Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Bagrada hilaris
(painted bug)

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Datasheet

Bagrada hilaris (painted bug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 February 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bagrada hilaris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • painted bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Bagrada hilaris is a hemipteran insect with a host range of over 70 plant species in 23 families. A major pest of crucifers in its native land, many Asian and African countries, the pest’s geographical range of distribution has recently e...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult male and female. Museum set-specimens. USA.
TitleAdults
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult male and female. Museum set-specimens. USA.
Copyright©Dr Gevork Arakelian/Dept. of Agriculture, Los Angeles County, USA/Bugwood - CC BY-NC 3.0
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult male and female. Museum set-specimens. USA.
AdultsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult male and female. Museum set-specimens. USA.©Dr Gevork Arakelian/Dept. of Agriculture, Los Angeles County, USA/Bugwood - CC BY-NC 3.0
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult. B. hilaris is a pest of Brassica (cabbage, kale, etc.), here on pakchoi, in it's natural range. Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. April, 2010.
TitleAdult
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult. B. hilaris is a pest of Brassica (cabbage, kale, etc.), here on pakchoi, in it's natural range. Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. April, 2010.
Copyright©Ton Rulkens-2010 - CC BY-SA 2.0 (via flickr)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult. B. hilaris is a pest of Brassica (cabbage, kale, etc.), here on pakchoi, in it's natural range. Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. April, 2010.
AdultBagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult. B. hilaris is a pest of Brassica (cabbage, kale, etc.), here on pakchoi, in it's natural range. Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. April, 2010.©Ton Rulkens-2010 - CC BY-SA 2.0 (via flickr)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by 'Downtownga'l at Wikipedia
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
Damage symptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.Public Domain - Released by 'Downtownga'l at Wikipedia
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by 'Downtownga'l at Wikipedia
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
Damage symptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.Public Domain - Released by 'Downtownga'l at Wikipedia
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug adult feeding on a bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) leaf. January 2015.
TitleAdult on host
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug adult feeding on a bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) leaf. January 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug adult feeding on a bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) leaf. January 2015.
Adult on hostBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug adult feeding on a bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) leaf. January 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima). May 2015.
TitleAdult on host
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima). May 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima). May 2015.
Adult on hostBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima). May 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on broccoli leaf and a nymph. September 2014.
TitleDamage Symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on broccoli leaf and a nymph. September 2014.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on broccoli leaf and a nymph. September 2014.
Damage SymptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on broccoli leaf and a nymph. September 2014.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). May 2015.
TitleDamage Symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). May 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). May 2015.
Damage SymptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). May 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) during the winter.
TitleDamage Symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) during the winter.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) during the winter.
Damage SymptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) during the winter.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug mating pair. February 2015.
TitleMating pair
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug mating pair. February 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug mating pair. February 2015.
Mating pairBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug mating pair. February 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug female laying eggs on fabric cage liner. February 2015.
TitleAdult laying eggs
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug female laying eggs on fabric cage liner. February 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug female laying eggs on fabric cage liner. February 2015.
Adult laying eggsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug female laying eggs on fabric cage liner. February 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on young broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) plants.
TitleDamage Symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on young broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) plants.
Copyright©Shimat Joseph (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on young broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) plants.
Damage SymptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on young broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) plants.©Shimat Joseph (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister)

Preferred Common Name

  • painted bug

Other Scientific Names

  • Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy
  • Bagrada picta (Fabricius)

International Common Names

  • English: bagrada bug; caper bug; colorful bug; harlequin bug; mustard bug; mustard painted bug

EPPO code

  • BAGRHI

Summary of Invasiveness

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Bagrada hilaris is a hemipteran insect with a host range of over 70 plant species in 23 families. A major pest of crucifers in its native land, many Asian and African countries, the pest’s geographical range of distribution has recently expanded to Europe and the Americas. It has been a serious pest in India since the early twentieth century. It is reported in localized areas in Italy and Malta. First detected in North America in 2008 in California (USA), this bug has spread to coastal production regions in California, several southern states of the USA, Hawaii and Mexico. The worldwide distribution of its host plants, the ability to reproduce quickly in a suitable environment and the absence of natural enemies in new habitats show the potential of B. hilaris to expand and establish in new areas, especially warmer regions of the western world.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Heteroptera
  •                             Family: Pentatomidae
  •                                 Genus: Bagrada
  •                                     Species: Bagrada hilaris

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The taxonomic nomenclature of painted bug has been reviewed and described by Palumbo et al. (2016). Fabricius first described this species in 1775 as Cimex pictus Fabricius from specimens in India. The species went through several nomenclatural changes over the years as Cimex hilaris Burmeister, 1835; Cimex hebraicus Germar, 1838; Cimex jucundus Klug, 1845; Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy, 1909; Bagrada (Bagrada) picta var. connectens Horváth, 1936; and Bagrada (Bagrada) picta var. modesta Horváth, 1936, before it was finally designated as Bagrada hilaris.

Description

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The biology and life history of B. hilaris have been described and reviewed in several publications (Rakshpal, 1949; Azim and Shafee, 1986; Verma et al., 1993). A true bug, B. hilaris is a hemi-metabolous insect in the family Pentatomidae. It completes its life-cycle in approximately 6 weeks in the laboratory at 24°C. Adult bugs are black with orange and white markings and are, on average, 5-7 mm long and 2.5-3.5 mm wide. Adults lay barrel-shaped eggs, which are white initially but gradually turn orange then red before hatching, singly or in small clusters of about 10. Eggs are 0.87-1.0 mm long and 0.55-0.75 mm wide. Female bugs mostly deposit eggs individually in loose soil in the field but can also lay them on the leaves or stems of plants or any other structures present around the plants. An adult female can lay as many as 200 eggs throughout its life, within 1 month. Eggs hatch into nymphs within 4 days and the nymphs pass through five instars before moulting into adults. Nymphs are orange or red immediately after hatching or moulting, but become darker quickly. Younger nymphs have a red abdomen that turns orange with age. Moreover, older nymphs have dark wing pads that the younger nymphs lack.

