Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Equus asinus
(donkeys)

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Datasheet

Equus asinus (donkeys)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Equus asinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • donkeys
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Equus asinus (donkeys) resemble horses and are characterised by their large head, long ears and cow-like tail. They can be found in tropical savannas and arid ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Equus asinus (donkeys) resemble horses and are characterised by their large head, long ears and cow-like tail. They can be found in tropical savannas and arid hill country in Australia and other arid and desert habitats elsewhere in its range. In its invasive range, Equus asinus have deleterious and potentially irreversible impacts on native flora and fauna. Damage has been documented in plant communities, soils, wildlife and water quality. Management of this species can be difficult. Cultural pressures prevent lethal methods of management from being used. Typical management techniques involve removing the species from their natural habitat and placing them in reserves where they will not pose a threat. The growing number of feral donkeys, roaming free across Sudan, Eritrea and Somalia propitiate extensive hybridisation with their wild relative Equus africanus and thus contribute to the extinction of the E. africanus.
TitleDonkey
CaptionEquus asinus (donkeys) resemble horses and are characterised by their large head, long ears and cow-like tail. They can be found in tropical savannas and arid hill country in Australia and other arid and desert habitats elsewhere in its range. In its invasive range, Equus asinus have deleterious and potentially irreversible impacts on native flora and fauna. Damage has been documented in plant communities, soils, wildlife and water quality. Management of this species can be difficult. Cultural pressures prevent lethal methods of management from being used. Typical management techniques involve removing the species from their natural habitat and placing them in reserves where they will not pose a threat. The growing number of feral donkeys, roaming free across Sudan, Eritrea and Somalia propitiate extensive hybridisation with their wild relative Equus africanus and thus contribute to the extinction of the E. africanus.
CopyrightJim Bremner
Equus asinus (donkeys) resemble horses and are characterised by their large head, long ears and cow-like tail. They can be found in tropical savannas and arid hill country in Australia and other arid and desert habitats elsewhere in its range. In its invasive range, Equus asinus have deleterious and potentially irreversible impacts on native flora and fauna. Damage has been documented in plant communities, soils, wildlife and water quality. Management of this species can be difficult. Cultural pressures prevent lethal methods of management from being used. Typical management techniques involve removing the species from their natural habitat and placing them in reserves where they will not pose a threat. The growing number of feral donkeys, roaming free across Sudan, Eritrea and Somalia propitiate extensive hybridisation with their wild relative Equus africanus and thus contribute to the extinction of the E. africanus.
DonkeyEquus asinus (donkeys) resemble horses and are characterised by their large head, long ears and cow-like tail. They can be found in tropical savannas and arid hill country in Australia and other arid and desert habitats elsewhere in its range. In its invasive range, Equus asinus have deleterious and potentially irreversible impacts on native flora and fauna. Damage has been documented in plant communities, soils, wildlife and water quality. Management of this species can be difficult. Cultural pressures prevent lethal methods of management from being used. Typical management techniques involve removing the species from their natural habitat and placing them in reserves where they will not pose a threat. The growing number of feral donkeys, roaming free across Sudan, Eritrea and Somalia propitiate extensive hybridisation with their wild relative Equus africanus and thus contribute to the extinction of the E. africanus.Jim Bremner
A herd of feral working donkeys, Manifa, Eastern Saudi Arabia, June 1978.
TitleA herd of donkeys
CaptionA herd of feral working donkeys, Manifa, Eastern Saudi Arabia, June 1978.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway
A herd of feral working donkeys, Manifa, Eastern Saudi Arabia, June 1978.
A herd of donkeysA herd of feral working donkeys, Manifa, Eastern Saudi Arabia, June 1978.©A.R. Pittaway

