Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Bergia capensis
(white water fire)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2019. Bergia capensis (white water fire). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.83102500.20203482775

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Bergia capensis (white water fire)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bergia capensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white water fire
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Bergia capensis is a small annual herb which grows in wet places and is native to Africa, southern China and tropical Asia. It has been introduced, probably (although no details are available) unintentionally through the cultivation and t...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bergia capensis (white water fire); Flowering plant. Andover Nature Reserve, South Africa. April 2019.
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionBergia capensis (white water fire); Flowering plant. Andover Nature Reserve, South Africa. April 2019.
Copyright©Troos van der Merwe/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Bergia capensis (white water fire); Flowering plant. Andover Nature Reserve, South Africa. April 2019.
Flowering plantBergia capensis (white water fire); Flowering plant. Andover Nature Reserve, South Africa. April 2019.©Troos van der Merwe/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Bergia capensis (white water fire); Botanical illustration. Plants of the coast of Coromandel, vol. 2. 1798.
TitleBotanical illustration
CaptionBergia capensis (white water fire); Botanical illustration. Plants of the coast of Coromandel, vol. 2. 1798.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Roxburgh W./via Wikimedia Commons
Bergia capensis (white water fire); Botanical illustration. Plants of the coast of Coromandel, vol. 2. 1798.
Botanical illustrationBergia capensis (white water fire); Botanical illustration. Plants of the coast of Coromandel, vol. 2. 1798.Public Domain - Released by Roxburgh W./via Wikimedia Commons
Bergia capensis (white water fire); Engraving. Description de I’Egypte. 1813.
TitleEngraving
CaptionBergia capensis (white water fire); Engraving. Description de I’Egypte. 1813.
Copyright©Bibliotheca Alexandrina - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Bergia capensis (white water fire); Engraving. Description de I’Egypte. 1813.
EngravingBergia capensis (white water fire); Engraving. Description de I’Egypte. 1813.©Bibliotheca Alexandrina - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bergia capensis

Preferred Common Name

  • white water fire

Other Scientific Names

  • Bergia aquatica Roxb.
  • Bergia repens Blume
  • Bergia verticillata Willd.
  • Elatine luxurians Delile
  • Elatine verticillata (Willd.) Wight & Arn.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: alfabegueta; coleta
  • Chinese: da ye tian fan lü

Local Common Names

  • India: jal jambava; nandu kollupu chedi; neeru paavila; pola-tsjira; white keshuriya
  • Sri Lanka: getapuruk wila
  • Vietnam: biệt gia vùng cap; ruộng cày vòng

Summary of Invasiveness

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Bergia capensis is a small annual herb which grows in wet places and is native to Africa, southern China and tropical Asia. It has been introduced, probably (although no details are available) unintentionally through the cultivation and trade of rice, in Europe, Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean. Although it grows in rice fields, no information is available about possible impacts on rice crops, and there are only limited reports of its being invasive anywhere.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Theales
  •                         Family: Elatinaceae
  •                             Genus: Bergia
  •                                 Species: Bergia capensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Elatinaceae are a small family of plants, usually associated with seasonally inundated areas of tropical and subtropical regions. There are only two genera in the family, Bergia and Elatine. Bergia was named by Linnaeus after Petrus Jonas Bergius (1766-1790), and includes about 24 species worldwide with centres of diversity in Africa and Australia (Leach, 1989).

There were proposals to change the species name of Bergia capensis to B. verticillata, B. aquatica or B. luxurians, on the grounds that the epithet capensis was inappropriate as the species does not occur in the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. However, the name B. capensis was reinstated in accordance with the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Anon., 1916; Milne-Redhead 1948).

Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) cite Bergia sessiliflora as a synonym of Bergia capensis, but this species is reported as valid in the World Flora Online (2019).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019):

Herbs annual, 15-30 cm tall. Stem prostrate and rooting in lower part, terete, slightly fleshy, glabrous; branches erect. Stipules ovate-triangular, membranous, margin dentate-sinuate; petiole 1-5 mm, flattened; leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, obovate-lanceolate, or obovate, 1-4 × 0.2-1 cm, papery, base acuminate, margin minutely serrulate or subentire, apex acute or attenuate. Flowers arranged into small, axillary cymes, subsessile or with short pedicel 1-5 mm, very small. Sepals erect, narrowly lanceolate, 1-2 mm. Petals pink, oblong or subspatulate, subequaling or slightly exceeding sepals. Stamens 10, free; filaments filiform, base slightly widened. Ovary subglobose; styles straight or curved. Capsule subglobose, ca. 1.8 mm in diam., longitudinally 5-grooved, 5-septicidal. Seeds oblong, minute, angular or transversely striate.

Plant Type

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Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Bergia capensis is native to tropical and subtropical areas in Africa and from China (Guangdong) to tropical Asia (WCSP, 2019). It is reported as introduced in Central America (Costa Rica), the West Indies (Cuba, Haiti, Netherlands Antilles), southwestern Mexico, South America (Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela) and Europe (Greece, Portugal, Spain); see Distribution Table for details (Gálvez, 2019; Greuter and Raus, 2001Encyclopedia of Life, 2019; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019; WCSP, 2019).

Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) report the species as native to Cuba and Hispaniola, but other sources disagree with this. According to Flora of Nicaragua (2019), it is not recorded as present in that country, but is to be expected in areas of lower elevation as it is present in neighbouring Costa Rica. Publications by Svenson (1946a, 1946b)  do not prove that the species is present in Peru as they record it from the coast of Ecuador and Peru “in pools south of Ancón”, which is a locality name used at both countries; but Missouri Botanical Garden (2019) does not appear to be in doubt about its presence in Peru.

As for where Bergia capensis is invasive, there is limited information available. Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012) report it with few details as invasive in Cuba, as a naturalized species with a tendency to proliferate at various localities in the country. They also say that it is invasive in Europe, using DAISIE as a reference, but the information at DAISIE (2019) is that it has an alien/unknown status in Greece and in Spain it is an alien/established species. Greuter and Raus (2001) report that its degree of naturalization in Greece is unknown and that it is only naturalized in rice fields in the east of Spain. As it has been present in the New World since the mid-19th century, it could be considered that if invasive it would have been more widespread and abundant there by now. According to Leach (1989), Bergia species are not more widespread in suitable areas of Australia as they do not compete well with other wetland species. Nevertheless, the distribution of B. capensis might be under-reported, as small species associated with wetlands are usually under-collected and/or overlooked. For example, Milne-Redhead (1948) reports that the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, only received two collections of B. capensis in eighty years.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Burkina FasoPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
ChadPresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
GabonPresent
GambiaPresentNative
GuineaPresentNative
MaliPresentNative
MauritaniaPresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
South AfricaPresent, LocalizedNativeNorthern Provinces
TanzaniaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
ChinaPresent, LocalizedNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andhra PradeshPresentNative
-BiharPresentNative
-ChhattisgarhPresentNative
-Daman and DiuPresentNative
-DelhiPresentNative
-GoaPresentNative
-Himachal PradeshPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-OdishaPresentNative
-RajasthanPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
-TripuraPresentNative
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedNative
-JavaPresentNative
IranPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

Europe

GreecePresentIntroducedPeloponnese
PortugalPresentIntroduced
SpainPresentIntroducedAndalusia, Catalonia, Levante

North America

Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba PresentPresent, based on regional distribution
-BonairePresentIntroduced1947First record, Sabana
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedGuanacaste
CubaPresent
HaitiPresent
MexicoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedOaxaca
Netherlands AntillesPresentNative