Under suitable warm weather conditions, painted bugs can develop from eggs to adults in less than 3 weeks and can produce as many as 10 generations a year (Palumbo et al., 2016). Adult bugs may be present in low numbers throughout the year or overwinter in cracks and crevices or under leaf litter during cold winters, though they may become active on warmer days (Reed et al., 2013; Palumbo et al., 2016). In general, two seasonal peaks of painted bugs occur, at planting and harvest, in the western USA (Palumbo et al., 2016).

Distribution

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B. hilaris is native to Africa and Asia. In Africa, it is reported in the eastern and southern parts of the continent (Infonet-Biovision, 2015). In Asia, it is present mainly in South Asia and the Middle East (Joseph, 2014). It has been a problematic pest of brassicaceous crops in India since the 1900s (Rakshpal,1949). In its non-native habitat, it has been reported in Europe on Pantelleria island, Italy as a pest on caper (Capparis spinosa) and in Malta (Infantino et al., 2007). It was first reported in the USA (California) in 2008, and has since spread to coastal regions of California and neighbouring states. It has recently been reported in Chile and Mexico (Sánchez-Peña, 2014; Faúndez et al., 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BotswanaPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
DjiboutiPresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-MizoramPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
Sri LankaPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

ItalyPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-SicilyPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
MaltaPresentIntroduced

North America

MexicoPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
United StatesPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-ArizonaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-HawaiiPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced2017
-NevadaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-New MexicoPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-TexasPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-UtahPresent, LocalizedIntroduced

South America

ChilePresent, LocalizedIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Published literature on B. hilaris indicates that it has been an important pest of crucifers in the Indian subcontinent (Rakshpal, 1949) since the 1900s. More recently, it has become a severe pest in Africa (Nyabuga, 2008; Obopile et al., 2008) and is becoming a pest problem in southern Europe (Infantino et al., 2007) and the Middle East (Alyousuf and Al-Masudey, 2012). In the USA, it was first reported in 2008 in California, where it was presumed to have entered via shipping containers (Arakelian, 2008; Reed et al., 2013). Several interceptions made at agricultural inspection centres in the USA suggest that the movement of bugs is assisted by the transportation of plant material across states (LeVeen and Hodges, 2015). B. hilaris has also been reported in isolated areas such as the island of Hawaii and Maui, highlighting the risk of the spread of this bug through air or water transportation (Matsunaga, 2014).

Risk of Introduction

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B. hilaris has a broad host range and host plants are available worldwide. This bug can reproduce quickly in warmer climates and lacks natural enemies in new habitats. These features make B. hilaris a potentially risky pest for introduction to areas where it is not currently present, particularly in warmer regions of the western world. Though deliberate introductions are unlikely to occur because there is no explicit value of this insect, B. hilaris may be indirectly transported to new areas through the movement of produce (Matsunaga, 2014).

Habitat

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B. hilaris is primarily a pest of crucifers. In South Asian countries, oilseed Brassica crops such as oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) are the most common hosts. On the island of Pantelleria in Italy (Colazza et al., 2004), host plants of B. hilaris include crops such as caper (Capparis spinosa). Hosts also include many non-Brassica crops such as maize (Zea mays), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) during outbreak years. Thus, the primary habitat of this pest includes cultivated crop fields and the surrounding area where it can find non-cultivated wild hosts. Moreover, a recent report from Chile shows that B. hilaris may invade residential buildings and urban habitats (Faúndez, 2018).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Palumbo et al. (2016) lists 74 plant species in 23 families, including 56 crops, 13 weeds and five ornamentals, as hosts of B. hilaris. However, many of these plants are believed to be ‘bridging hosts’ that B. hilaris infests when Brassica host plants are absent between planting seasons (Palumbo et al., 2016). Reed et al. (2013) and Huang et al. (2014) reported that brassicaceous plants are the primary hosts of this insect. Among the brassicaceous plants, studies have shown that B. hilaris prefers plants such as radish (Raphanus sativus) to red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). Other plant hosts such as sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), arugula (Eruca vesicaria) and broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica) are less attractive (Huang et al., 2014).

Reed et al. (2013) reported that plants such as Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium spp., Coriandrum sativum, Cucumis melo, C. sativus, Cucurbita foetidissima, C. pepo, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Lotus corniculatus, Nicotiana glauca, Senecio vulgaris, Solanum nigrum, S. lycopersicum, Sonchus spp., Spinacia oleracea and Vicia faba are not hosts of B. hilaris.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)MalvaceaeOther
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeOther
    Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeOther
      Atriplex canescens (Fourwing saltbush)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
      Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
        BrassicaBrassicaceaeUnknown
        Brassica campestris var. toriaUnknown
        Brassica carinata (African cabbage)BrassicaceaeUnknown
        Brassica juncea (mustard)BrassicaceaeMain
        Brassica juncea var. juncea (Indian mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
        Brassica napusBrassicaceaeMain
        Brassica napus var. napobrassica (swede)BrassicaceaeUnknown
        Brassica nigra (black mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
        Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeMain
        Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeOther
        Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
        Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli)BrassicaceaeOther
        Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeUnknown
        Brassica perviridis (Spinach mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
        Brassica rapa (field mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
        Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (turnip rape)BrassicaceaeMain
        Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensisBrassicaceaeMain
          Brassica rapa subsp. rapa (turnip)BrassicaceaeMain
          Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
          Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
            Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeOther
              Capparis spinosa (Caper bush)CapparaceaeMain
              Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)BrassicaceaeWild host
                Carduus edelbergiiAsteraceaeOther
                  Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
                    Carthamus oxyacanthusAsteraceaeOther
                      Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
                      Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
                        Cirsium wallichiiAsteraceaeOther
                          CitrusRutaceaeOther
                          Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                            Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
                            Cuscuta reflexa (dodder)CuscutaceaeOther
                              Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (globe artichoke)AsteraceaeOther
                                Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeOther
                                  Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeUnknown
                                  DahliaAsteraceaeOther
                                    Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
                                      Descurainia sophia (flixweed)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                        Desmostachya bipinnata (halfa grass)PoaceaeOther
                                          Eruca vesicaria (purple-vein rocket)BrassicaceaeMain
                                          Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                          Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                            Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                              Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                              Iberis (candytuft)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                                Indigofera (indigo)FabaceaeOther
                                                  Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
                                                    Lepidium alyssoidesUnknown
                                                    Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                    Linum usitatissimum (flax)Other
                                                      Lobularia maritima (sweet alyssum)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                                        Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                          MatthiolaBrassicaceaeOther
                                                            Medicago polymorpha (bur clover)FabaceaeOther
                                                              Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeOther
                                                                Momordica dioicaCucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                  Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
                                                                    NasturtiumBrassicaceaeOther
                                                                      Panicum miliaceum (millet)PoaceaeOther
                                                                        Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet)PoaceaeOther
                                                                        Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                          Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                            Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                              Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                Plantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PlantaginaceaeOther
                                                                                  Polygonum plebeium (small knotweed)PolygonaceaeUnknown
                                                                                  Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                                                                    Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeMain
                                                                                    Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                      Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                        Rumex dentatusPolygonaceaeOther
                                                                                          Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                            Sisymbrium irioBrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                            Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                              Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Trifolium alexandrinum (Berseem clover)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                        Trifolium resupinatum (Shaftal clover)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Vicia (vetch)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                              Vigna mungo (black gram)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                              Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Withania somnifera (poisonous gooseberry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Ziziphus nummularia (lotebush)RhamnaceaeUnknown