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • donkeys

International Common Names

  • English: African wild ass; ass; asses; donkey

Local Common Names

  • Italy: asino

DADIS local name

  • Abkhasian
  • Achdari
  • Akhdari
  • American Spotted
  • Amiatina
  • Andalusian Donkey
  • Apulian
  • Armenian
  • Ase Mallorquí
  • Asian Wild Ass
  • Asinara
  • Asino Cagusano
  • Asino di Martina Franca
  • Azerbaijan
  • Baluchi Wild Ass
  • Baudet du Poitou
  • Brazilian
  • Bukhara
  • Bukharskaya
  • Burro Majorero
  • Carbajalina
  • Common
  • Dagestan
  • Domestic Balkan donkey
  • Dubbolawi
  • Equus africanus africanus Fitzinger
  • Four-Eyebrows
  • Garañón Leonés
  • Georgian
  • Ghor-Khar
  • Guanchzhun
  • Half-Ass
  • Hemione
  • Hemippe De Syrie
  • Indian Onager
  • Jegue
  • Jerico
  • Jumento Nordestino
  • Kakhetian
  • Kara-Kalpak
  • Kazakh
  • Khulan
  • Khur
  • Kirgiz
  • Kuan-chung
  • Kwanchung
  • Lagoa dourada
  • Leonesa
  • Majorero ass
  • Makadi
  • Martinese
  • Mary
  • Mediterranean
  • Merv
  • Meskhet-Javakhet
  • Mesopotamian Onager
  • Moldoveneasca Localá
  • Mongolian Wild Ass
  • Northeastern
  • Persian
  • Persian Onager
  • Persian Wild Ass
  • Poitou
  • Ragusan
  • Raza Asinia Catalana
  • Shindawi Riding Ass
  • Sicilian
  • South Shanxi
  • Sudanese Riding
  • Swallow-Coat
  • Syrian Onager
  • Tajik
  • Thor Char
  • Transcaspian Onager
  • Turkmen
  • Uzbek
  • Viterbo Grey
  • Zamorana

DADIS main name

  • Abkhazskaya
  • Abyssinian
  • Algerian
  • Anatolian
  • Anger
  • Armyanskaya
  • Asino dell'Amiata
  • Asino dell'Asinara
  • Asino Sardo
  • Asno Andaluz
  • Asno de las Encartaciones
  • Azerbaidzhanskaya
  • Baladi
  • Benderi
  • Burro
  • Caninde
  • Cardao
  • Cariovilli
  • Catalana
  • Chigetai
  • Comune
  • Cyprus
  • Dagestanskaya
  • Damascus
  • Dezhou
  • Domaci balk. magarac
  • Dongolawi
  • Egyptian
  • Etbai
  • Grigio viterbese
  • Gruzinskaya
  • Guanzhong
  • Hamadan
  • Hassawi
  • Indian
  • Indian Wild Ass
  • Iranian
  • Iranian Onager
  • Jiami
  • Jinnan
  • Kakhetinskaya
  • Kara-Kalpakskaya
  • Kashan
  • Kassala
  • Kazakhskaya
  • Kiang
  • Kirgizskaya
  • Kulan
  • Libyan
  • Majorera
  • Mallorquina
  • Mammoth Jack Stock
  • Martina Franca
  • Maryiskaya
  • Masai
  • Meskhet- Dzhavakhetskaya
  • Meskhet-Dzhavakhetskaya
  • Miniature
  • Moldavian Local
  • Moroccan
  • Muscat
  • Native of North Africa
  • Nordestina
  • Nubian Wild Ass
  • Paulista
  • Pega
  • Poitevin
  • Puttalam Buruwa
  • Qaramani
  • Ragusana
  • Riffawi
  • Romagnola
  • Romagnolo
  • Saidi
  • Sant'Alberto
  • Sennar
  • Somali
  • Somali Wild Ass
  • Spotted
  • Standard
  • Subyani
  • Sudanese Pack
  • Syrian
  • Syrian Wild Ass
  • Tadzhikskaya
  • Tibetan
  • Toposa
  • Tswana
  • Tunisian
  • Turkmenskaya
  • Uzbekskaya
  • Xinjiang
  • Zamorano-Leonés

Summary of Invasiveness

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Equus asinus (donkeys) resemble horses and are characterised by their large head, long ears and cow-like tail. They can be found in tropical savannas and arid hill country in Australia and other arid and desert habitats elsewhere in its range. In its invasive range, Equus asinus have deleterious and potentially irreversible impacts on native flora and fauna. Damage has been documented in plant communities, soils, wildlife and water quality. Management of this species can be difficult. Cultural pressures prevent lethal methods of management from being used. Typical management techniques involve removing the species from their natural habitat and placing them in reserves where they will not pose a threat. The growing number of feral donkeys, roaming free across Sudan, Eritrea and Somalia propitiate extensive hybridisation with their wild relative Equus africanus and thus contribute to the extinction of the E. africanus.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Perissodactyla
  •                         Family: Equidae
  •                             Genus: Equus
  •                                 Species: Equus asinus

