Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Francisella tularensis

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Datasheet

Francisella tularensis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Thiotrichales
  •         Family: Francisellaceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Francisella tularensis

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium tularense
  • Brucella tularensis
  • Pasteurella tularense
  • Pasteurella tularensis

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Alphaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Thiotrichales
  •                 Family: Francisellaceae
  •                     Genus: Francisella
  •                         Species: Francisella tularensis

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaLast reported1974OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsLast reported1953OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium in the family Francisellaceae that causes the acute zoonosis tularaemia.

F. tularensis is a small, pleomorphic, non-motile, Gram-negative coccobacillus (0.2-0.5 µm by 0.7-1.0 µm), that is an obligate aerobe with optimal growth at 37°C. It is oxidase-negative, weakly-positive and cysteine is required for growth.

F. tularensis has a broad host range and is ubiquitous in the Northern Hemisphere (Sjöstedt, 2007). There are four subspecies: F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica and F. tularensis subsp. novicida [although it has been suggested that the latter is a separate species, F. novicida]. Types A and B are considered most important for causing disease in humans and animals. Type A, the most virulent of the subspecies, is present almost exclusively in North America and type B is distributed all over the Northern Hemisphere, but predominately in Asia and Europe. F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica has only been isolated in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan in Central Asia (Keim et al., 2007). F. tularensis subsp. novicida has been reported from North America and Australia (Whipp et al., 2003; Siddaramappa et al., 2011; Brett et al., 2014).

Due to its low infectious dose, ease of spread by aerosol, and high virulence, F. tularensis is listed as a CDC category A select bioterrorism agent (Foley and Nieto, 2010). Because of its importance as a biothreat agent, F. tularensis has been the subject of intense genome sequencing efforts (Puiu and Salzberg, 2008; Svensson et al., 2012; Davenport et al., 2014).

Tularaemia is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
AedesInsect
Amblyomma americanumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
AnophelesInsect
Chrysops discalisInsect
CulexInsect
CulicidaeInsect
Dermacentor andersoniTick
Dermacentor pictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Dermacentor reticulatusTick
Dermacentor variabilisTick
Haemaphysalis flavaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Haemaphysalis leporispalustrisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Hybomitra frontalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
IxodesTick
Ixodes ovatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Ixodes ricinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Simulium decorumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Stomoxys calcitransInsect
TabanidaeInsect

References

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Brett ME; Respicio-Kingry LB; Yendell S; Ratard R; Hand J; Balsamo G; Scott-Waldron C; O'Neal C; Kidwell D; Yockey B; Singh P; Carpenter J; Hill V; Petersen JM; Mead P, 2014. Outbreak of Francisella novicida bacteremia among inmates at a Louisiana correctional facility. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 59(6):826-833. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/

Davenport KW; Daligault HE; Minogue TD; Bishop-Lilly KA; Broomall SM; Bruce DC; Chain PS; Coyne SR; Frey KG; Gibbons HS; Jaissle J; Koroleva GI; Ladner JT; Palacios GF; Redden CL; Rosenzweig CN; Scholz MB; Teshima H; Johnson SL, 2014. Whole-genome sequences of nine Francisella isolates. Genome Announcements, 2(5):e00941-14. http://genomea.asm.org/content/2/5/e00941-14.full

Foley JE; Nieto NC, 2010. Tularemia. Veterinary Microbiology, 140(3/4):332-338. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Keim P; Johansson A; Wagner DM, 2007. Molecular epidemiology, evolution, and ecology of Francisella. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1105:30-66. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/nyas

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Puiu D; Salzberg SL, 2008. Re-assembly of the genome of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica OSU18. PLos One, No.October:e3427. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003427

Siddaramappa S; Challacombe JF; Petersen JM; Pillai S; Hogg G; Kuske CR, 2011. Common ancestry and novel genetic traits of Francisella novicida-like isolates from North America and Australia as revealed by comparative genomic analyses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(15):5110-5122. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/15/5110

Sjöstedt A, 2007. Tularemia: history, epidemiology, pathogen physiology, and clinical manifestations. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1105:1-29. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/nyas

Svensson K; Sjödin A; Byström M; Granberg M; Brittnacher MJ; Rohmer L; Jacobs MA; Sims-Day EH; Levy R; Zhou Y; Hayden HS; Lim R; Chang J; Guenthener D; Kang A; Haugen E; Gillett W; Kaul R; Forsman M; Larsson P; Johansson A, 2012. Genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica strain FSC200, isolated from a child with tularemia. Journal of Bacteriology, 194(24):6965-6966. http://jb.asm.org/content/194/24/6965.abstract

Whipp MJ; Davis JM; Lum G; Boer Jde; Zhou Y; Bearden SW; Petersen JM; Chu MC; Hogg G, 2003. Characterization of a novicida-like subspecies of Francisella tularensis isolated in Australia. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 52(9):839-842.

Distribution Maps

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