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Datasheet

Epinephelus lanceolatus (giant grouper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Epinephelus lanceolatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant grouper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790)

Preferred Common Name

  • giant grouper

Other Scientific Names

  • Batrachus gigas Günther, 1869
  • Holocentrus lanceolatus Bloch, 1790
  • Oligorus goliath De Vis, 1882
  • Oligorus terrae-reginae Ramsay, 1880
  • Promicrops lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790)
  • Serranus abdominalis Peters, 1855
  • Serranus geographicus Valenciennes, 1828
  • Serranus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790)
  • Serranus phaeostigmaeus Fowler, 1907
  • Stereolepoides thompsoni Fowler, 1923

International Common Names

  • English: banded rockcod; bridlebass; brindle bass; brindle grouper; brindlebass; queensland groper; queensland grouper; rock cod; rockcod
  • Spanish: mero lanceolado
  • French: loche géante; mérou géant; mérou lancéolé
  • Arabic: hamour

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Queensland grouper
  • China/Hong Kong: fa mei; long dan
  • Fiji: 'Avu; kavu
  • French Polynesia: hapuu reru
  • Germany: Zackenbarsch
  • India: bontoo; gobra; hekru; kalava; kolaji; kolamin; varaya kalawa; wekhali; wekhru
  • Indonesia: kerapu ketang; kerapu lumpur
  • Japan: tamakai
  • Kiribati: bákati; te kauoto
  • Malaysia: kerapu; pertang
  • Marshall Islands: jawe
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: taiyaaw
  • Mozambique: garoupa fajardo
  • New Caledonia: bac
  • Papua New Guinea: Queensland grouper; veya
  • Philippines: bantol; bulang; kerapo; kugtong; kugtung; kurapu; lapu lapu; lapu-lapu; pugapo; puol; tingag
  • Poland: itajara olbrzymia
  • Samoa: ata'ata-uli; vaolo
  • Singapore: kerapu; long dan
  • Solomon Islands: bangabanga; kohoa
  • South Africa: briekwabaars
  • Sri Lanka: hali valan kossa; komari kaleva; sellan kossa; wutla-callawah
  • Tanzania: chewa
  • Thailand: pla moh-ta-le
  • Tokelau: nhinhinhi
  • Tonga: popo
  • Vietnam: ca mu khoang; ca mu song; cá Mú song

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Perciformes
  •                         Suborder: Percoidei
  •                             Family: Serranidae
  •                                 Genus: Epinephelus
  •                                     Species: Epinephelus lanceolatus

Description

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Body robust, the depth contained 2.4 to 3.4 times in standard length (for fish 12-179 cm standard length), the body width contained 1.5 to 1.75 times in the depth. Head length contained 2.2 to 2.7 times in standard length; interorbital width contained 3.3 (for fish 177 cm standard length) to 6.2 (for fish 12 cm standard length) times in head length; interorbital area flat to slightly convex, the dorsal head profile convex; preopercle subangular, finely serrate, the corner rounded; upper edge of operculum convex; eye diameter contained 5.8 to 14 times in head length; nostrils subequal; maxilla reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2 or 3 rows of teeth (specimens of 20 to 25 cm standard length) increasing to 15 to 16 rows in a fish of 177 cm standard length; canine teeth at front of jaws small or absent. Gill rakers of juveniles 8 to 10 on upper limb, 14 to 17 on lower limb; rudiments in adults are difficult to distinguish from the bony platelets covering the gill arch.

Dorsal fin with XI [11] spines and 14 to 16 rays, the 3rd to 11th spines subequal, their length contained 3.1 to 5.7 in head length and much shorter than longest rays in adults.

Anal fin with III [3] spines and 8 rays.

Pectoral fin rays 18 to 20; pectoral fin length contained 1.8 to 2.2 times in head length.

Pelvic fins not reaching anus, their length contained 2.1 to 2.6 times in head length.

Caudal fin rounded.

