adult female's apron is broad and rounded while that of an immature female is more triangular.Pan H. Q.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards, 1853

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese mitten crab

International Common Names

  • English: big gate crab; big sluiceway crab; Chinese freshwater edible crab; Chinese mitten crab; Chinese mitten crab; Chinese mitten-handed crab; Chinese river crab; crabe chinois; hairy crab; mitten crab; river crab; Shanghai crab; villus crab
  • Russian: kitajskij mokhnatorukij krab
  • Chinese: pangxie

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: kinesiske uldhandskrabbe
  • Finland: villasaksirapu
  • Germany: Chinesische Wollhandkrabbe; Wollhandkrabbe
  • Lithuania: kinijos krabas
  • Netherlands: Chinese wolhandkrab
  • Poland: krab welnistoreki; kraba welnistoreki
  • Sweden: kinesisk ullhandskrabba

Summary of Invasiveness

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E. sinensis, commonly known as the mitten crab for its dense mat of hair on its claws is native to eastern Asia. It was first found outside its native range in Europe in 1912 near the Weser River in Germany. Since then it has spread widely with a recent new record from Ireland. It is also known from North America with established populations on the west coast in San Francesco Bay and reports from the east coast in Chesapeake Bay. In Germany, in the 1930s, the first mass development occurred and millions of juvenile crabs were observed during their upstream migration to inland freshwater systems. The migrating behaviour supports the rapid spread of this species. It is included in the IUCN and GloBallast lists of problematic alien species. The negative impacts of E. sinensis include competition with native species, predation (including target species for commercial and recreational fishing), increased river bank erosion and clogging of commercial water intakes.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Suborder: Reptantia
  •                                 Unknown: Grapsidoidea
  •                                     Family: Grapsidae
  •                                         Genus: Eriocheir
  •                                             Species: Eriocheir sinensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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E. sinensis has hairy claws with white tips which make the crab appear to be wearing "mittens" and hence the common name (Gollasch, 2006).

Clark (2006) recently revised the taxonomic classification of R. sinensis moving it from the Grapsidae family to the Varunidae. The taxonomy is often under debate and is believed to include six species (Veilleux and de Lafontaine, 2007).

Description

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E. sinensis is named the ‘mitten crab’ because of the dense mat of hair which occurs on the white-tipped chela (claws) of larger juveniles and adults. Claws and chelipeds are equal in size. The shell (carapace) is markedly convex, has four acute spines on either side and a notch between the eyes. It reaches a width of approximately 3 inches (80 mm). The legs of the adult crab are generally more than twice as long as the width of the carapace. The propodus of the last ambulatory legs are narrow and slender, their dactylus sharply claw shaped. Adult crabs are greyish green, light brown orange-brown or dark brown, sometimes with two pale spots on the carapace (ISSG, 2004). Juveniles are frequently lighter coloured than adults. Females have a wide abdominal flap that extends to the edge of the abdomen when fully mature; males have a narrower abdominal flap.

Distribution

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E. sinensis originates from the Far East, with a native distribution from the province of Fujien, China, at 26°N, northwards to the Korean Peninsula at 40°N (see Naser et al., 2012). In China it is found in coastal provinces and cities such as Liaoning, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Fujian, and inland in Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei and Hunan. With the continuing expansion of aquaculture of this species in China, most provinces have populations of crabs (Zhao et al., 1998).

This species is also found in other temperate zones throughout the world in the northern hemisphere only. It was first recorded in the River Aller near the Weser River in Germany in 1912, and during the 1920s and 1930s it spread rapidly throughout northern Europe, in western Baltic and North Sea estuaries. Its present estimated distribution ranges from Finland, through Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic (Prague), Netherlands, Belgium, the UK and France. The southernmost Atlantic coast record is Portugal. It has extended its range via the Garonne canal system to Sigean, Languedoc-Roussillon, southern France (ISSG, 2004). In the UK its range and prevalence in the Thames Basin increased rapidly during the 1990s (Clark et al., 1998), and there have been other sightings in the rivers Medway, Mersey and Tyne, and on the Devon coast (Herborg et al., 2002). There is also a single record from Ireland (Minchin, 2006).

