Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Esox lucius
(pike)

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Datasheet

Esox lucius (pike)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Esox lucius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pike
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Esox lucius, also known as pike or northern pike, is a highly successful species of brackish and freshwater fish which has been widely introduced and translocated throughout Europe and North America, with sever...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Esox lucius (pike, northern pike); adult fish, rod caught. Length 115cm, weight 12 kg. Caught in the Kalix River, Sweden. July, 2014.
TitleRod caught adult
CaptionEsox lucius (pike, northern pike); adult fish, rod caught. Length 115cm, weight 12 kg. Caught in the Kalix River, Sweden. July, 2014.
Copyright©CABI/Chris Parker
Esox lucius (pike, northern pike); adult fish, rod caught. Length 115cm, weight 12 kg. Caught in the Kalix River, Sweden. July, 2014.
Rod caught adultEsox lucius (pike, northern pike); adult fish, rod caught. Length 115cm, weight 12 kg. Caught in the Kalix River, Sweden. July, 2014.©CABI/Chris Parker
Pike (Esox lucius), rod-caught specimen; weight ca. 4.5kg (ca. 10lbs). Buxton, Norfolk, England, 2012
TitleAdult
CaptionPike (Esox lucius), rod-caught specimen; weight ca. 4.5kg (ca. 10lbs). Buxton, Norfolk, England, 2012
Copyright©Michael J. Godard
Pike (Esox lucius), rod-caught specimen; weight ca. 4.5kg (ca. 10lbs). Buxton, Norfolk, England, 2012
AdultPike (Esox lucius), rod-caught specimen; weight ca. 4.5kg (ca. 10lbs). Buxton, Norfolk, England, 2012©Michael J. Godard

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • pike

Other Scientific Names

  • Esox boreus Agassiz, 1850
  • Esox estor Lesueur, 1818
  • Esox lucioides Agassiz & Girard, 1850
  • Esox lucius atrox Anikin, 1902
  • Esox lucius bergi Kaganowsky, 1933
  • Esox lucius lucius wiliunensis Kirillov, 1962
  • Esox lucius variegatus Fitzinger, 1832
  • Esox nobilior Thompson, 1850
  • Esox reichertii baicalensis Dybowski, 1874
  • Luccius vorax Rafinesque, 1810
  • Lucius lucius (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Trematina foveolata Trautschold, 1884

International Common Names

  • English: american pike; common pike; great Lakes pike; great northern pickerel; great northern pike; jack; jackfish; pickerel; pike; snake; wolf
  • Spanish: lucio
  • French: bec de canard; beked; brochet; brochet du nord; brouché; brouchet; brouchetta; grand brochet; hecht; lanceron; poignard; sifflet
  • Russian: obyknovennaya schuka; shchuka; shtschuka

Local Common Names

  • Austria: hecht; pike
  • Azerbaijan: shtschuka
  • Belarus: shtschuka
  • Bulgaria: shtuka
  • Canada: cinosa; cinoseo; cinusèw; grand brochet; great northern pickerel; great northern pike; hiulik; idlûlukak; ihok; jack; jackfish; kikiyuk; kiqyôq; northern pike; pickerel; pike; siolik; siulik; siun; sjulik; tchinouchao; tchukvak
  • Canada/Quebec: kikiyuk; kiqyôq
  • Czech Republic: stika obecná
  • Denmark: gedde
  • Estonia: haug; hauki; pike
  • Finland: hauki
  • France: bec de canard; beked; brochet; brochet du nord; brouché; brouchet; brouchetta; hecht; lanceron; poignard; sifflet
  • Germany: bunthecht; Europäischer Hecht; Flußhecht; grashecht; Hecht; Hechten; heekt; Heichit; hengste; höcht; liede; scheckhecht; schnock; schnöck; schnuck; snook
  • Greece: toúrna; zoúrna
  • Hungary: csuka
  • Iceland: gedda
  • Iran: ordak Mahi; ordakmahi; shook Chehkhab
  • Ireland: lius
  • Italy: luccio
  • Japan: kawakamasu
  • Kyrgyzstan: kadimki chorton; shchuka obyknovennaya
  • Latvia: lidaka; shtschuka
  • Lithuania: lydeka
  • Mongolia: pike
  • Netherlands: snoek
  • Norway: gjedde
  • Poland: szczupak
  • Portugal: lúcio
  • Romania: marlita; stiuca
  • Russian Federation: northern pike; obyknovennaya schuka; pike; shchuka
  • Serbia: stuka
  • Slovakia: stuka obycajná
  • Slovenia: scuka
  • Spain: lucio
  • Sweden: gädda
  • Turkey: turna baligi
  • UK: northern pike; penhwyad; pike
  • UK/England and Wales: penhwyad
  • Ukraine: shtschuka
  • USA: American pike; common pike; Great Lakes pike; great northern pickerel; jack; jackfish; northern pike; pickerel; qalru; she; sheoak; siilik; snake; wolf
  • USA/Alaska: qalru; she; sheoak; siilik
  • Uzbekistan: northern pike
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): stuka

