Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


foot-and-mouth disease virus



foot-and-mouth disease virus


  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • foot-and-mouth disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Picornaviridae
  •         Genus: Aphthovirus
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • foot-and-mouth disease virus

International Common Names

  • English: aphthovirus; foot and mouth disease virus

Local Common Names

  • USA: hoof and mouth disease virus

English acronym

  • FMDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Picornaviridae
  •                 Genus: Aphthovirus
  •                     Species: foot-and-mouth disease virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


Burkina FasoPresent
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaPresent


BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresent
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaPresent
Sri LankaPresent


IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)


French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the family Picornaviridae . The name is derived from ‘pico’, Greek for very small. The Picornaviridae are sometimes referred to as the foot-and-mouth disease virus group.

Picornaviruses are among the most diverse (more than 200 serotypes) and oldest-known viruses. FMDV was one of the first viruses to be recognized (Loeffler et al., 1898).

Properties of the virion

The virions are not enveloped. Nucleocapsids are isometric, 25-30 nm in diameter. Within this is a single strand of positive-sense RNA of 8.4 kilobases, coding for the 4 structural proteins (genes 1A-1D), and the eight non-structural proteins (genes L, 2A-C and 3A-D). (Brown 1985; Acharya et al. 1989). 60 identical capsomeres form an icosahedron. Nucleocapsids appear to be round. There are 12 capsomers per nucleocapsid. The capsid consists of 60 copies of each of the four virus-encoded structural proteins VP1, 2, 3 and 4 (Brown et al., 1960; Salt 1993). A distinctive feature of FMDV RNA is that the G+C content of its third codon is higher than in other picornaviruses and more like mammalian genes. FMDV is the first picornavirus isolated; viruses are classified according to their genome organization.

There are 7 serotypes (Types A; C; O; SAT-1,SAT-2,SAT-3; Asia-1). The antigenicity of FMDV involves continuous and discontinuous neutralizing epitopes on one or more of the exposed parts of the capsid proteins, particularly VP1 (Domingo et al., 1990). There is no cross immunity between serotypes. There are more than 60 subtypes. Some of them are strongly divergent (Rueckert, 1985).

FMDV is very sensitive to both acid (pH 9) conditions. It is inactivated by sodium hydroxide (2%), acetic acid (5%), sodium carbonate (4%) and citric acid (0,2%).

The effect of temperature on viral infectivity is influenced by the suspending medium. At temperatures below freezing, FMDV is very stable. At 4°C the virus is infective for more than 1 year, 8-10 weeks at room temperature, and 10 days at 37°C. Higher temperatures inactivate the virus more quickly. FMDV will quickly die at relative humidity below 60% RH, and is very susceptible to drying in the environment.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website:

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
BosWild host
Bos grunniens (yaks)Domesticated host; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos mutus (yaks, wild)Domesticated host; Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)
CamelidaeDomesticated host; Wild host
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)Domesticated host; Wild host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host; Wild host
CapraDomesticated host; Wild host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host; Wild host
ElephantidaeWild host
Erinaceus europaeus (European hedgehog)Wild host
Lama glama (llamas)Domesticated host; Wild host
Lama pacos (alpacas)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Wild host
RuminantiaWild host
SusDomesticated host; Wild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host
Syncerus caffer


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Acharya R; Fry E; Stuart D; Fox G; Rowlands DJ; Brown F, 1989. The three-dimensional structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus at 2.9 Å resolution. Nature, 337:709-716.

Brown F, 1985. Antigenic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus. In: Regenmortel MHVV, Neurath AR, eds. Immunochemistry of viruses. The basis for serodiagnosis and vaccines. Elsevenier Science Publishers, BV, 265-279.

DEFRA, 2002. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK.

Domingo E; Mateu MG; Martinez MA; Dopazo J; Maye A; Sorbino F, 1990. In: E Krustak, RG Marusyk, FA Murphy, MHV Van Regnnortel, eds. Applied Virology Research, Vol 2, Virus Variability, Epidemiology and Control. New York: Plenum Press, 233-266.

ICTV, 2000. Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 1162 pp.

Minor PD; Brown F; Domingo E; Hoey E; King A; Knowles N; Lemon S; Palmenberg A; Rueckert RR; Stanway G; Wimmeri E; Yin-Murphy M, 1995. Virus Taxonomy. In: Murphy et al. eds. Picornaviridae. Wien, New York, Springer-Verlag, 329-336.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2001. Handistatus II. Office International des Epizooties. World Wide Web page at

OIE, 2003. Foot and mouth disease in Bolivia: follow-up report No. 4 (final report). Disease Information. 16(41).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Brazil. Disease Information. 17(25).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Israel. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). Disease Information. 17(19).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Libya. Follow-up report No. 6 (final report). 17(3).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Mongolia. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). 17(43).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Peru. Follow-up report No. 2 (final report). 17(38).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Russia. Follow-up report No. 1. Disease Information, 17(18).

OIE, 2004. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia. Follow-up report No. 5. 17(25).

OIE, 2005. Foot and mouth disease in Hong Kong, special administrative region of the People’s Republic of China. Virus type Asia 1. Disease Information. 18(12).

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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