The crab has also been reported from North America with reports from the Detroit River and Great Lakes (without establishment). Evidence suggests that the population in the San Francisco bay area is steadily on the increase (NHM, 2004). There are also records of this species from the Mississippi River (one only), Chesapeake Bay and the St Lawrence seaway (S Gollasch, GoConsult, Germany, personal communication, 2010).

There are reports of E. sinensis in Tokyo Bay, Japan in 2004 (Doi et al., 2011) and Iran (Robbins et al., 2006).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Pacific, NorthwestPresentNative Not invasive Zhao and et al. , 1998

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-AnhuiPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-ChongqingPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-FujianPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998
-HainanPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998
-HebeiPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-HenanPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998
-Hong KongPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-HubeiPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-HunanPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-JiangsuPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-JiangxiPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-LiaoningPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-MacauPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-ShandongPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-ShanghaiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-SichuanPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
-YunnanPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998
-ZhejiangPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
JapanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Korea, DPRPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeISSG, 2004
TaiwanPresentNativeZhao and et al. , 1998

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced1994DFO, 1994; Zhao and et al. , 1998
-OntarioPresentIntroduced1965USGS, 2016
-QuebecPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
USAPresentIntroduced Invasive Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced1992Gollasch , 1997; NHM, 2004; USGS, 2016
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
-DelawarePresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedGollasch , 1997; USGS, 2016
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
-MichiganPresentIntroduced1965Gollasch , 1997
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
-OhioPresentIntroduced1973Gollasch , 1997; GSMFC, 2003; USGS, 2016
-OregonPresentIntroduced1997PSU, 2004
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced1987Gollasch , 1997

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
BelgiumPresentIntroduced Invasive Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced1926Gollasch , 1997; NHM, 2004
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998
DenmarkPresentIntroduced1930 Invasive Gollasch , 1997; Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004
EstoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Kotta , 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007
FinlandPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998; NHM, 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007
FrancePresentIntroduced1960 Invasive Zhao and et al. , 1998; CIESM, 2003; ISSG, 2004
GermanyPresentIntroduced1912 Invasive Gollasch , 1997; Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004; NHM, 2004; Gollasch, 2006Near the Weser River
IrelandPresentMinchin, 2006First recorded 2006
LithuaniaPresentOjaveer et al., 2007
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Gollasch , 1997; ISSG, 2004; NHM, 2004
NorwayPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998; Ojaveer et al., 2007
PolandPresentIntroduced Invasive Zhao and et al. , 1998; ISSG, 2004; NHM, 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007
PortugalPresentIntroduced1988Cigoña and Ferreira, 1996
Russian FederationPresentNative Invasive Zhao and et al. , 1998; NHM, 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007
-Russian Far EastPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SerbiaPresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016
SpainPresentIntroduced1997Cuesta et al., 2006
SwedenPresentIntroducedZhao and et al. , 1998; NHM, 2004; Ojaveer et al., 2007
UKPresentIntroduced1935 Invasive Gollasch , 1997; Clark and et al, 1998; Zhao and et al. , 1998; Herborg and et al. , 2002; ISSG, 2004; NHM, 2004
UkrainePresentIntroducedUSGS, 2016

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
California 1992 UnknownGollasch (1997)
Canada 1994 UnknownDFO (1994)
Czech Republic Germany 1926 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Gollasch (1997)
Denmark Germany 1930 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Gollasch (1997)
France 1960 Unknown Yes CIESM (2003)
Germany 1912 Unknown Yes Gollasch (1997)
Louisiana 1987 UnknownGollasch (1997)
Michigan 1965 Unknown Yes Gollasch (1997)
Netherlands Germany 1930 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Gollasch (1997)
Ohio 1973 Unknown Yes Gollasch (1997)
Ontario 1965 UnknownGSMFC (2003)
Oregon 1997 UnknownPSU (2004)
UK 1935 Unknown Yes Gollasch (1997)
UK 2002 UnknownHerborg and et al. (2002)
Wisconsin 1987 UnknownGollasch (1997)

Habitat

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Juvenile E. sinensis are present in estuaries and marine habitats however as they age they migrated into freshwater and brackish habitats (Sewell, 2016). They do not spend much time on land.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Present, no further details
Freshwater
Lakes Present, no further details
Rivers / streams Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details
Coastal dunes Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Wetlands Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

A molecular study examining the variation in the mitochondrial CO1 gene of E. sinensis crabs in Europe, America and China identified seven different haplotypes which were closely related to each other (Veilleux and de Lafontaine, 2007).