Summary of Invasiveness

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Esox lucius, also known as pike or northern pike, is a highly successful species of brackish and freshwater fish which has been widely introduced and translocated throughout Europe and North America, with several countries reporting adverse ecological impacts after introduction (Welcomme, 1988). Impacts can be either direct, such as by predation, or indirect, such as by causing prey fish to alter their behavior (He and Kitchell, 1990). This piscivorous species has also been shown to significantly reduce the density of prey species and has the potential to cause large-scale changes in fish communities, even resulting in the extinction of some species (He and Kitchell, 1990). Adults of this species feed mainly on fish, but will also feed on frogs and crayfish (Morrow, 1980). Cannibalism is more common in adults (Billard, 1997) but is also known for juveniles. In introduced lakes in the North American arctic it is sometimes the only species present, and in these cases the juveniles will then feed on invertebrates and terrestrial vertebrates (Kottelat and Freyhof, 2007).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Class: Umbra pygmaea
  •                         Order: Esociformes
  •                             Family: Esocidae
  •                                 Genus: Esox
  •                                     Species: Esox lucius

Description

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E. lucius has an elongated body which is green to brown on the dorsal surface with lighter flanks bearing whitish spots. The dorsal fin origin is slightly in front of the anal origin and both fins are placed well back to allow for rapid acceleration (Hubbs and Lagler, 2004); the pectoral fins low on the body, based under the opercle with the pelvic fins, which are rounded and paddle-shaped, also low on the body. There are 17-25 dorsal rays, 10-22 anal rays, 19 caudal rays and 57-65 vertebrae. The duckbill-shaped head of E. lucius accounts for 25-30% of an average total length of 46-76 cm (Scott and Crossman, 1973). On the underside of each side of the lower jaw, there are five sensory pores. The body and most of the head are covered with small cycloid scales. The eyes are yellow and highly mobile (Lefevre, 1999).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NortheastPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
AzerbaijanPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ChinaPresentNativeWalker Yang, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IranPresentNativeCoad, 1995; Froese and Pauly, 2004
KazakhstanPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MongoliaPresentNativeDulmaa, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TurkeyPresentNative, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TurkmenistanPresentNativeSal'nikov, 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UzbekistanPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

Africa

AlgeriaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Lever, 1996
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedTedla and Meskel, 1981; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MadagascarPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
MoroccoPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TunisiaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UgandaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

North America

CanadaWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-AlbertaWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999
-British ColumbiaWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-ManitobaWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-Northwest TerritoriesWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999
-OntarioWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999
-QuebecWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-SaskatchewanWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999
-Yukon TerritoryWidespreadNativeScott and Crossman, 1999
USAPresentNativePage and Burr, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-AlaskaPresentNativeMorrow, 1980; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Europe

