Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bambusa bambos
(giant thorny bamboo)

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Datasheet

Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bambusa bambos
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant thorny bamboo
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. bambos has been widely cultivated across tropical and temperate regions of the world (PROTA, 2015; ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Flowering clump showing congested culms and branches.
TitleClump
CaptionFlowering clump showing congested culms and branches.
CopyrightChris Stapleton
Flowering clump showing congested culms and branches.
ClumpFlowering clump showing congested culms and branches.Chris Stapleton
Wynad, Kerala, India.
TitleDense clump
CaptionWynad, Kerala, India.
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
Wynad, Kerala, India.
Dense clumpWynad, Kerala, India.K.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleCulms
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
CulmsK.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleCulm with sheaths
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
Culm with sheathsK.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleCulm with thorns
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
Culm with thornsK.C. Chacko/KFRI
TitleLeaves
Caption
CopyrightK.C. Chacko/KFRI
LeavesK.C. Chacko/KFRI
1. culm leaf (abaxial side)
2. culm leaf (side view)
3. leafy branch
4. top of leaf sheath with ligule and auricles
5: part of branch with spines
6: flowering branch
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. culm leaf (abaxial side) 2. culm leaf (side view) 3. leafy branch 4. top of leaf sheath with ligule and auricles 5: part of branch with spines 6: flowering branch
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. culm leaf (abaxial side)
2. culm leaf (side view)
3. leafy branch
4. top of leaf sheath with ligule and auricles
5: part of branch with spines
6: flowering branch
Line artwork1. culm leaf (abaxial side) 2. culm leaf (side view) 3. leafy branch 4. top of leaf sheath with ligule and auricles 5: part of branch with spines 6: flowering branchPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss

Preferred Common Name

  • giant thorny bamboo

Other Scientific Names

  • Arundarbor agrestis (Lour.) Kuntze
  • Arundarbor arundinacea (Retz.) Kuntze
  • Arundarbor bambos (L.) Kuntze
  • Arundarbor orientalis (Nees) Kuntze
  • Arundarbor spinosa (Buch.-Ham.) Kuntze
  • Arundarbor teba (Miq.) Kuntze
  • Arundo agrestis Lour.
  • Arundo arborea Mill.
  • Arundo bambos L.
  • Arundo bambu Lour.
  • Bambos arundo J.F.Gmel.
  • Bambusa agrestis (Lour.) Poir.
  • Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd.
  • Bambusa arundinacea Willd.
  • Bambusa arundinacea var. orientalis (Nees) Gamble
  • Bambusa bambos var. gigantea Bahadur ex Bennet & Gaur
  • Bambusa bambos var. spinosa (Buch.-Ham.) E.G.Camus
  • Bambusa orientalis Nees
  • Bambusa spinosa Roxb.
  • Ischurochloa arundinacea var. orientalis (Nees) Buse

International Common Names

  • English: Indian thorny bamboo; spiny bamboo; thorny bamboo
  • Spanish: bambú espinoso; banbu cafia de indios (Spain)
  • French: bambou épineux; bambou roseau

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: russei khlei; russei prei
  • Cuba: bambú espinoso
  • Germany: Bambus, Dorniger
  • India: bambu duri; baroowa; khare bans; kotoba
  • Indonesia: bambu duri
  • Indonesia/Java: pring ori
  • Laos: phaix pa:x
  • Myanmar: kya-kat-wa
  • Philippines: Indian bamboo
  • Thailand: phai-nam; phai-pa
  • Vietnam: tre gai [ruw]ng; tre l[af] ng[af]

EPPO code

  • BAMAR (Bambusa arundinacea)

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. bambos has been widely cultivated across tropical and temperate regions of the world (PROTA, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). It is a multipurpose bamboo with a range of uses ranging from edible shoots (vegetable), leaves (forage) and seeds (famine food) to valuable culms (wood and construction material). As its culms and branches root very readily, it often naturalizes forming monospecific stands along river banks, roadsides and disturbed sites. It has the potential to invade relative unaltered forests moving along streams and undisturbed clumps are almost impenetrable because of the interlacing thorny branches (Duriyaprapan and Jansen 1995; Ohrnberger, 1999). At present, it has been listed as invasive in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). A risk assessment carried out for Florida (IFAS, 2014) gave it a high invasiveness risk score of 10. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Bambusa
  •                                 Species: Bambusa bambos

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Bambusa (family Poaceae) consists of around 120 bamboo species indigenous to Asia and the New World. B. bambos was the first bamboo to receive a valid name, described by Linnaeus (1753) as Arundo bambos. To separate it from the grass genus Arundo the name was turned around, giving a new genus Bambos and a new species name arundinacea (Retzius, 1788). This was modified the following year to Bambusa arundinacea (Schreber, 1789), used until McClure (1946) pointed out that Bambos should have priority over Bambusa and that bambos should have priority over arundinacea.

