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Datasheet

Bagrada hilaris
(painted bug)

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Datasheet

Bagrada hilaris (painted bug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bagrada hilaris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • painted bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Bagrada hilaris is a hemipteran insect with a host range of over 70 plant species in 23 families. A major pest of crucifers in its native land, many Asian and African countries, the pest’s geographical range of distribution has recently e...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult male and female. Museum set-specimens. USA.
TitleAdults
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult male and female. Museum set-specimens. USA.
Copyright©Dr Gevork Arakelian/Dept. of Agriculture, Los Angeles County, USA/Bugwood - CC BY-NC 3.0
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult male and female. Museum set-specimens. USA.
AdultsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult male and female. Museum set-specimens. USA.©Dr Gevork Arakelian/Dept. of Agriculture, Los Angeles County, USA/Bugwood - CC BY-NC 3.0
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult. B. hilaris is a pest of Brassica (cabbage, kale, etc.), here on pakchoi, in it's natural range. Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. April, 2010.
TitleAdult
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult. B. hilaris is a pest of Brassica (cabbage, kale, etc.), here on pakchoi, in it's natural range. Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. April, 2010.
Copyright©Ton Rulkens-2010 - CC BY-SA 2.0 (via flickr)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult. B. hilaris is a pest of Brassica (cabbage, kale, etc.), here on pakchoi, in it's natural range. Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. April, 2010.
AdultBagrada hilaris (painted bug); adult. B. hilaris is a pest of Brassica (cabbage, kale, etc.), here on pakchoi, in it's natural range. Chimoio, Manica Province, Mozambique. April, 2010.©Ton Rulkens-2010 - CC BY-SA 2.0 (via flickr)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by 'Downtownga'l at Wikipedia
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
Damage symptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.Public Domain - Released by 'Downtownga'l at Wikipedia
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by 'Downtownga'l at Wikipedia
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.
Damage symptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); several stages of bugs on heat and drought-stressed collard greens plant (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). The characteristic damage to the plant made by the insects sucking juices from the leaves is evident. On thick leaves, like these collard greens, the bugs leave white scars on the surface. On thinner leaves, like mustard greens, the damage causes papery, whitish, patches. Los Angeles, California, USA. October 2010.Public Domain - Released by 'Downtownga'l at Wikipedia
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug adult feeding on a bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) leaf. January 2015.
TitleAdult on host
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug adult feeding on a bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) leaf. January 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug adult feeding on a bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) leaf. January 2015.
Adult on hostBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug adult feeding on a bok choy (Brassica rapa chinensis) leaf. January 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima). May 2015.
TitleAdult on host
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima). May 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima). May 2015.
Adult on hostBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima). May 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on broccoli leaf and a nymph. September 2014.
TitleDamage Symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on broccoli leaf and a nymph. September 2014.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on broccoli leaf and a nymph. September 2014.
Damage SymptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on broccoli leaf and a nymph. September 2014.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). May 2015.
TitleDamage Symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). May 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). May 2015.
Damage SymptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). May 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) during the winter.
TitleDamage Symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) during the winter.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) during the winter.
Damage SymptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bugs in non-crop host, perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) during the winter.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug mating pair. February 2015.
TitleMating pair
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug mating pair. February 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug mating pair. February 2015.
Mating pairBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug mating pair. February 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug female laying eggs on fabric cage liner. February 2015.
TitleAdult laying eggs
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug female laying eggs on fabric cage liner. February 2015.
Copyright©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug female laying eggs on fabric cage liner. February 2015.
Adult laying eggsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug female laying eggs on fabric cage liner. February 2015.©Jhalendra Rijal (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on young broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) plants.
TitleDamage Symptoms
CaptionBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on young broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) plants.
Copyright©Shimat Joseph (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)
Bagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on young broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) plants.
Damage SymptomsBagrada hilaris (painted bug); Bagrada bug feeding damage on young broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) plants.©Shimat Joseph (University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister)

Preferred Common Name

  • painted bug

Other Scientific Names

  • Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy
  • Bagrada picta (Fabricius)

International Common Names

  • English: bagrada bug; caper bug; colorful bug; harlequin bug; mustard bug; mustard painted bug