South America

EcuadorPresentIntroduced1857
PeruPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Bergia capensis is native to Africa, southern China and tropical Asia (WCSP, 2019). It is introduced in Europe, Central America, southern Mexico and the Caribbean (one source, Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012), lists it as native in Cuba and Haiti). Although no details are available, it is highly possible that the introduction and spread of the species occurred unintentionally through the cultivation and trade of rice, as in most places it is listed from rice fields. It has been reported in South America since the mid-19th century and in the Caribbean since the early 20th century (New York Botanical Garden, 2019; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Cuba 1954 Yes No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Bonaire 1947 No No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Haiti 1924 No No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Ecuador 1857 Yes No New York Botanical Garden (2019)

Risk of Introduction

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There is limited information available to properly assess the risk of introduction of Bergia capensis. It should be considered as being at low to medium risk of introduction, mainly because of its possible introduction and spread through rice cultivation. In most of the countries where it is reported as present and naturalized there is no information about its abundance and spread.

Habitat

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B. capensis is reported as occurring in paddy fields, grasslands, rice fields, irrigation channels, ditch sides, rock pools, marshes, muddy places and along streams (Jacobsen, 1973; Trama et al., 2009; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019; Quiles Hoyo, 2019; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

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Several species of Bergia are weeds of rice fields (Tucker, 1986). Bergia capensis is reported as occurring in rice fields (Smythies, 1984-1986; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019; Flora of Greece web, 2019; New York Botanical Garden, 2019). No information about the possible impact on the rice crops is given.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    The chromosome number reported for Bergia capensis is 2n=18 (Tucker, 1986).

    Reproductive Biology

    Very little information is available on the reproductive biology of Bergia capensis.  According to East (1940), self-fertilization is common in Bergia.  At the India Biodiversity Portal (2019), B. capensis is reported as being self-pollinated, cross pollinated and visited by insects. Seed dispersal is by autochory (self-dispersal), anemochory (wind dispersal) and zoochory (birds or animals).

    Physiology and Phenology

    The species flowers from January to February and in May in Africa (E-Flora of South Africa, 2019); it flowers and fruits from August to November in India (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

    The presence of phenolic acids, including delphinidin, ellagic acid, quercetin, cyanidin and kaempferol, is reported from members of the genus Bergia (Tucker, 1986). Saponins and alkaloids are absent from the genus.

    Longevity

    B. capensis is a small annual herb (WCSP, 2019).

    Environmental Requirements

    Little information about the environmental requirements of Bergia capensis is available, other than that it grows in seasonally inundated areas (Tucker, 1986; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019). Leach (1989) reports that Bergia can survive high salinity, high temperatures and droughts, but does not specify which species.

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
    Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    37 27

    Air Temperature

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    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 35

    Rainfall

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    ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
    Mean annual rainfall2204900mm; lower/upper limits

    Rainfall Regime

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    Bimodal
    Summer
    Uniform
    Winter

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • seasonally waterlogged

    Natural enemies

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    Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
    Podosphaera xanthii Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific Ellis (2019) N

    Notes on Natural Enemies

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    The species of Bergia are susceptible to various insect pests, powdery mildews, nematodes and moulds (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019). The fungus Podosphaera xanthii [Podosphaera fusca] is reported as growing on the leaves of Bergia capensis in Europe (Ellis, 2019).

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    There is no specific information available about the dispersal mechanism of Bergia capensis. In general, it is listed as being dispersed by autochory, (self-dispersal), anemochory (wind dispersal) and zoochory (birds or animals) (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

    Natural Dispersal

    Floods are suggested as one dispersal method for Bergia and Elatine species (Leach, 1989); wind appears to be another (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

    Vector Transmission (Biotic)

    Bergia capensis is reported as being dispersed by birds and animals, but no further information is available. It is suggested that Bergia spp. seeds can be dispersed by birds, as Elatine seeds have been recorded in mud attached to birds’ feet and feathers (Leach, 1989).

