Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Balansia oryzae-sativae
(udbatta disease)

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Datasheet

Balansia oryzae-sativae (udbatta disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Balansia oryzae-sativae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • udbatta disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A, Mummified spikes with developing conidial acervuli; B-C, section of conidial acervuli. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 640. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleSpikes and conidial acervuli
CaptionA, Mummified spikes with developing conidial acervuli; B-C, section of conidial acervuli. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 640. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
CopyrightCAB International
A, Mummified spikes with developing conidial acervuli; B-C, section of conidial acervuli. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 640. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Spikes and conidial acervuliA, Mummified spikes with developing conidial acervuli; B-C, section of conidial acervuli. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 640. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Balansia oryzae-sativae Hashioka, 1971

Preferred Common Name

  • udbatta disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Balansia oryzae (Syd.) Naras. & Thirum., 1943
  • Ephelis oryzae Syd., 1914
  • Ephelis pallida Pat., 1897

International Common Names

  • English: black choke; black ring; false ergot; incense rod; sterility disease; udbatta

Local Common Names

  • India: Agarbatti disease of rice

EPPO code

  • BALAOS (Balansia oryzae-sativae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Clavicipitaceae
  •                                 Genus: Balansia
  •                                     Species: Balansia oryzae-sativae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentBooth, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentVenkatarayan, 1937; Rao et al., 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentGowda, 1980; Gowda et al., 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Nagaraja et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentIndrasenan et al., 1982; Indrasenan and Mammen, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentMurty and Alimeer, 1978; Hiremath et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentMohanty, 1971; Mohanty, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentEPPO, 2014
JapanAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
NepalPresentIPPC, 2005

Africa

Sierra LeonePresentFomba and Raymundo, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

North America

USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentEPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

New CaledoniaPresentBooth, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
VanuatuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / distortion
Seeds / shrivelled
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Wood

References

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Booth C, 1979. Balansia oryzae-sativae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 640. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Balansia oryzae-sativae. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 797. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Deighton FC, 1937. Mycological Work. Report of the Department of Agriculture, Sierra Leone, 1936, 44-46.

Deighton FC, 1956. Diseases of cultivated and other economic plants in Sierra Leone. Government of Sierra Leone.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farr, D. F., Rossman, A. Y., 2018. Fungal Databases, U.S. National Fungus Collections, ARS, USDA https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/

Fomba SN, Raymundo SA, 1978. Incidence of udbatta in the mangrove swamps of northern Sierra Leone. International Rice Research Newsletter, 3(4):13-14

Gangopadhyay S, Padmanabhan SY, 1987. Breeding for disease resistance in rice. New Delhi, India; Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., xi + 340pp.

Govindu CH, 1969. Occurrence of Ephelis on rice variety IR-8 and cotton grass in India. Plant Disease Reporter, 53:360.

Gowda DN, Janardhan A, Reddy HR, 1981. Occurrence of udabatti disease on sorghum in Karnataka. Current Science, 50(12):536

Gowda SS, 1980. Studies on udbatta disease in Karnataka, India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 5(5):16-17

Hashioka Y, 1971. Rice diseases in the world - VIII. Diseases due to Hypocreales, Ascomycetes (fungal diseases - 5). Riso, 20:235-258.

Hiremath SV, Srikant Kulkarni, Hegde RK, Pall BS, Bhat MN, Naik KS, Raghuchandar T, Hiremath PC, 1991. New host records of fungi. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences (Bangalore), 20(5):93-94

Indrasenan G, Mammen MK, 1983. New graminaceous weed hosts of Ephelis oryzae Syd. in Wynad. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 21(2):92-94

Indrasenan G, Sreekumar V, Thomas J, Mammen MK, 1982. Resistance of some rice varieties to 'Udbatta' disease in Wynad. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 20(2):98-100

Indrasenan G, Thomas J, Sreekumar V, Mammen MK, 1981. On the chemical control of udbatta disease of rice incited by Ephelis oryzae Sydow. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 19(1):123-125

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

Kamat MN, Patel MK, 1951. Notes on two important plant diseases of Bombay State. Plant Protection Bulletin, 3:16.

Mew TW, Misra JK, 1994. A manual of rice seed health testing. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

Misra, JK, Merca SD, Mew TW, 1994. Fungal pathogens. In: Mew TW, Misra JK, eds. A manual of rice seed health testing. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute, 75-89.

Mohanty NN, 1964. Studies on 'Udbatta' disease of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 17:308-316.

Mohanty NN, 1971. Control of udbatta disease of rice. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, B, 37:432-439

Mohanty NN, 1975. Efficacy of different physico-chemical methods of seed treatment for control of udbatta disease of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 28(4):521-523

Mohanty NN, 1975. Ephelis on two new grass hosts. Indian Phytopathology, 28(4):537-539

Mohanty NN, 1976. Influence of some meteorological factors on the development of udbatta disease of rice. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 46(9):399-403

Mohanty NN, 1977. Mode of infection of "udbatta" disease of rice. Riso, 26(3):243-247

Mohanty NN, 1979. Seed borne nature and systemic character of infection of Udbatta disease of rice. Riso, 28(2):133-139

Murty VST, Alimeer SH, 1978. Occurrence of 'Udbatta' disease of rice in Chhattisgarh region. Oryza, 15(1):92

Nagaraja A, Reddy BA, Govindappa MR, 2010. Occurrence of Udbatta disease on Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.): a new report from South India. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 48(1):163-164. http://www.imskolkata.org/

Narasimhan MJ, Thirumalachar MJ, 1943. Preliminary note on the perfect stage of Ephelis oryzae Syd. (Balansia oryzae (Syd.) comb. nov.). Current Science, 12:276.

Ou SH, 1985. Rice diseases. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 380 pp.

Padhi NN, Mohanty NN, 1984. Efficacy of seed and soil treatments with different fungicides on control of udbatta disease of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 37:686-688.

Padwick GW, 1950. Manual of Rice Diseases. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Pandurangegowda KT, Kumaraswamy S, Rabindra B, 1986. Chemical control of udbatta disease of rice. Oryza, 23(2):140-141

Rao PG, Reddy GS, Reddy TCV, 1959. Four new hosts of Ephelis. Science and Culture, 25:74-75.

Reddy HR, Channamma KAL, 1976. Occurrence of Ephelis oryzae Syd. on pearl millet. Current Science, 45(10):394

Sanne-Gowda S, Mahadevappa M, Ravi PC, 1973. Reactions of some new varieties of rice to various diseases occurring in Mysore State. Current Research, 2(10):77-78.

Sannegowda S, Pandurangegowda KT, 1986. Studies on mode of infection and chemical control of udbatta or agarbatti disease of rice. Pesticides, 20(9):22-23

Shivanandappa N, Govindu CH, 1976. Direct and indirect effect of Udbatta disease on total number of panicles per hill in different paddy cultures. International Rice Research Newsletter, 1(1):12

Sydow H, 1914. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Pilzflora des Sudlichen Ostindiens. II. - Ann. mycol., Berl., 484-490.

Tai FL, Siang WN, 1948. `I-chu-hsiang'disease of rice caused by Ephelis oryzae Sydow in Yunnan. Acta Agriculture, 1:125-131.

Venkatarayan SV, 1937. Report of work done in Mycological Section during the year 1935-1936. Administration Report. Department of Agriculture, Mysore, 1935-1936:51-55.

Webster RK, Gunnell PS, 1992. Compendium of rice diseases. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, viii + 62 pp.

Distribution Maps

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