To allow continued use of Bambusa the name was conserved against Bambos (Lanjouw, 1961). However, confusion over typification of the species names B. bambos and B. arundinacea persisted for some time (McClure, 1946; Holttum, 1956a, 1956b; McClure, 1957; Soderstrom, 1986), even with suggestions of application of the name B. arundinacea to the non-thorny bamboo B. vulgaris. This was all clarified by the discovery of a good type specimen for B. bambos from Sri Lanka, allowing sound lectotypification of the relevant names (Xia and Stapleton, 1997). By that time B. bambos had come into widespread use rather than B. arundinacea, so that it was no longer appropriate to conserve B. arundinacea, which is now a synonym of B. bambos, along with B. spinosa.

There is considerable variation within the species in stature, culm wall thickness and degree of thorniness. The varietal name gigantea is used but has not been published validly. Coming from small areas of south India, it was distinguished on the grounds of large culm size alone (Bahadur and Jain, 1981). Bennet and Gaur (1990) illustrated it, but implied that its taxonomic status could be questioned. Muralidharan (1997) reported a height of up to 35 m in this variety (usual height 30 m), with diameter at breast height of 25 cm (usually approximately 18 cm), noting that it was flowering at the same time as the smaller variety.

B. bambos is related to the other thorny bamboos of China and South-East Asia, B. blumeana, B. sinospinosa and B. dissemulator, which have more strongly developed and more separate culm sheath auricles, less culm sheath pubescence, and spikelets without any apparent cleavage.

Description

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The following description is taken from Clayton et al. (2015):

Perennial; caespitose, rhizomes short. Culms erect; 2000–3000 cm long; 100–150 mm diameter; woody; with root thorns from the nodes. Culm-internodes terete; glaucous; distally pruinose. Culm-nodes pubescent (brown). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one, or two, or three; in a clump; with 1 branch dominant; thinner than stem. Culm-sheaths deciduous; glabrous. Culm-sheath ligule 1–2 mm high; ciliolate. Culm-sheath blade triangular; erect; hispid; acute. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface; outer margin hairy. Leaf-sheath oral hairs setose; 4–6 mm long; pale. Leaf-sheath auricles erect. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base broadly rounded; with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath; petiole 0.3–0.5 cm long. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 7–18 cm long; 10–18 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex acuminate. Inflorescence bractiferous; clustered at the nodes; in untidy tufts; dense; with glumaceous subtending bracts; with axillary buds at base of spikelet; prophyllate below lateral spikelets; leafless between clusters. Spikelets comprising 5–7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 15–20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rachilla internodes definite. Glumes several; 2–3 empty glumes; persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Fertile lemma ovate; 8–9 mm long; without keel; 15 -veined. Lemma margins ciliolate. Lemma apex acute; mucronate. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma. Palea keels wingless; ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Fruit a caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; sulcate on hilar side; 7–7.5 mm long. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. 

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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B. bambos is native to tropical and temperate Asia: it is common throughout the plains of India and in Myanmar, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. It is less common in countries of Indo-China, and also occurs in South-eastern China. It has been introduced in Australia, Africa, tropical Asia, Central America, Cuba and northern South America (Clayton et al., 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
CambodiaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
ChinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-GuangdongPresent Natural
-GuangxiPresent Natural
IndiaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
-Andhra PradeshPresent Natural
-AssamPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
-BiharPresent Natural
-HaryanaPresent Natural
-Indian PunjabPresent Natural
-JharkhandPresentNativeNath et al., 2012
-KarnatakaPresent Natural
-KeralaPresentNativeKrishnankutty, 2011
-Madhya PradeshPresent Natural
-MaharashtraPresentRane et al., 2013
-ManipurPresent Natural
-MeghalayaPresent Natural
-MizoramPresent Natural
-OdishaPresent Natural
-Tamil NaduPresent Natural
-Uttar PradeshPresent Natural
-West BengalPresent Natural
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
-MoluccasPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
LaosPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedDuriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995Cultivated
MaldivesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
MyanmarPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015Cultivated
SingaporePresentIntroducedDuriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995Cultivated
Sri LankaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
ThailandPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015
VietnamPresentNativeClayton et al., 2015