                                                                                                                  Growth Stages

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                                                                                                                  Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                  Symptoms

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                                                                                                                  B. hilaris feeds by inserting its piercing and sucking mouthparts, stylets, between the epidermal layers of the host (Reed et al., 2013) and releasing a salivary enzyme into the cells (Palumbo et al., 2016). The combination of mechanical damage and the injection of salivary enzyme during feeding can cause the death of cells at feeding sites (Reed et al., 2013). The bugs also remove sap from host tissues during feeding. Chlorotic lesions may form as a result of feeding and can eventually become necrotic. Severe damage caused by B. hilaris to the leaves or other plant parts may prevent normal growth and development of those parts and the whole plant.

                                                                                                                  Young seedlings are extremely susceptible to feeding damage, especially at the cotyledon stage (Palumbo and Natwick, 2010; Joseph et al., 2017). Feeding at the seedling stage results in wilting and desiccation of the plants, which eventually die. Older plants are susceptible to feeding damage at the growing point. Damage to the apical meristem of many head-forming Brassica crops results in the production of several smaller and unmarketable heads, or no heads at all (Palumbo and Natwick, 2010). Nymphs and adults leave sticky excreta on various parts of plants, potentially affecting the market value (Rajpoot et al., 1996). Feeding on leaves of non-head forming Brassica reduces their marketability by causing aesthetic damage. Such feeding damage also lowers the nutritional value of the produce. B. hilaris also feeds on the developing seeds and seed pods of Brassica plants (Verma et al., 1993; Rajpoot et al.,1996) which can result in damage to the seeds and potentially reduces the oil content of the seeds.

                                                                                                                  List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                                                  SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                  Leaves / external feeding
                                                                                                                  Leaves / necrotic areas
                                                                                                                  Whole plant / external feeding
                                                                                                                  Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

                                                                                                                  Natural enemies

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                                                                                                                  Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                  Alophora Parasite Adults not specific
                                                                                                                  Chrysoperla carnea Predator
                                                                                                                  Erynia radicans Pathogen Acosta et al. (2016)
                                                                                                                  Gryon Parasite Eggs not specific
                                                                                                                  Ooencyrtus Parasite Eggs not specific
                                                                                                                  Paratelenomus Parasite Eggs not specific
                                                                                                                  Phasia Parasite Adults not specific
                                                                                                                  Rhynocoris segmentarius Predator Adults/Nymphs not specific
                                                                                                                  Sarcophaga kempi Parasite Adults not specific
                                                                                                                  Telenomus Parasite Eggs not specific
                                                                                                                  Trissolcus Parasite Eggs not specific
                                                                                                                  Zelus Predator Adults/Nymphs not specific

                                                                                                                  Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                                                  Several parasitic wasps have been identified as biocontrol agents of B. hilaris in India and Pakistan (Samuel, 1942; Chacko and Katiyar, 1961; Mani and Sharma, 1982; Ghosal, 2006; Mahmood et al., 2015). These include egg parasitoids, mostly in the family Platygastridae, and include several species of Telenomus (=Liophanurus), Paratelenomus, Gryon (= Hadrophanurus), Trissolcus and Ooencyrtus.

                                                                                                                  Egg parasitoids of B. hilaris in the family Scelionidae have been collected and identified in Mexico (Felipe-Victoriano et al., 2019). However, the rate of parasitism for these parasitoids appears to be low in the field. No natural enemies specific to B. hilaris have been reported in the USA (Reed et al., 2013). Dipteran parasitoids of adult B. hilaris (Crosskey, 1984) include sarcophagid and tachinid flies (Anwar Cheema et al., 1973). The efficacy of these natural enemies is unknown.

                                                                                                                  Chemical defence, emissions from the scent glands, makes B. hilaris less prone to predatory arthropod attack. However, there are reports of some predators that prey on painted bug. Many of these predators are thought to have significantly less impact on the regulation of painted bug populations. Some of those predators include the reduviid bug (Rhynocoris segmentarius) that feeds on nymphs and adults of B. hilaris (Gunn, 1918). Other predators observed to feed on painted bug nymphs or adults include spiders (Araneae), mantids, predatory heteroptera (Zelus sp.) (Palumbo et al., 2016) and a predatory mite (Bochartia sp.) (Thakar et al., 1969).

                                                                                                                  Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                                                                                                  The movement and dispersal behaviour of B. hilaris is not well studied. Grettenberger and Joseph (2019) showed that movement by B. hilaris for host finding is regulated by the level of food scarcity in the area. The long-distance movement and dispersal of B. hilaris is mostly accidental through trade. There were several interceptions of B. hilaris in Florida, USA, from 2011 to 2013, on trucks transporting plant material across state lines suggesting that such movement may play an important role in the spread of the bug (LeVeen and Hodges, 2015).

