Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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fowlpox virus

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Datasheet

fowlpox virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • fowlpox virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Poxviridae
  •         Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Thin section electron microscopy showing a mature pox virus particle, with a centrally located biconcave core, two lateral bodies and the outer coat.
TitleMature pox virus particle
CaptionThin section electron microscopy showing a mature pox virus particle, with a centrally located biconcave core, two lateral bodies and the outer coat.
CopyrightNatàlia Majó Masferror
Thin section electron microscopy showing a mature pox virus particle, with a centrally located biconcave core, two lateral bodies and the outer coat.
Mature pox virus particleThin section electron microscopy showing a mature pox virus particle, with a centrally located biconcave core, two lateral bodies and the outer coat. Natàlia Majó Masferror

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • fowlpox virus

International Common Names

  • English: avipoxvirus; canarypox virus; fowl pox virus; juncopox virus; pigeonpox virus; psittacinepox virus; quailpox virus; sparrowpox virus; starlingpox virus; turkeypox virus

English acronym

  • FWPV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Poxviridae
  •                 Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
  •                     Genus: Avipoxvirus
  •                         Species: fowlpox virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1983OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPROIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaLast reported1975OIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandLast reported1964OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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All the avipoxviruses show identical morphology, with the mature virus being brick-shaped and measuring approximately 250x350 nm. It consists of a centrally located biconcave core and two lateral bodies in each concavity (see pictures). The outer coat is composed of randomly distributed surface tubules (Tripathy and Reed, 1997).

Pox viruses are synthesized and packed in the cell cytoplasm and the process of replication is similar in the dermal or follicular epithelium of chickens, ectodermal cells of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and embryo skin cells. Replication of fowlpox virus in dermal epithelium involves two distinct phases, which are a host response characterized by marked cellular hyperplasia during the first 72 hours and synthesis of the infectious virus from 72 to 96 hours (Cheevers et al., 1968). The morphogenesis of fowlpox virus has recently been revised (Boulanger et al., 2000). After adsorption and penetration of the cell membrane, one or two hours after infection of dermal epithelium or CAM respectively, viral particles uncoat. At 48 h post infection, viral particles with incomplete membranes are observed in the cytoplasm. The release of fowlpox virus as an extracellular virus appears to be proceeded by budding or by fusion of intracellular enveloped virus with the plasma membrane. Actin filaments are involved in the release of the viral particles from the plasma membrane.

The genome of the fowlpox virus, the type species of the avipoxviruses, is composed of a single double-stranded DNA molecule of approximately 254 to 300 Kb. The molecular weight of this genome is about 160-185 x 106 Dalton and the G+C content of fowlpox virus DNA is about 35% (Tripathy and Reed, 1997). Fifty-seven major structural polypeptides have been identified in purified fowlpox virus preparations (Prideaux and Boyle, 1987). Many studies on fowlpox virus nucleotide and amino acid sequences have been conducted in recent years (Boyle and Coupar, 1986; Binns et al., 1987; Laidlaw et al., 1998; Pollitt et al., 1998; Ma et al., 1999). This is due to the increasing importance of this virus as a viral vector for recombinant vaccines.

Although resistance to ether is one of the characteristics of pox viruses, sensitivity to both ether and chloroform has been reported for some fowlpox virus strains (Tantwai et al., 1979; Pradhan et al., 1996). Fowlpox virus is known to withstand 1% phenol and 1:1000 formalin for 9 days, but it is inactivated by 1% potassium hydroxide when freed from its matrix. Heating at 50ºC for 30 minutes or 60ºC for 8 minutes also inactivates the virus. An important point in understanding its high level of transmission is that this virus, when desiccated, shows marked resistance and can survive in dried scabs for a long period of time (Tripathy and Reed, 1997).