    Accidental Introduction

    It is highly possible that the introduction and spread of the species occurred unintentionally through the cultivation and trade of rice, as in most places it is reported from rice fields. More locally, it is possible that the seeds are accidentally dispersed on clothes, shoes and equipment used in rice fields.

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Flooding and other natural disastersFlooding is reported as a dispersal method for the genus Yes Leach (1989)
    HitchhikerPossible on clothes, shoes or equipment used in rice fields, in debris from rice cultivation, or in mud attached to feathers and feet of birds Yes Yes Leach (1989); Quiles Hoyo (2019); India Biodiversity Portal (2019)
    Interconnected waterwaysIt is reported to occur along stream banks and irrigation channels Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2019); New York Botanical Garden (2019)
    People foragingPossible as the seeds are used for traditional medicine and for ritual purposes Yes India Biodiversity Portal (2019); Oas et al. (2015)

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Clothing, footwear and possessionsPossible on clothes and shoes used in rice fields. Yes
    Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPossible in debris associated with rice cultivation. Yes
    Floating vegetation and debrisPossible from flooding or transport through irrigation channels or streams Yes Leach (1989)
    Machinery and equipmentPossible from rice cultivation Yes
    Soil, sand and gravelPossible from rice cultivation Yes
    WaterIt is reported to occur along stream banks and irrigation channels Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2019)

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Cultural/amenity Positive
    Human health Positive

    Impact: Economic

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    Several species of Bergia are weeds of rice fields (Tucker, 1986). Bergia capensis is reported as occurring in rice fields (Smythies, 1984-1986; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019; Flora of Greece web, 2019; New York Botanical Garden, 2019), but no information about the possible impact on the rice crops is given.

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range

    Uses

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    Economic Value

    According to Tucker (1986) the Elatinaceae have little economic importance. Methanolic extract of Bergia capensis inhibit the growth of Bipolaris oryzae [or Cochliobolus miyabeanus], which is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown spot disease in rice (Manimegali et al., 2011).

    Social Benefit

    No species of Bergia is recorded as used for food or condiments, and none are reported as poisonous (Tucker, 1986). Bergia capensis is used in folk rituals and traditional medicine (India Biodiversity Portal, 2019). Seeds of the species are also reported to have been collected for ritual purposes in Ghana in prehistoric times (Oas et al., 2015).  In India, the leaves are given to animals to cure food poisoning. The leaves are also used to treat intestinal worms (Flowers of Tamilnadu, 2019).

    Uses List

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    General

    • Ritual uses

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Traditional/folklore
    • Veterinary

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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    The two genera in the Elatinideae family can be distinguished by Elatine having membranous sepals and capsules, while Bergia has herbaceous sepals and crustaceous capsules (Leach, 1989). Bergia capensis is similar to B. ammannioides, both being among the more widespread species in the genus. B. capensis stems are erect, thick, fleshy and glabrous; with leaves short petiolate; flowers and stipules glabrous; and fruits 0.5 mm long.  B. ammannioides has slender, glandular-pubescent, somewhat woody decumbent stems; with leaves sessile or nearly so and glandular beneath; flowers and stipules pilose; and fruits 0.3 mm long (Russell, 1977; India Biodiversity Portal; 2019).

    Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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    Information about the biology of B. capensis, its environmental requirements and its possible impact on other species is needed.

    References

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    Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Anon., 1916. The flora of Madras. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 1916(3), 57-65.

    DAISIE, 2019. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

    East, E. M., 1940. The distribution of self-sterility in the flowering plants. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 82, 449-518.