                                                                                                                  Pathway Causes

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                                                                                                                  CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                  Crop production Yes Yes Matsunaga (2014); LeVeen and Hodges (2015)
                                                                                                                  Hitchhiker Yes Yes Matsunaga (2014); LeVeen and Hodges (2015)

                                                                                                                  Plant Trade

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                                                                                                                  Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                  Leaves adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                  Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                                                  Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

                                                                                                                  Impact Summary

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                                                                                                                  CategoryImpact
                                                                                                                  Economic/livelihood Negative

                                                                                                                  Economic Impact

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                                                                                                                  Feeding damage caused by B. hilaris causes serious economic losses due to a reduction in yield. In India, where painted bug has been a serious pest for a long period, mustard farmers in Rajasthan lost one quarter to three quarters of the expected seed yield due to B. hilaris feeding (Joshi et al., 1989). Similarly, Ahuja et al. (2008) reported that feeding damage caused by B. hilaris resulted in a 37% reduction in seed yield primarily due to stand loss.

                                                                                                                  In California and Arizona, where B. hilaris outbreaks were first reported in the USA, seedling mortality as high as 60% was reported in highly infested broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) fields. Similarly, cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis) growers in the same area reported losses as high as 25% due to B. hilaris feeding damage.

                                                                                                                  Risk and Impact Factors

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                                                                                                                  Invasiveness
                                                                                                                  • Proved invasive outside its native range
                                                                                                                  • Has a broad native range
                                                                                                                  • Abundant in its native range
                                                                                                                  • Is a habitat generalist
                                                                                                                  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                                                                                                  • Highly mobile locally
                                                                                                                  Impact outcomes
                                                                                                                  • Host damage
                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
                                                                                                                  • Damages animal/plant products
                                                                                                                  Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                                                                  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

                                                                                                                  Uses List

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                                                                                                                  Human food and beverage

                                                                                                                  • Emergency (famine) food

                                                                                                                  Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                                                  There are currently no monitoring techniques specific to B. hilaris. However, Reed et al. (2013), from observation of B. hilaris activity on cole crop seedlings, suggested that sampling should be performed during mid-morning to late afternoon when painted bug activity is highest. Huang et al. (2014) reported that B. hilaris is most active between mid-morning (10.00 h) and late afternoon (16.00 h) when ambient temperatures are >29°C.

                                                                                                                  B. hilaris has been observed feeding on seedlings immediately after emergence. Therefore, sampling is recommended when seedlings begin to emerge (Reed et al., 2013). The young seedlings should be checked thoroughly for the presence of B. hilaris adults and feeding damage. Sampling of larger or transplanted seedlings (i.e., two- to three-leaf stage or larger) should involve thorough inspection of the undersides of leaves, the stem and the soil surface (Palumbo et al., 2016).

                                                                                                                  Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                                                  The colour pattern of B. hilaris adults and nymphs resembles some other stink bugs and ladybeetle adults in the USA (LeVeen and Hodges, 2015). The adults resemble and may be confused with, harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, another related stink bug, due to similarity in colouring pattern. However, painted bugs are smaller, about a quarter to a third of the size, and have smaller orange markings than harlequin bugs.

                                                                                                                  Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                                  Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                  Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

                                                                                                                  Field sanitation is important in minimizing B. hilaris infestation in crops. Sanitation measures involve the removal of crop residues from the field after harvest and keeping the field and surrounding habitat free of wild hosts (Infantino et al., 2007; Sachan and Purwar, 2007; Hill, 2008; Nyabuga, 2008). Cultivation of vegetable beds to kill the eggs of B. hilaris in the soil has been recommended for control (Bok et al., 2006). Keeping the plant stand healthy by the application of fertilizer, especially nitrogen, and keeping the plants free of moisture stress may reduce damage to seedling crops (Parsana et al., 2001). Similarly, varying the planting times of Brassica crops has also been used to avoid pest damage (Parsana et al., 2001; Ahuja et al., 2008).

                                                                                                                  In the USA, many direct-seeded Brassicas are now transplanted to minimize the severity of damage by B. hilaris (Reed et al., 2013).

                                                                                                                  Literature from the early twentieth century has indicated that mustard was successfully used as a trap crop to divert painted bugs away from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) fields (Howard, 1907). More recent studies have shown that the use of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) to attract B. hilaris away from the main crop, followed by insecticide sprays, was effective in reducing damage by the pest (Reddy, 2013). Huang et al. (2014) found that B. hilaris preferred radish (Raphanus sativus) to other Brassica crops suggesting that it was a good candidate as a trap crop for painted bug.

                                                                                                                  Physical/Mechanical Control

                                                                                                                  Many small-scale growers have traditionally removed painted bugs by hand to manage the pest (Nyabuga, 2008). Other methods of physical control include the use of cloth cover or mosquito netting to keep B. hilaris from feeding on plants (Howard, 1907).

                                                                                                                  Biological Control

                                                                                                                  Several species of hymenopteran parasitoids have been found to parasitize the eggs of B. hilaris (Chacko and Katiyar, 1961; Mani and Sharma, 1982; Ghosal et al., 2005) in the Old World. Similarly, a species of tachinid parasitoid (Rakshpal, 1949) has been reported to attack the adults. In the New World, laboratory studies have indicated that some generalist parasitoids can attack the eggs of B. hilaris. However, the behaviour of B. hilaris, laying eggs individually or in small masses in the soil, makes attack by generalist predators more difficult. No native natural enemies that specifically target B. hilaris in the USA have been reported.

                                                                                                                  Chemical Control

                                                                                                                  The use of synthetic chemicals is a primary method of control for B. hilaris throughout the world. Various groups of insecticides (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and neonicotinoids) are used. Foliar application of organophosphates, pyrethroids and neonicotinoid insecticides can provide good knockdown control of B. hilaris; however, many of the old generation organophosphate insecticides, popular in countries such as India for control of B. hilaris, have been phased out in western countries.

                                                                                                                  Current pest management practices for B. hilaris involve multiple sprays of mostly broad-spectrum insecticides to provide effective control. In India, pyrethroids and other older organophosphate products such as chlorpyrifos, malathion and profenofos are the most widely used insecticides (Sachan and Purwar, 2007; Nagar et al., 2011). In the USA, where B. hilaris is relatively new, pyrethroids (e.g. bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) and neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, dinotefuran, clothianidin) provide effective knockdown control (Palumbo, 2011a). Many neonicotinoids that offer systemic control of some pests through soil applications have not been able to provide such protection of young seedlings from feeding damage by B. hilaris (Palumbo, 2011b). However, drench application of these insecticides during seedling establishment reduced damage by B. hilaris in broccoli fields in California (Joseph et al., 2016). Similarly, seed dressing with neonicotinoid insecticide provided acceptable control (Joseph, 2019).