Avian pox viruses may propagate in different laboratory host systems including birds, avian embryos and cell cultures. In avian embryos, infection by avipoxviruses results in compact, proliferative, white pock lesions that may be focal or diffuse in the CAM (see pictures). Histological examination of these pock lesions reveals typical intracytoplasmic inclusions characteristic of all pox viruses (see pictures). Avian pox viruses can also be propagated in cell cultures of avian origin, such as chicken embryo fibroblasts, chicken embryo dermis, chicken embryo kidney cells and duck embryo fibroblasts. Viral infection in chicken fibroblasts causes cell rounding followed by cell degeneration and necrosis.

Avian pox viruses are antigenically and immunologically distinguishable from each other, but varying degrees of antigenic relationship do exist. Information on the characterization of pox viruses from wild birds and their relationship to a recognized Avipoxvirus is scarce.

Recently, some pox virus strains have been isolated in the United States from vaccinated flocks experiencing high mortality due to the diphtheric or cutaneous forms of fowlpox. Currently available vaccines are not effective in controlling the disease caused by these ‘variant’ strains of pox virus (Fatunmbi and Reed, 1996a, b).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
AedesInsect
Alphitobius diaperinusOther
CulexInsect
Dermanyssus gallinaeMite
Echidnophaga gallinaceaInsect

References

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Binns MM et al., 1987. Identification by a random sequencing strategy of fowl poxvirus DNA polymerase gene, its nucleotide sequence and comparison with other viral DNA polymerases. Nucleic Acid Research, 15:6563-6573.

Boulanger D; Smith T; Skinner MA, 2000. Morphogenesis and release of fowlpox virus. Journal of General Virology, 81(3):675-687; 54 ref.

Boyle DB; Coupar BEH, 1986. Identification and cloning of the fowlpox virus thymidine kinase gene using vaccinia virus. Journal of General Virology, 67(8):1591-1600; 32 ref.

Cheevers WP; O'Callaghan DJ; Randall CC, 1968. Biosynthesis of host and viral deoxyribonucleic acid during hyperplastic fowlpox infection in vivo. Journal of Virology, 2:421-429.

Fatunmbi OO; Reed WM, 1996. Evaluation of a commercial modified live virus fowl pox vaccine for the control of "variant" fowl poxvirus infections. Avian Diseases, 40(3):582-587; 13 ref.

Fatunmbi OO; Reed WM, 1996. Evaluation of a commercial quail pox vaccine (Bio-Pox Q) for the control of "variant" fowl poxvirus infections. Avian Diseases, 40(4):792-797; 12 ref.

Laidlaw SM; Anwar MA; Thomas W; Green P; Shaw K; Skinner MA, 1998. Fowlpox virus encodes nonessential homologs of cellular alpha-SNAP, PC-1, and an orphan human homolog of a secreted nematode protein. Journal of Virology, 72(8):6742-6751; 72 ref.

Ma FengLong; Jin NingYi; Liu XiaoMing; Si XingKui; Gu WanJun; Yin Zhen, 1999. Restriction maps and sequence analysis of partial representative Bam HI fragments in the FPV 282E strain. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science, 19(3):233-236; 8 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Pollitt E; Skinner MA; Heaphy S, 1998. Nucleotide sequence of the 4.3 kbp BamHI-N fragment of fowl pox virus FP9. Virus Genes, 17(1):5-9; 35 ref.

Pradhan SK; Kataria JM; Verma KC; Jadhao SJ, 1996. Physico-chemical and biological characterization of an Indian isolate of quail poxvirus. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 17(2):101-108; 32 ref.

Prideaux CT; Boyle DB, 1987. Fowlpox virus polypeptides: sequential appearance and virion associated polypeptides. Archives of Virology, 96(3/4):185-199; 26 ref.

Tantwai HH; Al Falluji MM; Shony MO, 1979. Heat-selected mutants of pigeon poxvirus. Acta Virologica, 23:249-252.

Tripathy DM; Reed WM, 1997. Pox. In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, Reid WM, Yoder HW, eds. Diseases of Poultry. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa University Press, 643-659.

Distribution Maps

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