AlbaniaWidespreadNativeBlanc et al., 1971
AustriaWidespreadNativeAFMAFEWM and, 2011
BelgiumPresentNativeWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentNativeGerstmeier and Romig, 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BulgariaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
CroatiaPresentNativeGerstmeier and Romig, 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
DenmarkPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
EstoniaPresentNativeUniversity of Tartu, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FinlandPresentNativeKoli, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FrancePresentNativeKeith and Allardi, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GermanyPresentNativeGunther, 1853; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GreecePresentNativeWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
HungaryPresentNativeMuus and Dahlstrom, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IrelandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ItalyPresentNativeGandolfi et al., 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LatviaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LithuaniaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LuxembourgPresentNativeWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MacedoniaPresentNativeMuus and Dahlstrom, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MoldovaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MonacoPresentNativeWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NetherlandsPresentNativeWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NorwayPresentNativeGerstmeier and Romig, 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PolandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlstrom, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PortugalPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-AzoresLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Azevedo et al., 2004
RomaniaWidespreadNativeIacob and Dima, 2006
Russian FederationPresentNativeReshetnikov et al., 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SerbiaWidespreadNativeMuus and Dahlstrom, 1968
SlovakiaPresentNativeHolcik, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SloveniaPresentNativePovz, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SpainPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwedenPresentNativeKoli, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlstrom, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UKPresentNativeMaitland and Lyle, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UkrainePresentNativePavlov, 1980; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. lucius has been introduced to waters outside its native range for centuries, mainly due to its popularity as a sport fish. The first recorded introduction of this species was into Ireland during the sixteenth century (Harvey, 2009), although many other transfers were un-recorded or illegal (Aguilar et al. 2005). The many introductions within Europe, and from Europe to other continents, have not all be listed, although some records have been gathered. Welcomme (1988) cites introductions into Ireland, Spain and Italy within Europe, and, further afield, to Madagascar, Morocco, Tunisia and Uganda (Harvey, 2009).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Algeria France 1956 Established
Azores   Established
China Russian Federation  
Ethiopia Italy 1938
Iran   Established
Ireland UK 1200's Established
Madagascar France 1951 No No
Morocco France 1934
Portugal 1962 Established
Serbia
Spain France 1949 Established
Syria   Established
Tunisia France 1966
Turkey   Established
Uganda Israel 1960-1969

Risk of Introduction

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Throughout this species’ global introduction, E. lucius has been introduced into lakes predominantly as a fisheries target, with other attempts (usually unsuccessful) into rivers. In Canada, once it is introduced into a new habitat, E. lucius will disperse naturally, taking advantage of whatever pathways exist (Kerr and Lasenby, 2001). There are also numerous examples in the literature of this species spreading throughout interconnected lake and river systems. For example, the spread within the Saskatchewan River drainage in Montana (Dos Santos, 1991) and migration through the Trent Canal system in Ontario, which extended its range to the Kawartha Lakes, resulted in a subsequent reduction in numbers of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) (DFO 2006).

Habitat

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E. lucius is generally found in clear, shallow, moderately productive, vegetated lakes less than 4 m deep, quiet pools and backwaters of creeks, and small to large rivers (Page and Burr, 1991). It occasionally enters brackish water in the Baltic. It does not generally undertake long migrations, but a few may move considerable distances (Morrow, 1980).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Inland saline areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Freshwater
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

E. lucius has a chromosome number of 25 haploid/gametic (n) and 50 diploid/zygotic (2n) (Arkhipchuk, 1999). It is known to hybridise with amur pike (E. reichertii) as well as grass pickerel (E. vermiculatus). The genetics of this species have been intensively studied and the genetic variation among different populations has been explored (Wang et al., 2011).

Reproductive Biology

E. lucius are batch spawners that move inshore or upstream to flooded or marsh areas to spawn (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Spawning normally occurs during daylight hours, in areas of vegetation and in shallow water <17.8 cm). Eggs and sperm (5 to 60 eggs/spawn) are released simultaneously, with the eggs deposited in the flooded areas on submerged vegetation over a period of 2-5 days. Spawning takes place every few minutes, for up to several hours, over a period of several days until all eggs are extruded.