                                                                                                                  Several reduced-risk insecticides have been evaluated against B. hilaris including diamides, sulfoxamines and ketoenols, which are generally effective against hemipteran and other pests that have piercing and sucking mouthparts. However, preliminary studies have shown that these new insecticides are ineffective against this bug on cole crops (Palumbo, 2011c).

                                                                                                                  In the USA, some studies have attempted to explore other options, such as the use of insect growth regulators (IGR). In the laboratory, IGRs such as novaluron were observed to affect nymph development of B. hilaris (Palumbo et al., 2013; Joseph, 2017), reducing the number of nymphs developing into adults. Other insecticides, such as azadirachtin, which is also found to act as an IGR, have been reported to reduce painted bug injuries to broccoli (Palumbo et al., 2013).

                                                                                                                  Though much is yet to be explored for management of B. hilaris in organic production systems, a couple of studies conducted in the USA have indicated that chemical insecticides approved for organic use are not very effective as stand-alone treatments. For example, Joseph (2018) found that spinosad, pyrethrins, azadirachtin and potassium salts applied as stand-alone or combined treatments were ineffective in providing consistent bug control.

                                                                                                                  References

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                                                                                                                  Acosta, R. I. T., Humber, R. A., Sánchez-Peña, S. R., 2016. Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales), a fungal pathogen of Bagrada hilaris and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Triozidae): prevalence, pathogenicity, and interplay of environmental influence, morphology, and sequence data on fungal identification. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 139, 82-91. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201116301021 doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2016.07.017

                                                                                                                  Ahuja, B., Kalyan, R. K., Ahuja, U. R., Singh, S. K., Sundria, M. M., Dhandapani, A., 2008. Integrated management strategy for painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) inflicting injury at seedling stage of mustard (Brassica juncea) in arid western Rajasthan. Pesticide Research Journal, 20(1), 48-51.

                                                                                                                  Ajay Sharma, 2013. Insect pests of some important fodder trees grown under agroforestry conditions in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Entomological Research, 37(2), 181-186. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:jer&type=home

                                                                                                                  Alyousuf, AA, Al-Masudey, AD, 2012. New record of painted bug Bagrada hilaris (burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on radish and its chemical control in Basrah province. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 25, 595-607.

                                                                                                                  Andrahennadi, R., Gillott, C., 1998. Resistance of Brassica, especially B. juncea (L.) Czern, genotypes to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Crop Protection, 17(1), 85-94. doi: 10.1016/S0261-2194(98)80016-1

                                                                                                                  Anwar Cheema, M., Irshad, M., Murtaza, M., Ghani, M. A., 1973. Pentatomids associated with Gramineae and their natural enemies in Pakistan. Technical Bulletin, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, (No. 16), 47-67.

                                                                                                                  Arakelian G, 2008. Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris. Riverside, California, USA: Center of Invasive Species Research, University of California.http://cisr.ucr.edu/Bagrada_bug.html

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                                                                                                                  Bok I, Madisa M, Machacha D, Moamogwe M , More M, 2006. Manual for vegetable production in Botswana. Botswana: Botswana Ministry of Agriculture.www.dar.gov.bw/manual1_veg_prod_botswana.pdf

                                                                                                                  Boopathi, T., Pathak, K. A., 2012. Seasonal abundance of insect pests of broccoli in North Eastern Hill Region of India. Madras Agricultural Journal, 99(1/3), 125-127.

                                                                                                                  Bundy, C. S., Grasswitz, T. R., Sutherland, C., 2012. First report of the invasive stink bug Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from New Mexico, with notes on its biology. Southwestern Entomologist, 37(3), 411-414. doi: 10.3958/059.037.0317

                                                                                                                  CABI, EPPO, 2016. Bagrada hilaris. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests , (No.December) Wallingford, UK: CABI.Map 417 (1st revisio. doi: 10.1079/DMPP/20173018331

                                                                                                                  Chacko, M. J., Katiyar, R. N., 1961. Hadrophanurus karnalensis sp. n.(Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a Parasite of Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Systematic Entomology, 30(44147), 161-163. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1961.tb00155.x

                                                                                                                  Choudhury, S., Pal, S., 2006. Pest complex and their succession in mustard under terai ecological conditions of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Entomology, 68(4), 387-395.

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                                                                                                                  Crosskey RW, 1984. Annotated keys to the genera of Tachinidae (Diptera) found in tropical and southern Africa. Annals of the Natal Museum, 26, 189-337.

                                                                                                                  Dharpure, S. R., 2002. Changing scenario of insect pests of potato in Satpura plateau of Madhya Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Potato Association, 29(3/4), 135-138.

                                                                                                                  Divya, C., Kalasariya, R. L., Kanara, H. G., 2015. Seasonal incidence of mustard painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) and their correlation with abiotic factors on mustard. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana), 28(1), 92-95.

                                                                                                                  EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

                                                                                                                  Faúndez EI, 2018. From agricultural to household pest: the case of the painted bug Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Chile. Journal of Medical Entomology, 55, 1365-1368.

                                                                                                                  Faúndez, EI, Lüer, A, Cuevas, AG, Rider, DA, Valdebenito, P, 2016. First record of the painted bug Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister, 1835) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in South America. Arquivos Entomolóxicos, 16, 175-179.

                                                                                                                  Felipe-Victoriano, M., Talamas, E. J., Sánchez-Peña, S. R., 2019. Scelionidae (Hymenoptera) parasitizing eggs of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) in Mexico. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, (73), 143-152. doi: 10.3897/jhr.73.36654

                                                                                                                  Ghosal TK, 2006. Field observation of biocontrol potential of Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Insect Environment, 12, 30.

                                                                                                                  Ghosal, T. K., Senapati, S. K., Deb, D. C., 2005. Records of hymenopterous parasitoids and a host-parasitic check list of the Brassica oilseed crops of India. Journal of Ecobiology, 17(3), 251-259.