EPPO code

  • BAGRHI

Summary of Invasiveness

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Bagrada hilaris is a hemipteran insect with a host range of over 70 plant species in 23 families. A major pest of crucifers in its native land, many Asian and African countries, the pest’s geographical range of distribution has recently expanded to Europe and the Americas. It has been a serious pest in India since the early twentieth century. It is reported in localized areas in Italy and Malta. First detected in North America in 2008 in California (USA), this bug has spread to coastal production regions in California, several southern states of the USA, Hawaii and Mexico. The worldwide distribution of its host plants, the ability to reproduce quickly in a suitable environment and the absence of natural enemies in new habitats show the potential of B. hilaris to expand and establish in new areas, especially warmer regions of the western world.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Heteroptera
  •                             Family: Pentatomidae
  •                                 Genus: Bagrada
  •                                     Species: Bagrada hilaris

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The taxonomic nomenclature of painted bug has been reviewed and described by Palumbo et al. (2016). Fabricius first described this species in 1775 as Cimex pictus Fabricius from specimens in India. The species went through several nomenclatural changes over the years as Cimex hilaris Burmeister, 1835; Cimex hebraicus Germar, 1838; Cimex jucundus Klug, 1845; Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy, 1909; Bagrada (Bagrada) picta var. connectens Horváth, 1936; and Bagrada (Bagrada) picta var. modesta Horváth, 1936, before it was finally designated as Bagrada hilaris.

Description

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The biology and life history of B. hilaris have been described and reviewed in several publications (Rakshpal, 1949; Azim and Shafee, 1986; Verma et al., 1993). A true bug, B. hilaris is a hemi-metabolous insect in the family Pentatomidae. It completes its life-cycle in approximately 6 weeks in the laboratory at 24°C. Adult bugs are black with orange and white markings and are, on average, 5-7 mm long and 2.5-3.5 mm wide. Adults lay barrel-shaped eggs, which are white initially but gradually turn orange then red before hatching, singly or in small clusters of about 10. Eggs are 0.87-1.0 mm long and 0.55-0.75 mm wide. Female bugs mostly deposit eggs individually in loose soil in the field but can also lay them on the leaves or stems of plants or any other structures present around the plants. An adult female can lay as many as 200 eggs throughout its life, within 1 month. Eggs hatch into nymphs within 4 days and the nymphs pass through five instars before moulting into adults. Nymphs are orange or red immediately after hatching or moulting, but become darker quickly. Younger nymphs have a red abdomen that turns orange with age. Moreover, older nymphs have dark wing pads that the younger nymphs lack.

Under suitable warm weather conditions, painted bugs can develop from eggs to adults in less than 3 weeks and can produce as many as 10 generations a year (Palumbo et al., 2016). Adult bugs may be present in low numbers throughout the year or overwinter in cracks and crevices or under leaf litter during cold winters, though they may become active on warmer days (Reed et al., 2013; Palumbo et al., 2016). In general, two seasonal peaks of painted bugs occur, at planting and harvest, in the western USA (Palumbo et al., 2016).

Distribution

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B. hilaris is native to Africa and Asia. In Africa, it is reported in the eastern and southern parts of the continent (Infonet-Biovision, 2015). In Asia, it is present mainly in South Asia and the Middle East (Joseph, 2014). It has been a problematic pest of brassicaceous crops in India since the 1900s (Rakshpal,1949). In its non-native habitat, it has been reported in Europe on Pantelleria island, Italy as a pest on caper (Capparis spinosa) and in Malta (Infantino et al., 2007). It was first reported in the USA (California) in 2008, and has since spread to coastal regions of California and neighbouring states. It has recently been reported in Chile and Mexico (Sánchez-Peña, 2014; Faúndez et al., 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BotswanaPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
DjiboutiPresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-MizoramPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
Sri LankaPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

ItalyPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-SicilyPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
MaltaPresentIntroduced

North America

MexicoPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
United StatesPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-ArizonaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-HawaiiPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced2017
-NevadaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-New MexicoPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-TexasPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-UtahPresent, LocalizedIntroduced