Associations

Over the years, fish pathologists have been greatly interested in the E. lucius as it hosts a lot of parasites such as fungi, protozoa, various worms, leeches, molluscs and crustacea. Pike are also susceptible to numerous bacterial and viral diseases and tumorous lesions. 18 species of metazoan parasite, including the common bacterium Pseudomonas hydrophila (Scott and Crossman, 1973), the trematode worm Uvulifer ambloplitis and the nematode Raphidascaris acus (found in the gastrointestinal tract and liver; Poole and Dick, 1986) were identified by Watson and Dick (1980).

Environmental Requirements

E. lucius are generally found in shallow, moderately productive, vegetated waters less than 4 m deep. They are most commonly found in lakes but may also be found in rivers; however, they avoid fast water and seek out vegetated side channels, sloughs and other backwaters.

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
asellids Fry
chironimids Fry
cladocerans Fry
crayfish Adult
ducks Adult
fish All Stages
frogs Adult
leech Adult
mice Adult
muskrat Adult
zooplankton Fry

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 0.1 29.4

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4 Optimum Casselman (1978)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 0.3 Harmful Casselman (1978)
Salinity (part per thousand) 6 Harmful Larsen et al. (2005)
Water pH (pH) 7 Optimum Tolerates pH range of pH 5-9.5 (Scott and Crossman, 1973)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 10 19 Optimum Tolerates 0.1-29.4°C (Casselman, 1978)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

E. lucius migrates during the spawning season.

Intentional Introduction

E. lucius has a long history of introductions outside of its native range, mainly as an angling target, but also more recently as an aquacultural species.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AquacultureSee distribution table and list Yes Yes
FisheriesSee distribution table and list Yes Yes
FoodSee distribution table and list Yes Yes
Hunting, angling, sport or racingSee distribution table and list Yes Yes
Intentional releaseSee distribution table and list Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stockAll life stages Yes Yes
WaterAll life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Pike aquaculture is used primarily as a source of fingerlings used to stock water bodies for recreational fishing, although in Finland, commercial pike fishery has also benefited from these stockings (Mann 1996); there is therefore an economic benefit for both recreational and commercial fishermen, as well as the creation of jobs in the aquaculture industry.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

E. lucius is able to hybridise with both the muskellunge (E. masquinongy) and the chain pickerel (E. niger). Female hybrids of pike and musky (tiger muskellunge) are fertile and capable of back-crossing (Becker, 1983). The main impacts of E. lucius on biodiversity are through alteration of fish communities through predation (i.e. cyprinids or salmonids) and competition with other esocids (i.e. muskellunge).

 

Social Impact

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Throughout Europe and North America E. lucius is a highly sought-after recreational fishing species, as well as a commercially sought-after species in many countries. In addition to its value for commercial fishermen, recreational fishing and tourism may create a demand not only for food, accommodation and transportation, but also for related recreational activities such as camping, boating, canoeing, etc., all of which may provide economic opportunities locally.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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General

  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

Rapid responses to E. lucius is established at the national level. However, there is little public awareness of the risks posed by this species.

As established populations are difficult and costly to control, further introductions or stocking should be avoided.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Electrofishing and seine netting can both be used.

Movement Control

In Alaska the State Legislature strengthened the penalty for illegal stocking of non-indigenous fish to a class A misdemeanor, which allows the court to seek restitution for damages to the fishery and expenses for removing introduced fish.

Chemical Control

The only effective method of fish eradication is the application of rotenone, a piscicide that is also toxic to non target species. However, in Lake Davis in California an attempt was made to eradicate E. lucius using rotenone which proved unsuccessful. Since then, other attempts have been made at this site, employing techniques such as trapping, electrofishing and even explosives.

Monitoring and Surveillance

Both radio and acoustic telemetry can be used.

References

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(Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture AFMAFEWM; Forestry; Environment; Water Management), 2011. Checklist of species in Austria. Vienna, Austria: AFMAFEWM.

Aguilar A; Banks JD; Levine KF; Wayne RK, 2005. Population genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius) introduced into Lake Davis, California. Population genetics of northern pike introduced into Lake Davis, California, 62:1589-1599.

Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Azevedo JMN; Leitao MMCS; Borges I; Moreira R; Patricio R, 2004. Assay quantification of fish fauna of lakes in Sao Miguel (Azores) (Ensaio de Quantificacao de Fauna Piscicola de Lagoas em Sao Miguel (Acores)). Rua Mae de Deus, 9501-801, Ponta Delgada, Azores: Investigation Centre for Natural Resources and Department of Biology, University of Azores.

Becker GC, 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Madison, WI, USA: University of Wisconsin Press, xii + 1052 pp.

Billard R, 1997. Les poissons d’eau douce des rivieres de France. Identification, inventaire et repartition des 83 especes. Lausanne: Delachaux and Niestle, 192 pp.

Blanc M; Gaudet JL; Banarescu P; Hureau JC, 1971. European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd.

Casselman JM, 1978. Effects of environmental factors on growth, survival, activity, and exploitation of northern pike, 11:114-128.

Coad BW, 1995. Freshwater fishes of Iran. Acta Sci. Nat. Acad. Sci. Brno. 29(1):1-64.

Crossman EJ, 1996. Taxonomy and distribution. In: Pike biology and exploration. In: Taxonomy and distribution [ed. by Craig, J.]. London, UK: Chapman and Hall, 1-11. [Pike biology and exploration.]

DFO, 2006. Northern Pike., Canada: DFO (Department of Fisheries and Oceans). www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/zone/underwater_sous-marin/nor_pike/pike-brochet_e.htm

Dos Santos JM, 1991. Ecology of a riverine pike population. In: Warmwater Fisheries Symposium I. Ecology of a riverine pike population [ed. by Cooper, J. L.]., USA: US Forest Service General Technical Report, 155-159.

Dulmaa A, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Mongolia. Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. [ed. by Petr T]. Rome, Italy: FAO, 187-236. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 385. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x2614e/x2614e00.htm

Freshwater Fishes of Canada, 1999. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board 184: 966 pp.

Fricke R; Bilecenoglu M; Sari HM, 1999. Annotated checklist of fish and lamprey species of Turkey. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde A (Biologie), Stuttgart, Germany.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Gandolfi G; Zerunian S; Torricelli P; Marconato A, 1991. I pesci delle acque interne italiane [ed. by Gandolfi G, Zerunian S, Torricelli P, Marconato A]. Rome, Italy: Ministero dell'Ambiente e Unione Zoologica Italiana, Instituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 616 pp.

Gerstmeier R; Romig T, 1998. Die Süsswasserfische Europas: für Naturfreunde und Angler. Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, 368 pp.

Günther A, 1853. Die Fische des Neckars. Stuttgart, Germany: Verlag von Ebner & Seubert, 136 pp.

Harvey B, 2009. A biological synopsis of northern pike (Esox lucius), 2885:31 pp.

He X; Kitchell JF, 1990. Direct and indirect effects of predation on a fish community - a whole-lake experiment. Direct and indirect effects of predation on a fish community, 119:825-835.

Holcik J, 1996. Vanishing freshwater fish species of Slovakia. In: Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. In: Vanishing freshwater fish species of Slovakia [ed. by Kirchhofer, A. \Hefti, D.]. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag, 79-86.

Hubbs CL; Lagler DF, 1957. Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. Michigan, United States: Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science, No. 26:135 pp.

Hubbs CL; Lagler KF, 2004. Fishes of the great Lakes Region. Michigan, USA: University of Michigan Press, 276 pp.

Iacob L; Dima I, 2006. Kingdom Animalia. Eukarya. In: Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Romania. (Regnul Animalia. Eukarya. Enciclopedia Florei si Faunei din Romania.) Kingdom Animalia. Eukarya.

Keith P; Allardi J, 2001. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France (Atlas of the freshwater fishes of France), 387 pp. [Patrimoines naturels, No. 47]

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28/08/12 Original text by:

Michael J Godard, consultant, UK

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