Lateral body scales smooth, with auxiliary scales.

Lateral-line scales 54 to 62, the anterior scales with branched tubules (except small juveniles).

Lateral scale series 95 to 105.


Coloration


Small juveniles (12 cm standard length) yellow, with irregular broad black bars on body, the first from spinous dorsal fin to belly and chest and extending onto head, the second from base of soft dorsal fin to anal fin and the last at base of caudal fin.

Small adults (20-50 cm standard length) with irregular white or yellow spots on the black areas and fins with irregular black spots; adults (80 to 150 cm standard length) dark brown with faint mottling, the fins with numerous small black spots.

Large adults (160-230 cm standard length) dark brown, the fins darker (Heemstra and Randall, 1993).

E. lanceolatus is one of the two largest species of groupers in the world (the other is E. itajara of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans). Schultz (1966) reported a 231 cm total length, 214 kg specimen from Bikini Atoll. Grant (1982) mentioned a specimen of 288 kg from Queensland. According to Fourmanoir and Laboute (1976), E. lanceolatus can attain 400 kg.

Distribution

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E. lanceolatus is the most widely distributed grouper in the world; it occurs throughout the Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea to Algoa Bay, South Africa and eastward to the Hawaiian and Pitcairn Islands. In the western Pacific, E. lanceolatus ranges northward to southern Japan and southward to Australia (from northern Western Australia to northern New South Wales, and Kailola and Jones (1981) reported a 212 cm total length specimen from South Australia). It is known from oceanic islands as well as continental localities. Its absence in the Persian Gulf is puzzling (Heemstra and Randall, 1993).

Cultivation of E. lanceolatus is widespread, but restricted by limited fingerling supply. There has been hatchery production of fingerlings in Taiwan, and some have been exported for growout in other parts of South-East Asia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, SoutheastPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Indian Ocean, EasternPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Indian Ocean, WesternPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, Eastern CentralPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, NorthwestPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, SouthwestPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, Western CentralPresentNativeFishbase, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeHuang, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-Hong KongPresentNativeNi and Kwok, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentNativeAllen and Steene, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IndiaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
IndonesiaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
JapanPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-Bonin IslandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
MalaysiaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MaldivesPresentNativeRandall and Anderson, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
OmanPresentNativeRandall, 1995; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PakistanPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PhilippinesPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SingaporePresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Sri LankaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TaiwanPresentNativeKottelat et al., 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ThailandPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Africa

DjiboutiPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
EritreaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
KenyaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MadagascarPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MauritiusPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MozambiquePresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
RéunionPresentNativeFricke, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SeychellesPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SomaliaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
South AfricaPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TanzaniaPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004

North America

USA
-HawaiiPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Oceania

American SamoaPresentNativeWass, 1984; Froese and Pauly, 2004
AustraliaPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Cook IslandsPresentNativeMcCormack, 2000; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FijiPresentNativeLewis and Pring, 1986; Froese and Pauly, 2004
French PolynesiaPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-MarquesasPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
GuamPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Johnston IslandPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
KiribatiPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Marshall IslandsPresentNativeMyers, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentNativeMyers, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
New CaledoniaPresentNativeThollot, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
New ZealandPresentNativeMyers, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNativeMyers, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PalauPresentNativeMyers, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeHunnam et al., 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pitcairn IslandPresentNativeHeemstra and Randall, 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SamoaPresentNativeWass, 1984; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TuvaluPresentNativeRandall and Heemstra, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
VanuatuPresentNativeTettelbach et al., 2003; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Wake IslandPresentNativeMyers, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Fresh meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Whole

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
ACIAR Marine Finfish Aqualture Projecthttp://www.enaca.org/aciar/
Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Networkhttp://www.enaca.org/grouper/

Contributors

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Main Author
Mike Rimmer
DPI, Agency for Food and Fibre Sciences -, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Northern Fisheries Centre, PO Box 5396, Cairns, Qld 4870, Australia

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