Preferred Scientific Name
- Escherichia coli Escherich, Th. 1885
International Common Names
- English: E. coli
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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present|
E. coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic rod that is part of the normal intestinal flora and grows easily in most culture media. E. coli is classified into between 150 and 200 serotypes or serogroups based on somatic (O), capsular (K) and flagellar (H) antigens. Only strains of a restricted number of serogroups are pathogenic and are classified into categories or pathotypes based on the production of virulence factors. The most important categories in farm animals are enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). ExPEC consist of septicaemic E. coli (SEPEC) necrotoxic E. coli (NTEC), avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), and nonsepticaemic extraintestinal E. coli. Certain O serogroups are associated with specific disease manifestations in each animal species.
ETEC is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhoea in farm animals. These strains produce one or more fimbrial adhesions and enterotoxins. The most important fimbrial adhesins of ETEC in pigs are F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F41 and F18 (F107). Three variants of F4(K88) have been described, ab, ac and ad. The most commonly encountered variant is ac. Two variants of F18, ab and ac, have been described. The variant F18ac is most commonly associated with ETEC. Isolates producing the F4 (K88) or F18 adhesin and certain isolates producing F6 demonstrate haemolysis on blood agar. All other ETEC from pigs are non-haemolytic. The most important fimbrial adhesins of ETEC in ruminants are F5 (K99), F41, and F17. Colonies of these isolates often tend to be more mucoid and rarely demonstrate haemolysis on blood agar. Enterotoxins produced by ETEC may be heat stable (STa or STb), or heat labile (LT), and an additional heat stable enterotoxin, enteroaggregative E. coli enterotoxin 1 (EAST1), has been recently observed on ETEC isolates from pigs (Yamamoto and Nakazawa, 1997). The most important pathotypes, that is, combinations of virulence factors, are listed in the tables below.
EPEC are commonly associated with postweaning diarrhoea in pigs. Pig EPEC attaches intimately to the intestinal epithelial cell membrane by a bacterial outer membrane protein termed intimin, or EPEC attaching effacing, (eae) factor. eae interacts with the bacterial receptor, Tir, which is produced by the bacteria and translocated into the host cell membrane by bacterial Esp proteins. Pig EPEC associated with postweaning diarrhoea often belongs to serogroups O45 and O103.
VTEC isolates from calves produce verotoxin (VT), also termed Shiga-like toxin (SLT) or Shiga-toxin (Stx). These isolates produce two different types of toxins, VT1 (Stx1) and VT2 (Stx2). They also attach intimately to the intestinal epithelial cell membrane by means of the intimin, or eae, factor as observed in EPEC. VTEC isolates from calves usually belong to serogroups O5, O26, O103, O111 and O118 (Fairbrother, 1999a).
VTEC from pigs mostly belong to serogroups O138, O139 and O141 . These isolates are haemolytic on blood agar (Gannon et al., 1988) and produce a variant of VT2, called VTe (Stx2e). They do not adhere intimately to the mucosal epithelium as observed for EPEC. On the other hand, many of these strains produce the fimbrial adhesin F18ab, previously known as F107. VTEC from pigs can also produce classical heat-stable (STa, STb) and heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins and the F4 fimbrial adhesin of ETEC (Mainil, 1999).
SEPEC and nonsepticaemic extraintestinal E. coli usually possess the aerobactin iron acquisition system, resist the bactericidal effects of complement in serum and of phagocytosis, belong to a restricted number of serogroups (Blanco et al., 1996), and often produce the fimbrial adhesins F17 (Lintermans et al., 1988), CS31A (Girardeau et al., 1988) (Korth et al., 1991), or of the P (Brito et al., 1999), S, F165 (Maiti et al., 1994) (Harel et al., 1995) or AFA families (Wegmann). They often produce colicin V, cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNF) 1 or 2, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) (Johnson and Lior, 1988).