South America

ChilePresent, LocalizedIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Published literature on B. hilaris indicates that it has been an important pest of crucifers in the Indian subcontinent (Rakshpal, 1949) since the 1900s. More recently, it has become a severe pest in Africa (Nyabuga, 2008; Obopile et al., 2008) and is becoming a pest problem in southern Europe (Infantino et al., 2007) and the Middle East (Alyousuf and Al-Masudey, 2012). In the USA, it was first reported in 2008 in California, where it was presumed to have entered via shipping containers (Arakelian, 2008; Reed et al., 2013). Several interceptions made at agricultural inspection centres in the USA suggest that the movement of bugs is assisted by the transportation of plant material across states (LeVeen and Hodges, 2015). B. hilaris has also been reported in isolated areas such as the island of Hawaii and Maui, highlighting the risk of the spread of this bug through air or water transportation (Matsunaga, 2014).

Risk of Introduction

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B. hilaris has a broad host range and host plants are available worldwide. This bug can reproduce quickly in warmer climates and lacks natural enemies in new habitats. These features make B. hilaris a potentially risky pest for introduction to areas where it is not currently present, particularly in warmer regions of the western world. Though deliberate introductions are unlikely to occur because there is no explicit value of this insect, B. hilaris may be indirectly transported to new areas through the movement of produce (Matsunaga, 2014).

Habitat

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B. hilaris is primarily a pest of crucifers. In South Asian countries, oilseed Brassica crops such as oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) are the most common hosts. On the island of Pantelleria in Italy (Colazza et al., 2004), host plants of B. hilaris include crops such as caper (Capparis spinosa). Hosts also include many non-Brassica crops such as maize (Zea mays), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) during outbreak years. Thus, the primary habitat of this pest includes cultivated crop fields and the surrounding area where it can find non-cultivated wild hosts. Moreover, a recent report from Chile shows that B. hilaris may invade residential buildings and urban habitats (Faúndez, 2018).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Palumbo et al. (2016) lists 74 plant species in 23 families, including 56 crops, 13 weeds and five ornamentals, as hosts of B. hilaris. However, many of these plants are believed to be ‘bridging hosts’ that B. hilaris infests when Brassica host plants are absent between planting seasons (Palumbo et al., 2016). Reed et al. (2013) and Huang et al. (2014) reported that brassicaceous plants are the primary hosts of this insect. Among the brassicaceous plants, studies have shown that B. hilaris prefers plants such as radish (Raphanus sativus) to red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). Other plant hosts such as sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), arugula (Eruca vesicaria) and broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica) are less attractive (Huang et al., 2014).

Reed et al. (2013) reported that plants such as Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium spp., Coriandrum sativum, Cucumis melo, C. sativus, Cucurbita foetidissima, C. pepo, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Lotus corniculatus, Nicotiana glauca, Senecio vulgaris, Solanum nigrum, S. lycopersicum, Sonchus spp., Spinacia oleracea and Vicia faba are not hosts of B. hilaris.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)MalvaceaeOther
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeOther
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeOther
Atriplex canescens (Fourwing saltbush)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
BrassicaBrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica campestris var. toriaUnknown
Brassica carinata (African cabbage)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica juncea (mustard)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica juncea var. juncea (Indian mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica napusBrassicaceaeMain
Brassica napus var. napobrassica (swede)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica nigra (black mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. viridis (collards)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica perviridis (Spinach mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica rapa (field mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (turnip rape)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensisBrassicaceaeMain
Brassica rapa subsp. rapa (turnip)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica tournefortii (African mustard)BrassicaceaeUnknown
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeOther
Capparis spinosa (Caper bush)CapparaceaeMain
Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)BrassicaceaeWild host
Carduus edelbergiiAsteraceaeOther
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
Carthamus oxyacanthusAsteraceaeOther
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeUnknown
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
Cirsium wallichiiAsteraceaeOther
CitrusRutaceaeOther
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeUnknown
Cuscuta reflexa (dodder)CuscutaceaeOther
Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (globe artichoke)AsteraceaeOther
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeOther
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)CyperaceaeUnknown
DahliaAsteraceaeOther
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Descurainia sophia (flixweed)BrassicaceaeWild host
Desmostachya bipinnata (halfa grass)PoaceaeOther
Eruca vesicaria (purple-vein rocket)BrassicaceaeMain
Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard)BrassicaceaeWild host
Lambert and Dudley (2014); Palumbo et al. (2015)
Iberis (candytuft)BrassicaceaeWild host
Indigofera (indigo)FabaceaeOther
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Lepidium alyssoidesUnknown
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed)BrassicaceaeOther
Linum usitatissimum (flax)Other
Lobularia maritima (sweet alyssum)BrassicaceaeWild host
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeUnknown
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
MatthiolaBrassicaceaeOther
Medicago polymorpha (bur clover)FabaceaeOther
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeOther
Momordica dioicaCucurbitaceaeOther
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
NasturtiumBrassicaceaeOther
Panicum miliaceum (millet)PoaceaeOther
Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet)PoaceaeOther
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)FabaceaeOther
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)SolanaceaeOther
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
Plantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PlantaginaceaeOther
Polygonum plebeium (small knotweed)PolygonaceaeUnknown
Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)BrassicaceaeWild host
Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeMain
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeOther
Rumex dentatusPolygonaceaeOther
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
Sisymbrium irioBrassicaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)AsteraceaeUnknown
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeOther
Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass)PoaceaeOther
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Trifolium alexandrinum (Berseem clover)FabaceaeOther
Trifolium resupinatum (Shaftal clover)FabaceaeOther
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeOther
Vicia (vetch)FabaceaeOther
Vigna mungo (black gram)FabaceaeOther
Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeUnknown
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
Withania somnifera (poisonous gooseberry)SolanaceaeUnknown
Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)AsteraceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther
Ziziphus nummularia (lotebush)RhamnaceaeUnknown