Reproductive Biology 

E. sinensis has an usual life history, they are catadromous, spending most of their life in freshwater, but must return to the sea to breed. Males and females move downstream during late summer and attain sexual maturity in tidal estuaries. Depending on size, females can produce between 250,000 and 1 million eggs (ADW, 2016).

The females are thought to continue seaward after mating, overwintering in deeper water before returning to brackish water in the spring to hatch their eggs. The adults are semelparous in that they mate once and then die. Larval development probably occurs in the lower estuary, with juvenile crabs gradually moving upstream into fresh water to complete the lifecycle.

Longevity

The lifespan of E. sinensis is dependent upon a number of factors such as water temperature and salinity for example but can range from one to five years (ADW, 2016).

Nutrition

E. sinensis is omnivorous and consumes both plants and small invertebrates. Feeding habits shift during the lifecycle with larvae feeding on phyto and zooplankton, juveniles on aquatic plants and adults with a carnivorous diet (ISSG, 2016). E. sinensis has a voracious appetite, which is at its height during the growth season in July, August and September (in China). They normally feed at night, but when close to sexual maturity they also forage and feed during the daytime. Food reserves are saved up in the liver. E. sinensis can endure starvation of ten or more days without food (Lin, 1994).

Environmental Requirements

E. sinensis can tolerate a broad range of water temperatures and salinities. It has been reported that an adult crab can surive at temperature from 4-32 °C (Veilleux and de Lafontaine, 2007).

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
aquatic plants Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval (Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton crispus, Wolffia arrhiza, Lemna spp., Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera and Najas)
benthic animals (snails, clams, river scallop and freshwater annelids) Adult/Broodstock
Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval zooplankton (protozoa, rotifers, Daphnia magna, and copepods)
earthworms Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval
phytoplankton (diatoms, dinoflagelates, unicellular and filamentous algae) Fry/Larval
zooplankton (protozoa, rotifers, Daphnia magna, copepods) Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acipenseridae Predator Fry/Larval ISSG, 2004
Ardeidae Predator Fry/Larval Zhao and et al. , 1998
Cybister sugillatus Predator Fry/Larval Zhao and et al. , 1998
Ictalurus punctatus Predator Fry/Larval ISSG, 2004
Morone saxatilis Predator Fry/Larval ISSG, 2004
Mustelidae Predator Fry/Larval ISSG, 2004
Procyon Predator Fry/Larval ISSG, 2004
Rana Predator Fry/Larval Zhao and et al. , 1998
Rattus nitidus Predator Fry/Larval Zhao and et al. , 1998

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There is little information with regard to the natural enemies of E. sinensis however juveniles are likely to be consumed by larger crustaceans, fish, birds and mammals (Sewell, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

E. sinensis will naturally migrate towards the sea to reproduce. Distances of 1500 km have been reported (Sewell, 2016). Juveniles will also naturally migrate upstream to freshwater.

Accidental Introduction

E. sinensis has been accidentally introduced into new locations in ballast water.

Intention Introduction

E. sinensis has been intentionally introduced into new lcoations for aquarium purposes.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AquacultureAccidental through the translocation of mussel or oysters from one catchment to another Yes Yes
Interbasin transfersAs larvae in ballast water Yes Yes
Interconnected waterwaysNatural dispersal though canal systems Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Live seafood Yes Gollasch, 2006
Pets and aquarium species Yes Gollasch, 2006
Ship ballast water and sediment Yes Gollasch, 2006
Ship hull fouling Yes Gollasch, 2006
WaterLarvae disperse with water currents Yes Gollasch, 2006

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Negative
Human health Negative
Native fauna Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Trade/international relations Negative
Transport/travel Negative

Economic Impact

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The burrowing activity of crabs, especially large numbers of juveniles, accelerates the erosion of dykes, stream banks and levées in European countries.