Description

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Equus asinus resemble horses and are characterised by their large head, long ears and cow-like tail. Colours can very from black, white, paint and all shades of brown and grey, however the most common is a mousey grey colour (called dun grey). Many E. asinus are spotted, speckled or striped. Most solid-colour E. asinus have a dark dorsal stripe from mane to tail and a dark stripe across their shoulders. They have an erect mane and lack the forelock of a horse. The hair can be straight, curly, short and wiry, or long and woolly. Wild E. asinus average 200cm in body length, 45cm in tail length, 125cm at the shoulder, and weigh 250kg. Domestic breed size varies greatly, depending on breed. Miniatures, the smallest breed of E. asinus, stand less than 92cm (36 inches) at the shoulder and weigh less than 180kg (400 pounds). Standard E. asinus, the average-sized breed, range from 92cm to 123cm (36 inches to 48 inches) and weigh 180 to 225kg (400 to 500 pounds). Mammoth stock, the largest breed of E. asinus, stand at an average height of 143cm (56 inches) and weigh about 430kg (950 pounds). There is generally very little sexual dimorphism in E. asinus. Wild E. asinus have the longest and narrowest hooves of any Equus species (Huggins 2002).

Distribution

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Native range: Africa (Huggins, 2002).
Known introduced range: Asia, Australasia-Pacific, North America (Department of the Environment and Heritage 2004; Rudman 1998; Smithsonian Institution 1993).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GansuPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Himachal PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Tamil NaduPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Uttar PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IraqPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
JordanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PakistanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
TurkeyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
YemenPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
BotswanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ChadPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
DjiboutiPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
EgyptPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EritreaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
EthiopiaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
GambiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
KenyaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
LibyaNative
MoroccoPresentNativeCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NigerPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
NigeriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced1679 Invasive ISSG, 2011
-AscensionPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
SenegalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SomaliaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
South AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SudanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
ZimbabwePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

North America

MexicoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
USAPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-MontanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Central America and Caribbean

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

South America

BrazilPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Europe

CyprusPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
GermanyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GreecePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SpainPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2011

Habitat

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Huggins (2002) states that, "Domestic Equus asinus are widely distributed and can be found almost everywhere in the world. However, true wild E. asinus originated in the hilly, undulating deserts of northern Africa and the Arabian peninsula and are well-adapted for life in the desert. Domestic E. asinus prefer warm, dry climates and, if left to become feral, they will return to such a habitat, like the feral E. asinus of Death Valley National Park in California. Deserts are characterized by low, unpredictable rainfall and sparse vegetation."

The Department of the Environment and Heritage (2004) states that in Australia, "Feral E. asinus prefer tropical savannas and arid hill country. Drought and severe bushfires are the only significant natural threats to feral E. asinus." In Europe, the donkey is considered to be the most threatened livestock species and is now under protection of the European Union and its measures to conserve local animal resources.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
Equus asinus are grazing herbivores, with large, flat-surfaced teeth adapted for tearing and chewing plant matter. Their primary food is grass, but they also eat other shrubs and desert plants. Like many other grazing animals, they grasp the plant first with their muscular lips, pull it into their mouth, and then tear it off with their teeth. In a study of feral E. asinus in Arizona, they were found to eat 33% forbs and 40% browse (Huggins 2002).
 
Reproduction
Feral and free-ranging E. asinus have a territorial social system (McDonnell 1998). The composition and degree of stability of territorial groups varies with particular populations studied. In some populations, each breeding male holds his own territory through which solitary females with their young pass (Woodward, 1979). Jennies in estrus are bred by the breeding male holding the particular territory. Populations have been identified in which jennies tend to stay within particular territories and have a more stable affiliation with the breeding male and other jennies in the territory, in a semi-harem type territorial breeding group (McCort, 1980). In some populations, there are groups in which subordinate males are allowed to breed some of the jennies within the territory of a dominant jack, usually following mating by the dominant jack (McCort, 1980). Territorial boundaries appear to be announced acoustically and in some instances marked with fecal piles."
 