    E-Flora of South Africa, 2019. E-Flora of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).https://www.sanbi.org/biodiversity/foundations/biosystematics-collections/e-flora

    Ellis, WN, 2019. Plant Parasites of Europe: leafminers, galls and fungi. https://bladmineerders.nl/

    Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Flora of Greece web, 2019. Flora of Greece web. Greece: Hellenic Botanical Society.http://portal.cybertaxonomy.org/flora-greece/

    Flora of Nicaragua, 2019. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Flora de Nicaragua St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

    Flowers of Tamilnadu, 2019. Flowers of Tamilnadu. https://www.flowersoftamilnadu.com/

    Gálvez, F, 2019. Vascular flora of western Andalusia. (Flora Vascular de Andalucía Occidental). Sevilla, Spain: BioScripts.https://www.floravascular.com/

    Greuter, W, Raus, T, 2001. Med-Checklist Notulae, 20. Willdenowia, 31(2), 319-328. doi: https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.31.31204

    India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Jacobsen, W. B. G., 1973. A checklist and discussion of the flora of a portion of the Lomagundi District, Rhodesia. Kirkia, 9(1), 139-207.

    Kress, WJ, Defilipps, RA, Farr, E, Kyi, DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. In: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium , 45. 1-590.

    Leach GJ, 1989. Taxonomic revision of Bergia (Elatinaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, 11(2), 75-100. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23873795https://www.jstor.org/stable/23873795

    Manimegali V, Ambikapathy V, Panneerselvam A, 2011. Antifungal potentiality of some medicinal plant extracts against Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan). Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 1(3), 77-80.

    Milne-Redhead E, 1948. Tropical African plants: XX. Kew Bulletin, 3(3), 449-473.

    Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

    New York Botanical Garden, 2019. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

    Oas, S. E., D'Andrea, A. C., Watson, D. J., 2015. 10,000 year history of plant use at Bosumpra Cave, Ghana. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 24(5), 635-653. doi: 10.1007/s00334-015-0514-2

    Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

    Quiles Hoyo, J., 2019. Wild flora of the Mediterranean and Macaronesia. (Flora silvestre del Mediterráneo y Macaronesia). http://www.florasilvestre.es/mediterranea/

    Russell GEG, 1977. Keys to vascular aquatic plants in Rhodesia. Kirkia, 10(2), 411-502.

    Smythies BE, 1984-1986. Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands: Checklist of Vascular Plants. I. Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, Acanthaceae-Crassulaceae. II. Cruciferae-Rutaceae. III. Salicaceae-Zygophyllaceae, Agavaceae-Zannichelliaceae. In: Englera,3. III-XXXIII + 1-880. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3776727 doi: 10.2307/3776728

    Svenson, H. K., 1946. Vegetation of the coast of Ecuador and Peru and its relation to that of the Galapagos Islands. 2. Catalogue of plants. American Journal of Botany, 33, 427-98. doi: 10.2307/2437584

    Svenson, H. K., 1946. Vegetation of the coast of Ecuador and Peru and its relation to the Galapagos Islands. I. Geographical relations of the flora. American Journal of Botany, 38, 394-426. doi: 10.2307/2437128

    Trama, F. A., Rizo-Patrón, F. L., Anjali Kumar, González, E., Somma, D., McCoy C., M. B., 2009. Wetland cover types and plant community changes in response to cattail-control activities in the Palo Verde marsh, Costa Rica. Ecological Restoration, 27(3), 278-289. doi: 10.3368/er.27.3.278

    Tucker GC, 1986. The genera of Elatinaceae in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 67(4), 471-483.

    WCSP, 2019. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do

    World Flora Online, 2019. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org

    Distribution References

    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, 2020a. CABI Distribution Database: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Flowers of Tamilnadu, 2019. Flowers of Tamilnadu., https://www.flowersoftamilnadu.com/

    Gálvez F, 2019. Vascular flora of western Andalusia. (Flora Vascular de Andalucía Occidental)., Sevilla, Spain: BioScripts. https://www.floravascular.com/

    Greuter W, Raus T, 2001. Med-Checklist Notulae, 20. Willdenowia. 31 (2), 319-328. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.31.31204

    India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

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    Contributors

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    08/09/19: Original text by:

    Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico

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