E. sinensis have affected commercial and recreational fishing. Crabs caught in the nets can damage the nets and kill netted species. They also are responsible for bait loss and damage to fishing gear. Water intakes were reported to be clogged by mitten crabs during mass developments.

In China, crabs may consume rice shoots.

Environmental Impact

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The burrowing activity of crabs, especially large numbers of juveniles, accelerates the erosion of dykes, stream banks and levées in European countries. Crabs probably damage the aquatic food chain of freshwater and estuarine habitats. During 1998, large numbers of migrating adult crabs disrupted endangered fish salvage operations at water diversion facilities in California, USA. The crabs followed moving water into the facility and clogged the fish holding tanks (ISSG, 2004).

Crabs probably damage the aquatic food chain of freshwater and estuarine habitats. They are omnivorous and non-discriminatory in their diet. They affect other species through competition, overlapping in dietary and habitat preferences. In the UK they may threaten populations of native crayfish (NHM, 2004).

Social Impact

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This species is a host for lung fluke (Paragonimus westermani) in Asia. Mammals, including humans are also hosts of this parasite after consuming raw or inadequately cooked crab. Lung fluke has not yet been reported in the crab's European range (Gollasch, 2006).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources

Uses

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In Southeast Asia, E. sinensis is one of the most commercially valuable crabs in East and Southeast Asia (e.g., see Peng, 1986; Zhao et al., 1988; Ng, 1998; Lai and Lu, 1992), where the gonads, which develop during the annual downstream migration, are regarded as a delicacy. Eating the developing mitten crab gonads has been part of Chinese culture for many centuries dating back to the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), when skilled craftsmen made a set of gold utensils for eating a crab that included a mallet, scissors, a shell cracker, a round salver, scoop, spoon, a long fork and combined scraper and pricker. Today, E. sinensis command a high price in Souteast Asian restaurants (e.g., ca. $40 for a single crab in the right condition) during the autumnal months when they are harvested during their brackish estuarine water and marketed. Typically while in season, E. sinensis can be purchased from street markets as in Hong Kong. However, wild Chinese populations have dramatically declined due to overexploitation, increased demand, river pollution and irrigation schemes that have disrupted the natural migration patterns of this species (Hymanson et al., 1999). But, local and international demands for E. sinensis have been met by an intensive aquaculture programme and this species has been farmed throughout China for the last 40 years (Sui et al., 2009) especially along the Yangtze valley (Jin et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2006). This industry is estimated to be worth ca. US$ 1.25 billion annually.

Mitten crabs have also been a popular subject for beautiful brush-stroke paintings in China. E. sinensis may also be used as bait for fishing.

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Cured meat
  • Eggs (roe)
  • Fish meal
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Whole

Materials

  • Shell

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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There are a number of related species in Southeast Asia: E. japonicus De Haan, 1835, E. hepuensis Dai, 1991, and E. ogasawaraensis Komai, Yamasaki, Kobayashi, Yamamoto and Watanabe, 2006.

References

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ADW, 2016. Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Nesticella/classification/

Bai JinHai et al, 1994. New Practical Technologies on the Resource Enhancement and Culture of River Crab. Beijing, China: China Agricultural Press, 102.

CIESM, 2003. Atlas of exotic crustaceans in the Mediterranean 2003. CIESM online. http://www.ciesm.org/atlas/Metapenaeusmonoceros.html . Accessed on 4 May 2004.

Cigoña EFde la; Ferreira S, 1996. [English title not available]. (Tres Crustáceos del Bajo Miño: el carangrejo chino Eriocheir sinensis; el carangrejo de río Ibérico Austrapotamobius pallipes y el carangrejo de río Americano Procambarus clarkii.) In: Actas do I Simpósio Ibérico sbre a bacia Hidrográfica do rio Minho, 26-28 Junho de 1996, Vila Nova de Cerveira, Portugal.

Clark PF, et al. , 1998. The alien Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura), in the Thames catchment. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK, 78,1215-1221.

Cuesta JA; González-Ortegón E; Rodríguez A; Baldó F; Vilas C; Drake P, 2006. The decapod crustacean community of the Guadalquivir Estuary (SW Spain): Seasonal and inter-year changes in community structure. Hydrobiologia, 557:85-95.