Africa

KenyaPresent Planted
SeychellesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
HondurasPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015
PanamaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2015

South America

SurinamePresentIntroducedSoreng, 2000

Europe

ItalyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2015Casual, not naturalized

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedOhrnberger, 1999
New ZealandPresentIntroducedOhrnberger, 1999

History of Introduction and Spread

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Bambusa species have been actively introduced throughout tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the world since the 19th century mostly to be used as fencing plants, to control erosion, and to create plantations in order to commercialize their culms (PROTA, 2015). B. bambos has been introduced to several other Asian countries on a small scale, usually because of seed availability rather than desirable species characteristics. Kigomo (1991) also reported steady establishment across different sites in Kenya, including a site with an annual rainfall as low as 600 mm. 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of B. bambos is high. This species has been actively introduced in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has escaped and naturalized into natural and disturbed habitats. It shows a remarkable ability to spread vegetative by rhizomes and culm fragments.  Extensive clumps can be easily formed from single culms. Therefore, its potential to expand and colonize new areas remains high.

Habitat

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B. bambos prefers to grow in humid tropical climates and grows best along river valleys and in other moist conditions. It is found most abundantly in mixed moist habitats up to 1000 m altitude (Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995; PROTA, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for B. bambos varies from 2n = 70 to 2n = 72 (Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995).

Reproductive Biology

B. bambos is highly allogamous. It flowers gregariously over a region at intervals of 16 to 45 years. A complete flowering period of the whole clump takes as long as 3 years. Flowering is followed by profuse seeding after which the old clump dies (Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995). Like most other grasses, bamboos have inconspicuous flowers, usually light brown or straw-coloured which are probably wind-pollinated (Little and Skolmen, 2003).

Physiology and Phenology

The clumps of B. bambos reach about 5 m height in 7 years and about 20 years are necessary to reach full growth comprising 25—50 (—100) culms. Twelve-year-old clumps are regarded as mature. Undisturbed clumps are almost impenetrable after some years because of the interlacing thorny branches. Clumps die after reproduction (Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995).

Environmental Requirements

Growth is better on fertile soils, but the natural habitat includes relatively dry sites on poor soils in deciduous hill forest. Although a species of the plains, freely-drained conditions are essential and steeply sloping sites are also appropriate. Severe waterlogging of flat sites will lead to unhealthy foliage, death of new shoots, and may be associated with symptoms of the syndrome known as bamboo blight (Boa and Rahman, 1987).

B. bambos is found in tropical and subtropical sites up to 1000 m in altitude, where frost will not be encountered. Annual rainfall as low as 600 mm is tolerated, especially if it falls in the summer months to allow adequate shoot growth, but it performs better with 1500-2000 mm rainfall, which reduces the deciduous habit in winter.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 5 0 1000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0 2
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 50
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration09number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Algedonia coclesalis All Stages not specific
Astegopteryx bambusae All Stages not specific
Cyrtotrachelus dux All Stages not specific
Estigmena chinensis All Stages not specific
Serpula eurocephala Pathogen All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Within its native distribution range, B. bambos is seriously damaged by diseases and pests. Major diseases reported from India are damping-off (Rhizoctonia spp., Fusarium spp.), culm rot (Fusarium spp., Arthrinium spp., Craterellus spp.), and rhizome and root rot (Merulius eurocephalus [Serpula eurocephala]). Major pests recorded in India are the bamboo leaf roller (Pyrausta coclesalis [Algedonia coclesalis]), the bamboo hispine borer (Estigmena chinensis), the bamboo aphid (Oregma bambusae [Astegopteryx bambusae]) and the bamboo culm borer (Cyrtotrachelus dux; Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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B. bambos spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizome and cuttings. It has a remarkably easy vegetative propagation (PROTA, 2015). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionCultivated throughout the tropics for its culms Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Escape from confinement or garden escapeOften escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Ohrnberger, 1999
ForageLeaves used as forage Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Hedges and windbreaks Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995
Industrial purposesRaw material for paper, pulp and plywood industries Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds, rhizomes and cuttings Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds, rhizomes and cuttings Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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B. bambos has the potential to form extensive monospecific stands that outcompete native vegetation by shading and smothering native plants and monopolizing resources. This species also represent a serious environmental concern because dense clumps are almost impenetrable because of the interlacing thorny branches. It also disrupts the successional process in disturbed areas, secondary forests, and forest edges in moist and riparian forests (Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PROTA, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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B. bambos is a multipurpose bamboo. Its edible shoots are consumed by humans as a vegetable and its leaves are used for animal forage. It is often planted for erosion control and as a wind-break plant around farms and along rivers to check water floods. The culms are used as a construction material and they are also important raw material for paper, pulp and plywood industries. In Asia, an infusion of the leaves is used as an eye wash and internally it is given for bronchitis, gonorrhea and fever (Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995; PROTA, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Windbreak