Studies show that ovarian activity, pregnancy and parturition appear to be much less seasonal in domestic and feral E. asinus than in wild asses. The short-day anovulatory season in domestic jennies is approximately 165 days, with a high incidence of anovulatory estrus which is brief and frequent. The long-day ovulatory season then is approximately 200 days. The interovulatory interval is approximately 24-25 days. The mean length of ovulatory estrus is about 6 days, with ovulation within the last 1-2 days of estrus. Gestation length is 12 months (McDonnell, 1998).
 
Lifecycle stages
Female Wild Equus asinus give birth to one colt each year, which grows to an average weight of about 350 pounds. Since feral E. asinus have no natural predator, competitor or common diseases, most young E. asinus reach maturity and may live as long as 25 years in the wild (Royo UNDATED).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Local dispersal methods
Natural dispersal (local):

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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Feral Equus asinus populations in Mojave are having deleterious and potentially irreversible impacts on native flora and fauna. Damage has been documented in plant communities, soils, wildlife, and water quality. Of particular concern is the competition for forage, which is negatively affecting the threatened desert tortoise (see Gopherus agassizii in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). An adult E. asinus consumes as much as 2,722kg (6,000 pounds) of forage per year, and the herds reproduce at an alarming rate. Reproduction estimates for Mojave National Preserve suggest that the population grows an average of 25% each year (Stubbs, 1999). Heavy grazing on the native vegetation by feral populations of E. asinus allows non-native annuals to displace native perennials, and costs the nation an estimated $5 million per year in forage losses, implying that these species eat forage worth US$100 per animal per year. They also diminish the primary food sources of native bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and seed-eating birds, reducing the abundance of these natives (McNeely (undated); Pimentel et al. 2000).

The Department of the Environment and Heritage (2004) Australia classify feral E. asinus as serious environmental pests. They cause erosion and damage vegetation with their hard hoofs. They damage and foul waterholes, and introduce weeds through seeds carried in their dung, manes and tails. E. asinus may also compete for food and water with native animals. The impact of E. asinus on native grasses, herbs, shrubs and drinkable water is most pronounced during drought. They can quickly degrade areas close to remote waterholes, which during a drought become refuges critical to the survival of many native animals and plants. Without these refuges, native plants and animals may become locally extinct. E. asinus also have an impact on the productivity of farming land.

Results of a study in the high altitude Spiti Valley, Indian Trans-Himalaya, on the competition between seven species of livestock (Equus asinus being one of the seven) and the wild herbivore mountain ungulate bharal (Pseudois nayaur) showed that there is dietry overlap among these herbivore species. The study concluded that this high diet overlap between livestock and bharal, together with density-dependent forage limitation, results in resource competition and a decline in bharal density (Mishra et al. 2004).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCompetition - monopolizing resourcesISSG, 2011
Acanthoscyphus parishii var. goodmaniana (Cushenbury oxytheca)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Phacelia insularis var. insularis (island phacelia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Thelypodium stenopetalum (slender-petaled mustard)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998
Thymophylla tephroleuca (ashy dogweed)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTexasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1987
Castilleja cinerea (ash-grey paintbrush)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Erigeron parishii (Parish's daisy)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Festuca ligulata (Guadalupe fescue)USA ESA species proposed for listing USA ESA species proposed for listingTexasHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014
Townsendia aprica (last chance townsendia)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUtahEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing

Uses

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In Australia Equus asinus serve as pack animals and in haulage teams. E. asinus played a very important role in developing long-distance trade in Egypt, because of their weight-bearing capacity and their adaptation for desert travel. In ancient Egypt, female E. asinus were kept as dairy animals. E. asinus milk is higher in sugar and protein than cow's milk. The milk was also used for cosmetic and medicinal purposes. E. asinus meat was eaten as food by many people. There were domesticated E. asinus in Europe by the second millenium B.C. and the first E. asinus came to the New World with Christopher Columbus in 1495. E. asinus were introduced to the United States with Mexican explorers. Many of the wild E. asinus in the southwestern United States are descendants of escaped or abandoned E. asinus brought by Mexican explorers during the Gold Rush. Miniature E. asinus are very popular as companion animals and for show (Department of the Environment and Heritage 2004; Huggins 2002).