DFO, 1994. National Report for Canada - Aquaculture and Habitat Science Branch, Department of Fisheries and Oceans. ICES Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organism, Mystic, Connecticut, USA, 20-22 April 1994, CM1994/ENV:7, Ref: F, 26-33 p.

Doi W; Watanabe S; Carlton JT, 2011. Alien marine crustaceans of Japan: a preliminary assessment. In: Alien marine crustaceans: distribution, biology and impacts, Invading Nature. Springer Series in Invasion Ecology 6 [ed. by Galil, B. S. \Clark, P. F. \Carlton, J. D.]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 419-450.

FishStat, 2003. Fishstat Plus version 2.3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Gollasch S, 1997. Eriocheir sinensis. In: Baltic Research Network on Ecology of Marine Invasions and Introductions. Olenin S, Daunys D, eds. Online at http://www.ku.lt/nemo/mainnemo.htm. Accessed 02 June, 2004.

Gollasch S, 2006. Eriocheir sinensis. DAISIE Fact Sheet. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE). http://www.europe-aliens.org/pdf/Eriocheir_sinensis

GSMFC, 2003. Fact sheet for Eriocheir sinensis – Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Online at http://nis.gsmfc.org/nis_factsheet.php?toc_id=132. Accessed 03 June, 2004.

Herborg LM; Bentley MG; Clare AS, 2002. First confirmed record of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) from the River Tyne, United Kingdom. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 82(5):921-922.

Hymanson Z; Wang J; Sasaki T, 1999. Lessons from the home of the Chinese mitten crab. IEP Newsletter, 12:25-32.

ISSG, 2004. Global invasive species database entry for Eriocheir sinensis. Online at www.issg.org. Accessed 26 May, 2004.

ISSG, 2016. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Jin G; Li Z; Xie P, 2001. The growth patterns of juvenile and precocious Chinese mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis (Decapoda, Grapsidae), stocked in the freshwater lakes of China. Crustaceana, 74:261-273.

Kotta J, 2004. Invasive species of Estonia. Online at http://www.sea.ee/Sektorid/merebioloogia/MASE/Benthic_invertebrates.htm. Accessed 01 June, 2004.

Lai W; Lu J, 1992. Study on the decapod crustacean community in Chiangjiang River estuary. Transactions of the Chinese Crustacean Society, 3:23-29.

Lin FuShen, 1987. Valuable and Rare Aquatic Animals in China. Survey and Zoning of China Fishery Resources (Volume 13). Zhejiang, China: Zhejiang Scientific and Technological Press, 170.

Lin LeFeng, 1994. Culture and Trade on River Crab. Beijing, China: China Agricultural Press, 138.

Lin LeFeng, 1999. Cyclopedia of Culture and Trade on River Crab. Beijing, China: China Agricultural Press, 367.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
A draft management plan for the genus Eriocheirhttp://www.anstaskforce.gov/Chinese-mitten-crab-plan2-02.pdf
Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Programhttp://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/ansrp/
Baltic Sea Alien Species Databasehttp://www.ku.lt/nemo/mainnemo.html
Chinese mitten crab factsheet - Ohio State Universityhttp://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~exotic/nr615au01/metzler/webpage.html
Chinese mitten crab homepage (NHM)http://www.nhm.ac.uk/zoology/crab/
CIESMhttp://www.ciesm.org/atlas/
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissionhttp://nis.gsmfc.org/
Invasive species of Estonia, Estonian Marine Institute, Univeristy of Tartuhttp://www.sea.ee/Sektorid/merebioloogia/MASE/Benthic_invertebrates.htm
Mitten crab project - Portland State University, Center for Lakes & Reservoirshttp://www.clr.pdx.edu/projects/mitten_crabs/index.htm
The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (Decapoda: Grapsidae) from Polish watershttp://www.iopan.gda.pl/oceanologia/423Norma.pdf

Contributors

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15/05/2014 Updated by:

Paul Clark,

01/03/10 Updated by:

Stephan Gollasch, GoConsult, Grosse Brunnenstr. 61, 22763 Hamburg, Germany

Main Author

Ningsheng Yang
Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No. 150, Qing Ta Cun, Yong Ding Road, Beijing 100039, China

Joint Author
Ouyang Haiying & Yan Caiping

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