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Cane
  • Fibre
  • Wood/timber

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

Wood Products

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Pulp

  • Long-fibre pulp
  • Short-fibre pulp

Roundwood

  • Building poles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Textiles

Wood extractives (including oil)

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood

Prevention and Control

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There are no management strategies currently proposed for the control of B. bambos. However, for the control of other Bambusa species, it is recommended that all stems and culms should be removed using specialized equipment. Regrowth should be treated with herbicides such as glyphosate or amitrole. In forests and other non-cropland, imazapyr or glyphosate plus fluazifop are effective (Motooka et al., 2003).

References

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Adarsh Kumar; Sharma VK; Dhiman RC, 1995. Natural selfing in Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss, Besch (syn. Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd.) as estimated from albino frequencies. Indian Forester, 121(2):156-158; 7 ref.

Aggarwal SK; Dhawan VK, 1996. Economics of harvesting and marketing of bamboo. Indian Forester, 122(9): 795-799; 4 ref.

Bahadur B; Rao KL; Rao MM, 1978. Left and right handedness in seedlings of Bambusa arundinacea Willd. Current Science, 47(16):584-586; APB; 9 ref.

Bahadur KN; Jain SS, 1981. Rare bamboos of India. Indian Journal of Forestry, 4(4):280-286; 13 ref.

Bennet SSR; Gaur RC, 1990. Thirty-seven bamboos growing in India. Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India.

Boa ER; Rahman MA, 1987. Bamboo blight and the bamboos of Bangladesh. The results and conclusions of an investigation into a serious new disease of bamboos. Bulletin - Forest Pathology Series, Forest Research Institute (Chittagong), No. 1:vii + 43 pp.

Chaiwatthana S; Anantachote A, 1989. Germination of bamboo seeds stored under different storage temperatures. Proceedings of the 2nd bamboo seminar, 8-10 November 1989, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Clayton WD; Govaerts R; Harman KT; Williamson H; Vorontsova M, 2015. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Dransfield S; Widjaja EA, 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia, 7. Bamboos. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 189 pp.; 7 pp. of ref.

Duriyaprapan S; Jansen PCM, 1995. Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss. In: Dransfield S, Widjaja EA, eds, Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7. Bamboos. Leiden, Netherlands; Backhuyes: 56-60.

Holttum RE, 1956. The type specimen of Bambos arundinacea Retzius. Taxon, 5: 65-67.

Holttum RE, 1956. The typification of the generic name Bambusa and the status of the name Arundo bambos L. Taxon, 5: 26-28.

Holttum RE, 1958. The Bamboos of the Malay Peninsula. Gdns'. Bull. 16 (1-135).

IFAS, 2014. Assessment of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas: Bambusa bambos. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida. http://assessment.ifas.ufl.edu/assessments/bambusa-bambos/

Kigomo BN, 1991. Introduction and early performance of some Asian bamboo species in Kenya. In: Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific. FAO, Bangkok, FORSPA Publication No. 6: 79-84.

Krishnankutty CN, 2011. Marketing aspects of developing growing stock of bamboo (Bambusa bambos) in the home gardens of Kerala State in India. International Journal of Forest Usufructs Management, 12(2):91-97.

Lanjouw J, 1961. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Linnaeus C, 1753. Species Plantarum, ed. 1. Stockholm, Sweden: L. Salvius.

Little EL; Skolmen RG, 2003. Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Univeristy of Hawaii.

McClure FA, 1946. The genus Bambusa and some of its first-known species. Blumea Suppl. III: 90-112.

McClure FA, 1957. Typification of the genera of the Bambusoideae. Taxon 6(7): 199-210.

Menachery MD; Chandran K, 1984. Estrogenic activity of bamboo Bambusa arundinacea buds. Kerala Journal of Veterinary Science, 15(1): 38-44.

Motooka P; Castro L; Nelson D; Nagai G; Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.

Muralidharan EM, 1997. A giant in flowering. INBAR Newsletter, 5:21.

Nath S; Tamta BP; Chandrashekhar BS; Panwar VP; Das PK; Krishnamurty R, 2012. Bamboo resources of Jharkhand. Indian Forester, 138(5):422-433. http://www.indianforester.org

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Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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