                                                                                                                  Grettenberger, I. M., Joseph, S. V., 2019. Influence of starvation on walking behavior of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). PLoS ONE, 14(4), e0215446. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215446

                                                                                                                  Guarino, S., Pasquale, C. de, Peri, E., Alonzo, G., Colazza, S., 2008. Role of volatile and contact pheroniones in the mating behaviour of Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). European Journal of Entomology, 105(4), 613-617. http://www.eje.cz/scripts/content.php

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                                                                                                                  Hill, DS, 2008. Pests of crops in warmer climates and their control, London, UK: Springer.

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                                                                                                                  Huang, T. I., Reed, D. A., Perring, T. M., Palumbo, J. C., 2014. Feeding damage by Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and impact on growth and chlorophyll content of Brassicaceous plant species. Arthropod - Plant Interactions, 8(2), 89-100. doi: 10.1007/s11829-014-9289-0

                                                                                                                  ICAR, 2010. Annual report 2009-10, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya. ICAR, India: http://www.kiran.nic.in/pdf/reports/Annual_Report_2009-10.pdf

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                                                                                                                  Infonet-Biovision, 2015. Bagrada bug. Infonet Biovision.http://infonet-biovision.org/node/28470

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                                                                                                                  Joseph SV, 2019. Seed treatment with clothianidin reduces Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) damage to crucifers. J. Entomol. Sci, 54, 319-324.

                                                                                                                  Joseph, S. V., 2014. Effect of trap color on captures of bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 49(3), 318-321.

                                                                                                                  Joseph, S. V., 2017. Effects of insect growth regulators on Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(6), 2471-2477. doi: 10.1093/jee/tox264

                                                                                                                  Joseph, S. V., 2018. Lethal and sublethal effects of organically-approved insecticides against Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 53(3), 307-324. doi: 10.18474/jes17-84.1

                                                                                                                  Joseph, S. V., Grettenberger, I. M., Godfrey, L. D., 2017. Damage by Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) adults on germinating stages of arugula seed in a choice test. Journal of Entomological Science, 52(4), 468-471. doi: 10.18474/JES17-54.1

                                                                                                                  Joseph, S. V., Grettenberger, I., Godfrey, L., 2016. Insecticides applied to soil of transplant plugs for Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) management in broccoli. Crop Protection, 87, 68-77. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2016.04.023

                                                                                                                  Joshi, M. L., Ahuja, D. B., Mathur, B. N., 1989. Loss in seed yield by insect pests and their occurrence on different dates of sowing in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea subsp. juncea). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 59(3), 166-168.

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                                                                                                                  Lal, O. P., Singh, B., 1993. Outbreak of the painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on mustard in northern India. Journal of Entomological Research, 17(2), 155-157.

                                                                                                                  Lambert, A. M., Dudley, T. L., 2014. Exotic wildland weeds serve as reservoirs for a newly introduced cole crop pest, Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 138(10), 795-799. doi: 10.1111/jen.12144

                                                                                                                  Leston, D., 1952. XCIV-Notes on the Ethiopian Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera)-VI Some insects in the Hope department, Oxford. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12), 5(58), 893-904. doi: 10.1080/00222935208654367

                                                                                                                  LeVeen E, Hodges AC, 2015. Bagrada bug, painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Insecta:Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). In: IFAS Publ. EENY596 . Gainesville, University of Florida.http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1041

                                                                                                                  Lillian, S., 2017. Associational Susceptibility of a Native Shrub, Atriplex canescens, Mediated by an Invasive Annual Forb, Brassica tournefortii, and Invasive Stinkbug, Bagrada hilaris. USA: Ecological Society of America. e02442. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.2442

                                                                                                                  Malik, S., Jabeen, T., Solangi, B. K., Qureshi, N. A., 2012. Insect pests and Predators associated with different Mustard varieties at Tandojam. Sindh University Research Journal-SURJ (Science Series), 44(2), 221-226. https://sujo-old.usindh.edu.pk/index.php/SURJ/article/viewFile/1461/1350

                                                                                                                  Mani, M. S., Sharma, S. K., 1982. Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) from India. A review. In: Oriental Insects , 16(2) . 135-258.

                                                                                                                  Manjula, K. N., Kotikal, Y. K., Patil, H. B., Biradar, I. B., 2015. Studies on insect fauna, their natural enemies and pollinators in fenugreek. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 28(2), 279-281. http://14.139.155.167/test5/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/7538/7789

                                                                                                                  Matsunaga, JN, 2014. Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). In: State of Hawaii Department of Agriculture, new pest advisory , (No.14-02) . https://hdoa.hawaii.gov/pi/files/2013/01/Bagrada-hilaris-NPA4-5-16.pdf

                                                                                                                  NAPPO, 2015. Florida Official Control Program of Bagrada hilaris (bagrada bug) Recognized by APHIS Under the Federally Recognized State Managed Phytosanitary (FRSMP) Program. NAPPO.http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=635

                                                                                                                  Nyabuga F, 2008. Sustainable management of cabbage aphid and Bagrada bugs: case study from Kenya. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag.70 pp.

                                                                                                                  Obopile, M., Munthali, D. C., Matilo, B., 2008. Farmers' knowledge, perceptions and management of vegetable pests and diseases in Botswana. Crop Protection, 27(8), 1220-1224. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2008.03.003

                                                                                                                  Palumbo JC, 2011a. Control of Bagrada hilaris with foliar insecticides on broccoli, 2010. In: Arthropod Management Tests, 36:E8 2 doi: 10.4182/ amt.2011.E8

                                                                                                                  Palumbo JC, 2011b. Evaluation of soil systemic insecticides for control of Bagrada hilaris on broccoli, 2010. In: Arthropod Management Tests, 36:E10 2 doi: 10.4182/amt.2011.E10

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                                                                                                                  Palumbo JC, Huang T, Perring TM, Reed DA, Prabhaker N, 2013. Control of Bagrada hilaris, on broccoli with organically-approved insecticides, 2012. Arthropod Management Tests, 38(E7), doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.E7

                                                                                                                  Palumbo JC, Huang T, Perring TM, Reed DA, Prabhaker N, 2013. Evaluation of experimental insecticides for control of Bagrada hilaris, on broccoli, 2012. Arthropod Management Tests, 38(E5), doi: 10.4182/amt.2013.E