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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B. hilaris feeds by inserting its piercing and sucking mouthparts, stylets, between the epidermal layers of the host (Reed et al., 2013) and releasing a salivary enzyme into the cells (Palumbo et al., 2016). The combination of mechanical damage and the injection of salivary enzyme during feeding can cause the death of cells at feeding sites (Reed et al., 2013). The bugs also remove sap from host tissues during feeding. Chlorotic lesions may form as a result of feeding and can eventually become necrotic. Severe damage caused by B. hilaris to the leaves or other plant parts may prevent normal growth and development of those parts and the whole plant.

Young seedlings are extremely susceptible to feeding damage, especially at the cotyledon stage (Palumbo and Natwick, 2010; Joseph et al., 2017). Feeding at the seedling stage results in wilting and desiccation of the plants, which eventually die. Older plants are susceptible to feeding damage at the growing point. Damage to the apical meristem of many head-forming Brassica crops results in the production of several smaller and unmarketable heads, or no heads at all (Palumbo and Natwick, 2010). Nymphs and adults leave sticky excreta on various parts of plants, potentially affecting the market value (Rajpoot et al., 1996). Feeding on leaves of non-head forming Brassica reduces their marketability by causing aesthetic damage. Such feeding damage also lowers the nutritional value of the produce. B. hilaris also feeds on the developing seeds and seed pods of Brassica plants (Verma et al., 1993; Rajpoot et al.,1996) which can result in damage to the seeds and potentially reduces the oil content of the seeds.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alophora Parasite Adults not specific
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Erynia radicans Pathogen Acosta et al. (2016)
Gryon Parasite Eggs not specific
Ooencyrtus Parasite Eggs not specific
Paratelenomus Parasite Eggs not specific
Phasia Parasite Adults not specific
Rhynocoris segmentarius Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs not specific
Sarcophaga kempi Parasite Adults not specific
Telenomus Parasite Eggs not specific
Trissolcus Parasite Eggs not specific
Zelus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Several parasitic wasps have been identified as biocontrol agents of B. hilaris in India and Pakistan (Samuel, 1942; Chacko and Katiyar, 1961; Mani and Sharma, 1982; Ghosal, 2006; Mahmood et al., 2015). These include egg parasitoids, mostly in the family Platygastridae, and include several species of Telenomus (=Liophanurus), Paratelenomus, Gryon (= Hadrophanurus), Trissolcus and Ooencyrtus.