APEC usually possess the aerobactin iron acquisition system, resist the bactericidal effects of complement in serum and of phagocytosis, belong to a restricted number of serogroups, mostly O1, O2, and O78, and often produce the fimbrial adhesin F1. Most APEC produce the temperature sensitive haemagglutinin (Tsh). APEC of serogroups O1 and O2 and certain non-typable isolates possess the K1 capsule. APEC, mostly of serogroups O1 and O18, may possess the P fimbrial adhesin F11.
Important categories, pathotypes, and serogroups of Escherichia coli causing disease in pigs.
|Neonatal diarrhoea||ETEC||STa:F5 (K99):F41, STa:F41, STa:F6 (987P), LT:STb:EAST1:F4ac (K88ac), LT: STb:STa:EAST1:F4ac (K88ac),||O8, O9, O20, O45, O64, O101, O138, O141, O147, O149, O157|
|Postweaning diarrhoea||ETEC||LT:STb:EAST1:F4ac(K88ac), LT:STb:STa:EAST1:F4ac(K88ac), STa:STb, STa:STb:F18ac, STa:F18ac, LT:STb, STb||O8, O138, O139,O141, O147, O149, O157, O?:K48|
|EPEC||Eae, Tir, EspA, EspB, EspD,EspC (enterotoxin)||O45, O103|
|Oedema disease||VTEC||VT2e (Stx2e):F18ab, a -haemolysin||O138, O139, O141|
|Colisepticaemia/polyserositis||SEPEC||Aerobactin, F165-1 (P fimbrial family), F165-2 (S fimbrial family), CNF1 or 2, CDT||O6, O8, O9, O11, O15, O17, O18, O20, O45, 060, O78, O83, O93, O101, O112, O115, O116|
|ETEC||LT:STb:F4 (K88), LT:STb:STa:F4 (K88)||O8, O138, O139,O141, O147, O149, O157|
|Urogenital tract infection||UPEC||P, S, aerobactin, CNF1||O1, O4, O6, O18|
Table showing important categories, pathotypes, and serogroups of Escherichia coli causing disease in cattle and sheep.
|Neonatal diarrhoea||ETEC||STa: F5 (K99): F41, STa: F41||O8, O9, O20, O64, O101|
|Haemorrhagic diarrhoea||VTEC||Eae:VT1 (Stx1) and/orVT2 (Stx2)||O5, O8, O20, O26, O103, O111, O118, O145|
|Colisepticaemia||SEPEC||P: CNF1F17: CNF2: CDT||O8, O9, O15, O26, O35, O45, O78, O86, O101, O115, O117, O137|
Table showing important categories, pathotypes, and serogroups of Escherichia coli causing disease in poultry.
|Colisepticaemia||APEC||Aerobactin, F1 (type 1), F11 (P fimbrial family), K1, Tsh,||O1, O2, O8, O15, O18, O35, O78, O88, O109, 0115|
|Cellulitis||APEC||F1- and P-fimbriae, K1||O2, O25, O71, O78|
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Alectoris rufa (red-legged partridge)||Domesticated host; Wild host|
|Bos grunniens (yaks)||Domesticated host|
|Bos indicus (zebu)||Domesticated host|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||Domesticated host|
|Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)||Domesticated host|
|Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)||Domesticated host|
|Canis familiaris (dogs)||Domesticated host|
|Capra hircus (goats)|
|Cavia porcellus (domesticated guinea pig)||Experimental settings|
|Cervus elaphus (red deer)||Domesticated host; Wild host|
|Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)||Domesticated host|
|Lama glama (llamas)||Domesticated host|
|Lama pacos (alpacas)||Domesticated host|
|Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)||Domesticated host|
|Mus musculus (house mouse)|
|Neovison vison (American mink)|
|Nyctereutes procyonoides (raccoon dog)|
|Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)|
|Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)|
|Ovis aries (sheep)|
|Perdix perdix (grey partridge)||Domesticated host; Wild host|
|Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)||Domesticated host; Wild host|
|Sus scrofa (pigs)|
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