Invasive Species Compendium

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foot-and-mouth disease virus

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Datasheet

foot-and-mouth disease virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • foot-and-mouth disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Picornaviridae
  •         Genus: Aphthovirus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • foot-and-mouth disease virus

International Common Names

  • English: aphthovirus; foot and mouth disease virus

Local Common Names

  • USA: hoof and mouth disease virus

English acronym

  • FMDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Picornaviridae
  •                 Genus: Aphthovirus
  •                     Species: foot-and-mouth disease virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BeninPresentJan-Jun-2019
BotswanaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Burkina FasoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BurundiPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosPresentJul-Dec-2020
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptPresentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
GambiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Guinea-BissauPresentJul-Dec-2020
KenyaPresentJul-Dec-2020
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaPresentJul-Dec-2020
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiPresentJul-Dec-2020
MaliAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MauritaniaPresentJul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoPresentJul-Dec-2019
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2020
NamibiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaPresentJan-Jun-2020
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeonePresentJul-Dec-2020
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresentJul-Dec-2020
South SudanPresentJan-Jun-2018
SudanPresentJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
TogoPresentJul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaPresentJul-Dec-2020
ZambiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
ZimbabwePresentJul-Dec-2020

Asia

AfghanistanPresentJul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshPresentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CambodiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresentJul-Dec-2020
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IranPresentJan-Jun-2019
IraqPresentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosPresentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarPresentJul-Dec-2020
NepalPresentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2020
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
PalestinePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsentJul-Dec-2019
QatarPresentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaPresentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Sri LankaPresentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresentJan-Jun-2020
TurkeyPresentJul-Dec-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
YemenPresentJan-Jun-2020

Europe

AlbaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
RussiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsentJul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Papua New GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the family Picornaviridae . The name is derived from ‘pico’, Greek for very small. The Picornaviridae are sometimes referred to as the foot-and-mouth disease virus group.

Picornaviruses are among the most diverse (more than 200 serotypes) and oldest-known viruses. FMDV was one of the first viruses to be recognized (Loeffler et al., 1898).

Properties of the virion

The virions are not enveloped. Nucleocapsids are isometric, 25-30 nm in diameter. Within this is a single strand of positive-sense RNA of 8.4 kilobases, coding for the 4 structural proteins (genes 1A-1D), and the eight non-structural proteins (genes L, 2A-C and 3A-D). (Brown 1985; Acharya et al. 1989). 60 identical capsomeres form an icosahedron. Nucleocapsids appear to be round. There are 12 capsomers per nucleocapsid. The capsid consists of 60 copies of each of the four virus-encoded structural proteins VP1, 2, 3 and 4 (Brown et al., 1960; Salt 1993). A distinctive feature of FMDV RNA is that the G+C content of its third codon is higher than in other picornaviruses and more like mammalian genes. FMDV is the first picornavirus isolated; viruses are classified according to their genome organization.

There are 7 serotypes (Types A; C; O; SAT-1,SAT-2,SAT-3; Asia-1). The antigenicity of FMDV involves continuous and discontinuous neutralizing epitopes on one or more of the exposed parts of the capsid proteins, particularly VP1 (Domingo et al., 1990). There is no cross immunity between serotypes. There are more than 60 subtypes. Some of them are strongly divergent (Rueckert, 1985).

FMDV is very sensitive to both acid (pH 9) conditions. It is inactivated by sodium hydroxide (2%), acetic acid (5%), sodium carbonate (4%) and citric acid (0,2%).

The effect of temperature on viral infectivity is influenced by the suspending medium. At temperatures below freezing, FMDV is very stable. At 4°C the virus is infective for more than 1 year, 8-10 weeks at room temperature, and 10 days at 37°C. Higher temperatures inactivate the virus more quickly. FMDV will quickly die at relative humidity below 60% RH, and is very susceptible to drying in the environment.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
BosWild host
Bos grunniens (yaks)Domesticated host; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos mutus (yaks, wild)Domesticated host; Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)
CamelidaeDomesticated host; Wild host
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)Domesticated host; Wild host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host; Wild host
CapraDomesticated host; Wild host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host; Wild host
ElephantidaeWild host
Erinaceus europaeus (European hedgehog)Wild host
Lama glama (llamas)Domesticated host; Wild host
Lama pacos (alpacas)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Wild host
RuminantiaWild host
SusDomesticated host; Wild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host
Syncerus caffer

References

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Acharya R; Fry E; Stuart D; Fox G; Rowlands DJ; Brown F, 1989. The three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2.9 Å resolution. Nature, 337:709-716.

Brown F, 1985. Antigenic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus. In: Regenmortel MHVV, Neurath AR, eds. Immunochemistry of viruses. The basis for serodiagnosis and vaccines. Elsevenier Science Publishers, BV, 265-279.

DEFRA, 2002. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK. http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/fmd/.

Domingo E; Mateu MG; Martinez MA; Dopazo J; Maye A; Sorbino F, 1990. In: E Krustak, RG Marusyk, FA Murphy, MHV Van Regnnortel, eds. Applied Virology Research, Vol 2, Virus Variability, Epidemiology and Control. New York: Plenum Press, 233-266.

ICTV, 2000. Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 1162 pp.

Minor PD; Brown F; Domingo E; Hoey E; King A; Knowles N; Lemon S; Palmenberg A; Rueckert RR; Stanway G; Wimmeri E; Yin-Murphy M, 1995. Virus Taxonomy. In: Murphy et al. eds. Picornaviridae. Wien, New York, Springer-Verlag, 329-336.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2001. Handistatus II. Office International des Epizooties. World Wide Web page at http://www.oie.int/eng/info/en_bdd.htm.

OIE, 2003. Foot and mouth disease in Bolivia: follow-up report No. 4 (final report). Disease Information. 16(41).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Brazil. Disease Information. 17(25).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Israel. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). Disease Information. 17(19).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Libya. Follow-up report No. 6 (final report). 17(3).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Mongolia. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). 17(43).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Peru. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). 17(38).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Russia. Follow-up report No. 1. Disease Information, 17(18).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia. Follow-up report No. 5. 17(25).

OIE, 2005. Foot and mouth disease in Hong Kong, special administrative region of the People’s Republic of China. Virus type Asia 1. Disease Information. 18(12).

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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