Egg parasitoids of B. hilaris in the family Scelionidae have been collected and identified in Mexico (Felipe-Victoriano et al., 2019). However, the rate of parasitism for these parasitoids appears to be low in the field. No natural enemies specific to B. hilaris have been reported in the USA (Reed et al., 2013). Dipteran parasitoids of adult B. hilaris (Crosskey, 1984) include sarcophagid and tachinid flies (Anwar Cheema et al., 1973). The efficacy of these natural enemies is unknown.

Chemical defence, emissions from the scent glands, makes B. hilaris less prone to predatory arthropod attack. However, there are reports of some predators that prey on painted bug. Many of these predators are thought to have significantly less impact on the regulation of painted bug populations. Some of those predators include the reduviid bug (Rhynocoris segmentarius) that feeds on nymphs and adults of B. hilaris (Gunn, 1918). Other predators observed to feed on painted bug nymphs or adults include spiders (Araneae), mantids, predatory heteroptera (Zelus sp.) (Palumbo et al., 2016) and a predatory mite (Bochartia sp.) (Thakar et al., 1969).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The movement and dispersal behaviour of B. hilaris is not well studied. Grettenberger and Joseph (2019) showed that movement by B. hilaris for host finding is regulated by the level of food scarcity in the area. The long-distance movement and dispersal of B. hilaris is mostly accidental through trade. There were several interceptions of B. hilaris in Florida, USA, from 2011 to 2013, on trucks transporting plant material across state lines suggesting that such movement may play an important role in the spread of the bug (LeVeen and Hodges, 2015).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes Matsunaga (2014); LeVeen and Hodges (2015)
Hitchhiker Yes Yes Matsunaga (2014); LeVeen and Hodges (2015)

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/nymphs Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/nymphs Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/nymphs Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Economic Impact

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Feeding damage caused by B. hilaris causes serious economic losses due to a reduction in yield. In India, where painted bug has been a serious pest for a long period, mustard farmers in Rajasthan lost one quarter to three quarters of the expected seed yield due to B. hilaris feeding (Joshi et al., 1989). Similarly, Ahuja et al. (2008) reported that feeding damage caused by B. hilaris resulted in a 37% reduction in seed yield primarily due to stand loss.

In California and Arizona, where B. hilaris outbreaks were first reported in the USA, seedling mortality as high as 60% was reported in highly infested broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) fields. Similarly, cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis) growers in the same area reported losses as high as 25% due to B. hilaris feeding damage.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Damages animal/plant products
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food

Detection and Inspection

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There are currently no monitoring techniques specific to B. hilaris. However, Reed et al. (2013), from observation of B. hilaris activity on cole crop seedlings, suggested that sampling should be performed during mid-morning to late afternoon when painted bug activity is highest. Huang et al. (2014) reported that B. hilaris is most active between mid-morning (10.00 h) and late afternoon (16.00 h) when ambient temperatures are >29°C.

B. hilaris has been observed feeding on seedlings immediately after emergence. Therefore, sampling is recommended when seedlings begin to emerge (Reed et al., 2013). The young seedlings should be checked thoroughly for the presence of B. hilaris adults and feeding damage. Sampling of larger or transplanted seedlings (i.e., two- to three-leaf stage or larger) should involve thorough inspection of the undersides of leaves, the stem and the soil surface (Palumbo et al., 2016).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The colour pattern of B. hilaris adults and nymphs resembles some other stink bugs and ladybeetle adults in the USA (LeVeen and Hodges, 2015). The adults resemble and may be confused with, harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, another related stink bug, due to similarity in colouring pattern. However, painted bugs are smaller, about a quarter to a third of the size, and have smaller orange markings than harlequin bugs.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Field sanitation is important in minimizing B. hilaris infestation in crops. Sanitation measures involve the removal of crop residues from the field after harvest and keeping the field and surrounding habitat free of wild hosts (Infantino et al., 2007; Sachan and Purwar, 2007; Hill, 2008; Nyabuga, 2008). Cultivation of vegetable beds to kill the eggs of B. hilaris in the soil has been recommended for control (Bok et al., 2006). Keeping the plant stand healthy by the application of fertilizer, especially nitrogen, and keeping the plants free of moisture stress may reduce damage to seedling crops (Parsana et al., 2001). Similarly, varying the planting times of Brassica crops has also been used to avoid pest damage (Parsana et al., 2001; Ahuja et al., 2008).