                                                                                                                  Palumbo, J. C., 2015. Impact of Bagrada Bug on Desert Cole Crops from 2010-2014. In, Vegetable IPM Update Archives: Cooperative Extension, 6(10), https://cals.arizona.edu/crops/vegetables/advisories/more/insect132.html

                                                                                                                  Palumbo, J. C., Carrière, Y., 2015. Association between Bagrada hilaris density and feeding damage in broccoli: implications for pest management. Plant Health Progress, (No.November), PHP-RS-15-0024. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=10866

                                                                                                                  Palumbo, J. C., Natwick, E. T., 2010. The Bagrada bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): a new invasive pest of cole crops in Arizona and California. Plant Health Progress, (No.June), PHP-2010-0621-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=8735&photo=4964

                                                                                                                  Palumbo, J. C., Perring, T. M., Millar, J. G., Reed, D. A., 2016. Biology, ecology, and management of an invasive stink bug, Bagrada hilaris, in North America. Annual Review of Entomology, 61, 453-473. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-010715-023843

                                                                                                                  Palumbo, J. C., Prabhaker, N., Reed, D. A., Perring, T. M., Castle, S. J., Huang, T. I., 2015. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to insecticides in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays. Journal of Economic Entomology, 108(2), 672-682. doi: 10.1093/jee/tov010

                                                                                                                  Parsana GJ, Vyas HJ, Bharodia RK, 2001. Effect of irrigation, sowing date and nitrogen on the incidence of painted bug, Bagrada hilaris Burm., in mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 18, 89-90.

                                                                                                                  Patel, S, Yadav, SK, Singh, CP, 2017. The incidence of painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) on Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa with respect to the date of sowing. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5, 774-776.

                                                                                                                  Rajendra Nagar, Singh, Y. P., Ram Singh, Singh, S. P., 2011. Biology, seasonal abundance and management of painted bug (Bagrada hilaris Burmeister) in eastern Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Entomology, 73(4), 291-295. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ije&volume=73&issue=4&article=001

                                                                                                                  Rajpal Singh, Joshi, A. K., 2003. Pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.) in Paonta Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment, 9(4), 173-174.

                                                                                                                  Rajpoot, S. K. S., Singh, R. P., Pandey, V., 1996. Estimation of free amino acids in different developmental stages of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum, Kirkaldy). National Academy Science Letters, 19(11/12), 214-218.

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                                                                                                                  Reed, D. A., Palumbo, J. C., Perring, T. M., May, C., 2013. Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive stink bug attacking cole crops in the Southwestern United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 4(3), C1-C7. doi: 10.1603/IPM13007

                                                                                                                  Riaz Mahmood, Jones, W. A., Bajwa, B. E., Khalid Rashid, 2015. Egg parasitoids from Pakistan as possible classical biological control agents of the invasive pest Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 50(2), 147-149. http://www.ent.uga.edu/ges/ges_journal.htm

                                                                                                                  Robinson, J., 2005. Pests and integrated pest management in western Equatoria, southern Sudan. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 25(4), 224-235. doi: 10.1079/IJT200582

                                                                                                                  Rohilla, H. R., Hoshiar Singh, Harvir Singh, Chhillar, B. S., 2003. Postharvest losses caused by painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.), in rapeseed mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 20(2), 257-258.

                                                                                                                  Rohilla, H. R., Hoshiar Singh, Harvir Singh, Chhillar, B. S., 2004. Biology of painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) on rapeseed mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 21(2), 303-306.

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                                                                                                                  Sánchez-Peña, S. R., 2014. First record in Mexico of the invasive stink bug Bagrada hilaris, on cultivated crucifers in Saltillo. Southwestern Entomologist, 39(2), 375-377. doi: 10.3958/059.039.0219

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                                                                                                                  Singh, H. V., Gupta, D. S., Yadava, T. P., Dhawan, K., Post-harvest losses caused by painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk.) to mustard. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 10(3), 407-409.

                                                                                                                  Surender Kumar, Yadav, P. R., 1998. Insect pest population fluctuation on early season cauliflower crop under Haryana agroclimatic conditions. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 26(2), 145-148.

                                                                                                                  Tayade, D. S., Pawar, V. M., Wadnerkar, D. W., 1976. Painted bug on bajra in Maharashtra. Entomologists' Newsletter, 6(8/9), 52.

                                                                                                                  Taylor, M. E., Bundy, C. S., McPherson, J. E., 2015. Life history and laboratory rearing of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 108(4), 536-551. doi: 10.1093/aesa/sav048

                                                                                                                  Thakar, A. V., Misra, U. S., Rawat, R. R., Dhamdhere, S. V., 1969. A record of predatory mite, Bochartia sp., on Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy [in Madhya Pradesh, India]. Indian Journal of Entomology, 31(1), 86.

                                                                                                                  Torres-Acosta, R. I., Sánchez-Peña, S. R., 2016. Geographical distribution of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Mexico. Journal of Entomological Science, 51(2), 165-167. doi: 10.18474/JES15-41.1

                                                                                                                  UK, CAB International, 1981. Bagrada hilaris. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests , (June) Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Map 417. https://www.cabi.org/dmpp/abstract/20056600417

                                                                                                                  Vekarta, M. V., Patel, G. M., 1999. Succession of important pests of mustard in North Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 61(4), 356-361.

                                                                                                                  Verma, A. K., Patyal, S. K., Bhalla, O. P., Sharma, K. C., 1993. Bioecology of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on seed crop of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis subvar. cauliflora). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(10), 676-678.

                                                                                                                  Verma, G. S., Pandey, U. K., 1981. Studies on the effect of Acorus calamus, Cimicifuga foetida and Gynandropsis gynandra extract against insect-pests of cruciferous vegetables painted bug, Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Zoologie, 68(1), 109-113.