Uses List

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General

  • Working animals (miscellaneous)

Prevention and Control

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Physical: The Mojave National Preserve have been provided with funding from the Natural Resource Preservation Program to capture and remove all of its 1,300 remaining burros over a three-year period from 1999 through 2001. Geographic barriers and existing highway fences outside the park are designed to keep other E. asinus out of the preserve (Stubbs 1999). Stubbs (1999) observes that, "The greatest challenge and potential impediment to a successful E. asinus removal program is placement of the animals once they are captured".

In Australia, drought has a severe impact on E. asinus. During drought many individuals can die, mainly from starvation, lack of water and eating toxic plants that they usually avoid. They gather round waterholes where they are often culled for humane reasons (Department of the Environment and Heritage 2004). Herds are often mustered and usually some of the younger are turned into pets. Trapping may be less stressful than mustering, but there are animal welfare concerns about the handling of feral E. asinus in traps and during transport to abattoirs.

Biological: Fertility control is a non-lethal approach to feral horse management but it is currently of limited use. Fertility control techniques are difficult to administer to large numbers of feral E. asinus and the treatment would need to be repeated often to be effective. It is not yet known whether such techniques can reduce the environmental damage caused by a population of feral E. asinus in an area of high conservation value.

Bibliography

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Beja-Pereira, A; England, P. R; Ferrand, N; Jordan, S; Bakhiet, A. O; Abdalla, M. A.; Mashkour, M; Jordana, J; Taberlet, P; Luikart, G., 2004. African origins of the domestic donkey. Science (Washington D C). 304(5678). 1781.

BISON (Biota Information System of New Mexico). 2004. Equus asinus. New Mexico Department of Game & Fish.

CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras en México. Especies invasoras - Mamíferos. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos

Department of the Environment and Heritage. 2004. Feral horse (Equus caballus) and feral donkey (Equus asinus). Invasive Species. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/feral-horse.html

Huffman, B. 2004. Equus asinus, African wild ass. An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet. http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Perissodactyla/Equus_asinus.html

Huggins, B. 2002. Equus asinus. Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Equus_asinus.html

IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

McDonnell, S. M. 1998. Reproductive behavior of donkeys (Equus asinus). Applied Animal Behavior Science 60: 277-282.

Mishra, C; Van Wieren, S. E; Ketner, P; Heitkönig, I.M.A and Prins, H.H.T., 2004. Journal of Applied Ecology. Competition between domestic livestock and wild bharal Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya Volume 41 Issue 2 Page 344

Reid, S.W. J.; Godley, B. J; Henderson, S.M.; Lawrie, G. J.; Lloyd, D; Small, K; Swannie, N; and Thomas, R. L., 1997. Ecology and behaviour of the feral donkey, Equus asinus, population of the Karpas peninsula, northern Cyprus. Zoology in the Middle East. 14(0). 27-36.

Royo, A. R. UNDATED. Wild Burro, Equus asinus. DesertUSA.com.

Rudman, R. 1998. The social organization of feral donkeys (Equus asinus) on a small Caribbean island St. John, US Virgin Islands. Applied Animal Behavior Science 60: 211-228.

Smithsonian Institution. 1993. Equus asinus. MSW Scientific Names.

Stubbs, C. J. 1999. Feral burro Removal: New Solutions to an Old Problem. Natural Resource Year in Review: publication D-1346. http://www2.nature.nps.gov/YearinReview/yir98/chapter06/chapter06pg2.html

Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660

References

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ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1987. In: Ashy Dogweed (Thymophylla tephroleuca) Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 46 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. In: Recovery Plan for the Pedate Checkermallow (Sidalcea pedata) and the Slender-Petaled Mustard (Thelypodium stenopetalum). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 68 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. In: Island phacelia (Phacelia insularis var. insularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. In: Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum). Five-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 26 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Acanthoscyphus (Oxytheca) parishii var. goodmaniana (Cushenbury oxytheca). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 21 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Erigeron parishii (Parish's daisy). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 21 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2565.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: Castilleja cinerea (Ash-gray Paintbrush). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 45 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4138.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: Townsendia aprica (Last Chance townsendia). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 72 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4267.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Festuca ligulata. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 16 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r2/Q0UM_P01.pdf

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Reviewed by: Albano Beja Pereira, CIBIO- University of Porto Campus Agrario de Vairao, Portugal

    Compiled by: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
Last Modified: Wednesday, September 15, 2010

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