In the USA, many direct-seeded Brassicas are now transplanted to minimize the severity of damage by B. hilaris (Reed et al., 2013).

Literature from the early twentieth century has indicated that mustard was successfully used as a trap crop to divert painted bugs away from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) fields (Howard, 1907). More recent studies have shown that the use of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) to attract B. hilaris away from the main crop, followed by insecticide sprays, was effective in reducing damage by the pest (Reddy, 2013). Huang et al. (2014) found that B. hilaris preferred radish (Raphanus sativus) to other Brassica crops suggesting that it was a good candidate as a trap crop for painted bug.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Many small-scale growers have traditionally removed painted bugs by hand to manage the pest (Nyabuga, 2008). Other methods of physical control include the use of cloth cover or mosquito netting to keep B. hilaris from feeding on plants (Howard, 1907).

Biological Control

Several species of hymenopteran parasitoids have been found to parasitize the eggs of B. hilaris (Chacko and Katiyar, 1961; Mani and Sharma, 1982; Ghosal et al., 2005) in the Old World. Similarly, a species of tachinid parasitoid (Rakshpal, 1949) has been reported to attack the adults. In the New World, laboratory studies have indicated that some generalist parasitoids can attack the eggs of B. hilaris. However, the behaviour of B. hilaris, laying eggs individually or in small masses in the soil, makes attack by generalist predators more difficult. No native natural enemies that specifically target B. hilaris in the USA have been reported.

Chemical Control

The use of synthetic chemicals is a primary method of control for B. hilaris throughout the world. Various groups of insecticides (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and neonicotinoids) are used. Foliar application of organophosphates, pyrethroids and neonicotinoid insecticides can provide good knockdown control of B. hilaris; however, many of the old generation organophosphate insecticides, popular in countries such as India for control of B. hilaris, have been phased out in western countries.

Current pest management practices for B. hilaris involve multiple sprays of mostly broad-spectrum insecticides to provide effective control. In India, pyrethroids and other older organophosphate products such as chlorpyrifos, malathion and profenofos are the most widely used insecticides (Sachan and Purwar, 2007; Nagar et al., 2011). In the USA, where B. hilaris is relatively new, pyrethroids (e.g. bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) and neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, dinotefuran, clothianidin) provide effective knockdown control (Palumbo, 2011a). Many neonicotinoids that offer systemic control of some pests through soil applications have not been able to provide such protection of young seedlings from feeding damage by B. hilaris (Palumbo, 2011b). However, drench application of these insecticides during seedling establishment reduced damage by B. hilaris in broccoli fields in California (Joseph et al., 2016). Similarly, seed dressing with neonicotinoid insecticide provided acceptable control (Joseph, 2019).

Several reduced-risk insecticides have been evaluated against B. hilaris including diamides, sulfoxamines and ketoenols, which are generally effective against hemipteran and other pests that have piercing and sucking mouthparts. However, preliminary studies have shown that these new insecticides are ineffective against this bug on cole crops (Palumbo, 2011c).

In the USA, some studies have attempted to explore other options, such as the use of insect growth regulators (IGR). In the laboratory, IGRs such as novaluron were observed to affect nymph development of B. hilaris (Palumbo et al., 2013; Joseph, 2017), reducing the number of nymphs developing into adults. Other insecticides, such as azadirachtin, which is also found to act as an IGR, have been reported to reduce painted bug injuries to broccoli (Palumbo et al., 2013).

Though much is yet to be explored for management of B. hilaris in organic production systems, a couple of studies conducted in the USA have indicated that chemical insecticides approved for organic use are not very effective as stand-alone treatments. For example, Joseph (2018) found that spinosad, pyrethrins, azadirachtin and potassium salts applied as stand-alone or combined treatments were ineffective in providing consistent bug control.

References

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Patel, S, Yadav, SK, Singh, CP, 2017. The incidence of painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) on Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa with respect to the date of sowing. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5, 774-776.

Rajendra Nagar, Singh, Y. P., Ram Singh, Singh, S. P., 2011. Biology, seasonal abundance and management of painted bug (Bagrada hilaris Burmeister) in eastern Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Entomology, 73(4), 291-295. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ije&volume=73&issue=4&article=001

Rajpal Singh, Joshi, A. K., 2003. Pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.) in Paonta Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment, 9(4), 173-174.