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                                                                                                                  Lambert A M, Dudley T L, 2014. Exotic wildland weeds serve as reservoirs for a newly introduced cole crop pest, Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 138 (10), 795-799. DOI:10.1111/jen.12144

                                                                                                                  Leston D, 1952. XCIV-Notes on the Ethiopian Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera)-VI Some insects in the Hope department, Oxford. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12). 5 (58), 893-904. DOI:10.1080/00222935208654367

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                                                                                                                  Manjula K N, Kotikal Y K, Patil H B, Biradar I B, 2015. Studies on insect fauna, their natural enemies and pollinators in fenugreek. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 28 (2), 279-281. http://14.139.155.167/test5/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/7538/7789

                                                                                                                  Matsunaga JN, 2014. Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). In: State of Hawaii Department of Agriculture, new pest advisory, https://hdoa.hawaii.gov/pi/files/2013/01/Bagrada-hilaris-NPA4-5-16.pdf

                                                                                                                  NAPPO, 2015. Florida Official Control Program of Bagrada hilaris (bagrada bug) Recognized by APHIS Under the Federally Recognized State Managed Phytosanitary (FRSMP) Program., NAPPO. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=635

                                                                                                                  Obopile M, Munthali D C, Matilo B, 2008. Farmers' knowledge, perceptions and management of vegetable pests and diseases in Botswana. Crop Protection. 27 (8), 1220-1224. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194 DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2008.03.003

                                                                                                                  Palumbo J C, 2015. Impact of Bagrada Bug on Desert Cole Crops from 2010-2014. In, Vegetable IPM Update Archives: Cooperative Extension. 6 (10), https://cals.arizona.edu/crops/vegetables/advisories/more/insect132.html

                                                                                                                  Palumbo J C, Carrière Y, 2015. Association between Bagrada hilaris density and feeding damage in broccoli: implications for pest management. Plant Health Progress. PHP-RS-15-0024. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=10866

                                                                                                                  Palumbo J C, Natwick E T, 2010. The Bagrada bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): a new invasive pest of cole crops in Arizona and California. Plant Health Progress. PHP-2010-0621-01-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=8735&photo=4964

                                                                                                                  Palumbo J C, Perring T M, Millar J G, Reed D A, 2016. Biology, ecology, and management of an invasive stink bug, Bagrada hilaris, in North America. Annual Review of Entomology. 453-473. DOI:10.1146/annurev-ento-010715-023843

                                                                                                                  Palumbo J C, Prabhaker N, Reed D A, Perring T M, Castle S J, Huang T I, 2015. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to insecticides in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays. Journal of Economic Entomology. 108 (2), 672-682. DOI:10.1093/jee/tov010

                                                                                                                  Patel S, Yadav SK, Singh CP, 2017. The incidence of painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) on Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa with respect to the date of sowing. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 774-776.

                                                                                                                  Rajendra Nagar, Singh Y P, Ram Singh, Singh S P, 2011. Biology, seasonal abundance and management of painted bug (Bagrada hilaris Burmeister) in eastern Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Entomology. 73 (4), 291-295. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ije&volume=73&issue=4&article=001

                                                                                                                  Rajpal Singh, Joshi A K, 2003. Pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.) in Paonta Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment. 9 (4), 173-174.

                                                                                                                  Rakshpal 1949, 1949. Notes on the biology of Bagrada curciferarum Kirk. Indian Journal of Entomology. 11-16.

                                                                                                                  Reed D A, Ganjisaffar F, Palumbo J C, Perring T M, 2017. Effects of temperatures on immature development and survival of the invasive stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 110 (6), 2497-2503. DOI:10.1093/jee/tox289

                                                                                                                  Reed D A, Palumbo J C, Perring T M, May C, 2013. Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive stink bug attacking cole crops in the Southwestern United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 4 (3), C1-C7. DOI:10.1603/IPM13007

                                                                                                                  Riaz Mahmood, Jones W A, Bajwa B E, Khalid Rashid, 2015. Egg parasitoids from Pakistan as possible classical biological control agents of the invasive pest Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 50 (2), 147-149. http://www.ent.uga.edu/ges/ges_journal.htm

                                                                                                                  Robinson J, 2005. Pests and integrated pest management in western Equatoria, southern Sudan. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 25 (4), 224-235. DOI:10.1079/IJT200582

                                                                                                                  Rohilla H R, Hoshiar Singh, Harvir Singh, Chhillar B S, 2003. Postharvest losses caused by painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.), in rapeseed mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 20 (2), 257-258.

                                                                                                                  Sánchez-Peña S R, 2014. First record in Mexico of the invasive stink bug Bagrada hilaris, on cultivated crucifers in Saltillo. Southwestern Entomologist. 39 (2), 375-377. DOI:10.3958/059.039.0219

                                                                                                                  Singh H V, Gupta D S, Yadava T P, Dhawan K, Undated. Post-harvest losses caused by painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk.) to mustard. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research. 10 (3), 407-409.

                                                                                                                  Surender Kumar, Yadav P R, 1998. Insect pest population fluctuation on early season cauliflower crop under Haryana agroclimatic conditions. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 26 (2), 145-148.

                                                                                                                  Tayade D S, Pawar V M, Wadnerkar D W, 1976. Painted bug on bajra in Maharashtra. Entomologists' Newsletter. 6 (8/9), 52.

                                                                                                                  Taylor M E, Bundy C S, McPherson J E, 2015. Life history and laboratory rearing of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 108 (4), 536-551. DOI:10.1093/aesa/sav048

                                                                                                                  Torres-Acosta R I, Sánchez-Peña S R, 2016. Geographical distribution of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Mexico. Journal of Entomological Science. 51 (2), 165-167. DOI:10.18474/JES15-41.1

                                                                                                                  Vekarta M V, Patel G M, 1999. Succession of important pests of mustard in North Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology. 61 (4), 356-361.

                                                                                                                  Verma A K, Patyal S K, Bhalla O P, Sharma K C, 1993. Bioecology of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on seed crop of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis subvar. cauliflora). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 63 (10), 676-678.

                                                                                                                  Yadav R S, Dharmendra Kumar, Singh D K, Singh S K, 2014. Insect-pests complex of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Agri Bio Research. 19 (1), 93-96.

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                                                                                                                  11/09/20 Original text by:

                                                                                                                  Sudan Gyawaly, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3800 Cornucopia Way, Modesto, CA 95358, USA

                                                                                                                  Jhalendra Rijal, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3800 Cornucopia Way, Modesto, CA 95358, USA

                                                                                                                  Shimat V. Joseph, University of Georgia, Turf Science R and E Facility, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30223, USA

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