Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

foot-and-mouth disease virus

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Datasheet

foot-and-mouth disease virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • foot-and-mouth disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Picornaviridae
  •         Genus: Aphthovirus
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    Compendia
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    Wallingford
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • foot-and-mouth disease virus

International Common Names

  • English: aphthovirus; foot and mouth disease virus

Local Common Names

  • USA: hoof and mouth disease virus

English acronym

  • FMDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Picornaviridae
  •                 Genus: Aphthovirus
  •                     Species: foot-and-mouth disease virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BangladeshReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE, 2005b; OIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaLast reported1983OIE Handistatus, 2005
IranReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE, 2004b; OIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRLast reported1960OIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE, 2004d; OIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1935OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaLast reported2003NativeOIE, 2004c; OIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigerReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
North AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE, 2004g; OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaLast reported1952OIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoLast reported1954OIE Handistatus, 2005
USALast reported1929OIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeLast reported1964OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaLast reported2003NativeOIE, 2003; OIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilNativeOIE, 2004a; OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileLast reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaLast reported1958OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaLast reported1978OIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruNativeOIE, 2004e; OIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraLast reported1969OIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaLast reported1981OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusLast reported1982OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumLast reported1976OIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaLast reported1968OIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaLast reported1978OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1964OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported1975OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported1983OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaLast reported1982OIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported1959OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryLast reported1973OIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyLast reported1981OIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported1982OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgLast reported1964OIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported1978OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported1980OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayLast reported1952OIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandLast reported1971OIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalLast reported1984OIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaLast reported1973OIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentNativeOIE, 2004f; OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported1973OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaLast reported1968OIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainLast reported1986OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported1966OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1980OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Last reported1952OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Last reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaLast reported1871OIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the family Picornaviridae . The name is derived from ‘pico’, Greek for very small. The Picornaviridae are sometimes referred to as the foot-and-mouth disease virus group.

Picornaviruses are among the most diverse (more than 200 serotypes) and oldest-known viruses. FMDV was one of the first viruses to be recognized (Loeffler et al., 1898).

Properties of the virion

The virions are not enveloped. Nucleocapsids are isometric, 25-30 nm in diameter. Within this is a single strand of positive-sense RNA of 8.4 kilobases, coding for the 4 structural proteins (genes 1A-1D), and the eight non-structural proteins (genes L, 2A-C and 3A-D). (Brown 1985; Acharya et al. 1989). 60 identical capsomeres form an icosahedron. Nucleocapsids appear to be round. There are 12 capsomers per nucleocapsid. The capsid consists of 60 copies of each of the four virus-encoded structural proteins VP1, 2, 3 and 4 (Brown et al., 1960; Salt 1993). A distinctive feature of FMDV RNA is that the G+C content of its third codon is higher than in other picornaviruses and more like mammalian genes. FMDV is the first picornavirus isolated; viruses are classified according to their genome organization.

There are 7 serotypes (Types A; C; O; SAT-1,SAT-2,SAT-3; Asia-1). The antigenicity of FMDV involves continuous and discontinuous neutralizing epitopes on one or more of the exposed parts of the capsid proteins, particularly VP1 (Domingo et al., 1990). There is no cross immunity between serotypes. There are more than 60 subtypes. Some of them are strongly divergent (Rueckert, 1985).

FMDV is very sensitive to both acid (pH 9) conditions. It is inactivated by sodium hydroxide (2%), acetic acid (5%), sodium carbonate (4%) and citric acid (0,2%).

The effect of temperature on viral infectivity is influenced by the suspending medium. At temperatures below freezing, FMDV is very stable. At 4°C the virus is infective for more than 1 year, 8-10 weeks at room temperature, and 10 days at 37°C. Higher temperatures inactivate the virus more quickly. FMDV will quickly die at relative humidity below 60% RH, and is very susceptible to drying in the environment.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

References

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Acharya R; Fry E; Stuart D; Fox G; Rowlands DJ; Brown F, 1989. The three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2.9 Å resolution. Nature, 337:709-716.

Brown F, 1985. Antigenic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus. In: Regenmortel MHVV, Neurath AR, eds. Immunochemistry of viruses. The basis for serodiagnosis and vaccines. Elsevenier Science Publishers, BV, 265-279.

DEFRA, 2002. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK. http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/fmd/.

Domingo E; Mateu MG; Martinez MA; Dopazo J; Maye A; Sorbino F, 1990. In: E Krustak, RG Marusyk, FA Murphy, MHV Van Regnnortel, eds. Applied Virology Research, Vol 2, Virus Variability, Epidemiology and Control. New York: Plenum Press, 233-266.

ICTV, 2000. Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 1162 pp.

Minor PD; Brown F; Domingo E; Hoey E; King A; Knowles N; Lemon S; Palmenberg A; Rueckert RR; Stanway G; Wimmeri E; Yin-Murphy M, 1995. Virus Taxonomy. In: Murphy et al. eds. Picornaviridae. Wien, New York, Springer-Verlag, 329-336.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2001. Handistatus II. Office International des Epizooties. World Wide Web page at http://www.oie.int/eng/info/en_bdd.htm.

OIE, 2003. Foot and mouth disease in Bolivia: follow-up report No. 4 (final report). Disease Information. 16(41).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Brazil. Disease Information. 17(25).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Israel. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). Disease Information. 17(19).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Libya. Follow-up report No. 6 (final report). 17(3).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Mongolia. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). 17(43).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Peru. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). 17(38).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Russia. Follow-up report No. 1. Disease Information, 17(18).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia. Follow-up report No. 5. 17(25).

OIE, 2005. Foot and mouth disease in Hong Kong, special administrative region of the People’s Republic of China. Virus type Asia 1. Disease Information. 18(12).

Distribution Maps

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