Rajpoot, S. K. S., Singh, R. P., Pandey, V., 1996. Estimation of free amino acids in different developmental stages of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum, Kirkaldy). National Academy Science Letters, 19(11/12), 214-218.

Rakshpal, 1949, 1949. Notes on the biology of Bagrada curciferarum Kirk. Indian Journal of Entomology, 11, 11-16.

Reddy PP, 2013. Recent advances in crop protection, Bangalore, India: Springer.

Reed, D. A., Ganjisaffar, F., Palumbo, J. C., Perring, T. M., 2017. Effects of temperatures on immature development and survival of the invasive stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(6), 2497-2503. doi: 10.1093/jee/tox289

Reed, D. A., Palumbo, J. C., Perring, T. M., May, C., 2013. Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive stink bug attacking cole crops in the Southwestern United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 4(3), C1-C7. doi: 10.1603/IPM13007

Riaz Mahmood, Jones, W. A., Bajwa, B. E., Khalid Rashid, 2015. Egg parasitoids from Pakistan as possible classical biological control agents of the invasive pest Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 50(2), 147-149. http://www.ent.uga.edu/ges/ges_journal.htm

Robinson, J., 2005. Pests and integrated pest management in western Equatoria, southern Sudan. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 25(4), 224-235. doi: 10.1079/IJT200582

Rohilla, H. R., Hoshiar Singh, Harvir Singh, Chhillar, B. S., 2003. Postharvest losses caused by painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.), in rapeseed mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 20(2), 257-258.

Rohilla, H. R., Hoshiar Singh, Harvir Singh, Chhillar, B. S., 2004. Biology of painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) on rapeseed mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 21(2), 303-306.

Sachan GC, Purwar JP, 2007. . Integrated pest management in rapeseed and mustard. In: Entomology: novel approaches, [ed. by Jain PC, Bhargava MC]. New Delhi, India: New India Publishing. 399-423.

Sahito, H. A., Lanjar, A. G., Mal, B., 2010. Studies on population dynamics of sucking insect pests of mustard crop (Brassica campestris). Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, 26(1), 66-74. http://www.sau.edu.pk/sau_journal/2011/26_1/full/08.pdf

Samuel CK, 1942. Biological notes on two new egg parasites of Bagrada picta Fabr., Pentatomidae. Indian Journal of Entomology, 4, 92-93.

Sánchez-Peña, S. R., 2014. First record in Mexico of the invasive stink bug Bagrada hilaris, on cultivated crucifers in Saltillo. Southwestern Entomologist, 39(2), 375-377. doi: 10.3958/059.039.0219

Sandhu, G. S., Singh, B., Bhallas, J. S., 1974. Note on the relative efficacy of different insecticides for the control of the painted-bug, Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on pearl-millet. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 44(3), 165-166. https://eurekamag.com/research/000/442/000442876.php

Sforza, R. F. H., Bon, M. C., Martel, G., Augé, M., Roche, M., Mahmood, R., Smith, L., 2017. Initial evaluation of two native egg parasitoids for the control of Bagrada hilaris, an invasive stink bug in western USA. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 11-15, 2017, CABI. 221-223. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173267497 doi: 10.1079/9781786394118.0221

Singh, H. V., Gupta, D. S., Yadava, T. P., Dhawan, K., Post-harvest losses caused by painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk.) to mustard. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 10(3), 407-409.

Surender Kumar, Yadav, P. R., 1998. Insect pest population fluctuation on early season cauliflower crop under Haryana agroclimatic conditions. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 26(2), 145-148.

Tayade, D. S., Pawar, V. M., Wadnerkar, D. W., 1976. Painted bug on bajra in Maharashtra. Entomologists' Newsletter, 6(8/9), 52.

Taylor, M. E., Bundy, C. S., McPherson, J. E., 2015. Life history and laboratory rearing of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 108(4), 536-551. doi: 10.1093/aesa/sav048

Thakar, A. V., Misra, U. S., Rawat, R. R., Dhamdhere, S. V., 1969. A record of predatory mite, Bochartia sp., on Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy [in Madhya Pradesh, India]. Indian Journal of Entomology, 31(1), 86.

Torres-Acosta, R. I., Sánchez-Peña, S. R., 2016. Geographical distribution of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Mexico. Journal of Entomological Science, 51(2), 165-167. doi: 10.18474/JES15-41.1

UK, CAB International, 1981. Bagrada hilaris. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests , (June) Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Map 417. https://www.cabi.org/dmpp/abstract/20056600417

Vekarta, M. V., Patel, G. M., 1999. Succession of important pests of mustard in North Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology, 61(4), 356-361.

Verma, A. K., Patyal, S. K., Bhalla, O. P., Sharma, K. C., 1993. Bioecology of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on seed crop of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis subvar. cauliflora). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(10), 676-678.

Verma, G. S., Pandey, U. K., 1981. Studies on the effect of Acorus calamus, Cimicifuga foetida and Gynandropsis gynandra extract against insect-pests of cruciferous vegetables painted bug, Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Zoologie, 68(1), 109-113.

Yadav, R. S., Dharmendra Kumar, Singh, D. K., Singh, S. K., 2014. Insect-pests complex of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Agri Bio Research, 19(1), 93-96.

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Rajendra Nagar, Singh Y P, Ram Singh, Singh S P, 2011. Biology, seasonal abundance and management of painted bug (Bagrada hilaris Burmeister) in eastern Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Entomology. 73 (4), 291-295. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ije&volume=73&issue=4&article=001

Rajpal Singh, Joshi A K, 2003. Pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.) in Paonta Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment. 9 (4), 173-174.

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Reed D A, Ganjisaffar F, Palumbo J C, Perring T M, 2017. Effects of temperatures on immature development and survival of the invasive stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 110 (6), 2497-2503. DOI:10.1093/jee/tox289

Reed D A, Palumbo J C, Perring T M, May C, 2013. Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive stink bug attacking cole crops in the Southwestern United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 4 (3), C1-C7. DOI:10.1603/IPM13007

Riaz Mahmood, Jones W A, Bajwa B E, Khalid Rashid, 2015. Egg parasitoids from Pakistan as possible classical biological control agents of the invasive pest Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 50 (2), 147-149. http://www.ent.uga.edu/ges/ges_journal.htm

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Rohilla H R, Hoshiar Singh, Harvir Singh, Chhillar B S, 2003. Postharvest losses caused by painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.), in rapeseed mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research. 20 (2), 257-258.

Sánchez-Peña S R, 2014. First record in Mexico of the invasive stink bug Bagrada hilaris, on cultivated crucifers in Saltillo. Southwestern Entomologist. 39 (2), 375-377. DOI:10.3958/059.039.0219

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Surender Kumar, Yadav P R, 1998. Insect pest population fluctuation on early season cauliflower crop under Haryana agroclimatic conditions. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 26 (2), 145-148.

Tayade D S, Pawar V M, Wadnerkar D W, 1976. Painted bug on bajra in Maharashtra. Entomologists' Newsletter. 6 (8/9), 52.

Taylor M E, Bundy C S, McPherson J E, 2015. Life history and laboratory rearing of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 108 (4), 536-551. DOI:10.1093/aesa/sav048

Torres-Acosta R I, Sánchez-Peña S R, 2016. Geographical distribution of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Mexico. Journal of Entomological Science. 51 (2), 165-167. DOI:10.18474/JES15-41.1

Vekarta M V, Patel G M, 1999. Succession of important pests of mustard in North Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology. 61 (4), 356-361.

Verma A K, Patyal S K, Bhalla O P, Sharma K C, 1993. Bioecology of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on seed crop of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis subvar. cauliflora). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 63 (10), 676-678.

Yadav R S, Dharmendra Kumar, Singh D K, Singh S K, 2014. Insect-pests complex of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Agri Bio Research. 19 (1), 93-96.

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Contributors

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11/09/20 Original text by:

Sudan Gyawaly, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3800 Cornucopia Way, Modesto, CA 95358, USA

Jhalendra Rijal, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3800 Cornucopia Way, Modesto, CA 95358, USA

Shimat V. Joseph, University of Georgia, Turf Science R and E Facility, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30223, USA

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