Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cissus verticillata
(possum grape vine)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2020. Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.82702108.20203483982

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Datasheet

Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cissus verticillata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • possum grape vine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cissus verticillata is a large, climbing species cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant around the world. It is native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Once established, C. verticillata grows climbing over t...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); smothering habit. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); smothering habit. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); smothering habit. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
HabitCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); smothering habit. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves. Deptember 2016..
TitleLeaves
CaptionCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves. Deptember 2016..
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves. Deptember 2016..
LeavesCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves. Deptember 2016..©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves and flowers. nr. Villavieja, Tatacoa Desert, Huila Department, Colombia.   November 2017.
TitleLeaves and flowers
CaptionCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves and flowers. nr. Villavieja, Tatacoa Desert, Huila Department, Colombia. November 2017.
Copyright©Franz Xaver/via wikipedia- CC BY-SA 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves and flowers. nr. Villavieja, Tatacoa Desert, Huila Department, Colombia.   November 2017.
Leaves and flowersCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves and flowers. nr. Villavieja, Tatacoa Desert, Huila Department, Colombia. November 2017.©Franz Xaver/via wikipedia- CC BY-SA 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); fruit. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
TitleFruit
CaptionCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); fruit. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); fruit. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
FruitCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); fruit. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves and flowers. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brazil. April 2010.
TitleLeaves and flowers
CaptionCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves and flowers. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brazil. April 2010.
Copyright©João Medeiros/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves and flowers. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brazil. April 2010.
Leaves and flowersCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); habit, showing leaves and flowers. Parque Olhos D'Água, Brazil. April 2010.©João Medeiros/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine); flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.
FlowersCissus verticillata (possum grape vine); flowers. Waimanalo, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. August 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C.E.Jarvis

Preferred Common Name

  • possum grape vine

Other Scientific Names

  • Cissus albonitens Linden & André
  • Cissus andraeana Planch.
  • Cissus argentea Linden
  • Cissus blumeana Steud.
  • Cissus canescens Lam.
  • Cissus compressicaulis Ruiz & Pav.
  • Cissus cordifolia L.
  • Cissus digitinervis Ram.Goyena
  • Cissus elliptica Schltdl. & Cham.
  • Cissus endresii H.J.Veitch
  • Cissus glauca Thwaites
  • Cissus gonavensis Urb. & Ekman
  • Cissus haitiensis Urb. & Ekman
  • Cissus lamarckiana Schult. & Schult.f.
  • Cissus latifolia Descourt.
  • Cissus lindenii André
  • Cissus nitida Vell.
  • Cissus obscura DC.
  • Cissus obtusata Benth.
  • Cissus officinalis Klotzsch
  • Cissus ovata Lam.
  • Cissus oxyodon Planch.
  • Cissus plumeri Planch.
  • Cissus puncticulosa Rich.
  • Cissus reticulata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
  • Cissus sicyoides L.
  • Cissus smilacina Kunth
  • Cissus tamoides Cambess.
  • Cissus tucumana Suess.
  • Cissus umbrosa Kunth
  • Cissus venatorum Descourt.
  • Irsiola sicyoides (L.) Raf.
  • Phoradendron verticillatum (L.) Druce
  • Spondylantha aphylla C. Presl
  • Viscum verticillatum L.
  • Vitis albonitens (Linden & André) G. Nicholson
  • Vitis elliptica (Schltdl. & Cham.) Hemsl.
  • Vitis lindenii (André) G. Nicholson
  • Vitis sicyoides (L.) Miq.

International Common Names

  • English: curtain ivy; millionaire vine; princess vine; season vine; tropical grape vine
  • Spanish: bejuco de agua; bejuco loco; bejuco picamano; come mano; pica pica; picamano; sanalo todo; uvita

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: cortina del cielo
  • Costa Rica: bejuco yazú
  • Dominican Republic: vinagrillo; bejuco caro; bejuco de parra; caro
  • Haiti: feuilles cotaire; herbe à ulcéres; liane minguet; liane molle
  • Lesser Antilles: godmort; liane-à-chasseurs; lianeà-eau; liane-brulante; liane-corde; liane-douce; liane-molle; pudding bush; snake vine
  • Mexico: tripa de vaca; tripa de zopilote
  • Peru: uvilla de culebra

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cissus verticillata is a large, climbing species cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant around the world. It is native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Once established, C. verticillata grows climbing over the top of the canopy and supporting itself by means of coiled tendrils, or scrambling over the ground. It is common to find this species engulfing entire trees. If the plant is cut, the remaining branches and stems can develop aerial roots that will find their way to the ground, regenerating new. C. verticillata is regarded as a weed in areas within and outside its native distribution range. It was reported in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas in 2003 and may pose a potential weed problem in the citrus groves there and in Florida.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rhamnales
  •                         Family: Vitaceae
  •                             Genus: Cissus
  •                                 Species: Cissus verticillata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Vitaceae comprises 17 genera and about 955 species of lianas, vines, and rarely shrubs distributed in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions of the world. Within the Vitaceae, the genus Cissus is the most diverse with about 350 species (Lombardi, 2017; Stevens, 2017). Cissus verticillata is a highly variable species and classifications recognizing up to 4 subspecies based on differences among size and form of the leaves and the inflorescences have been proposed (Lombardi, 2000; Lombardi, 2015). Some of the information cited here is for the species C. sicyoides; although some authors still maintain C. sicyoides as a distinct species, the majority of more recent works treat it as a synonym of C. verticillata (Useful Tropical Plants, 2020).

Description

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The following is based on the description by Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005): Large vine, that climbs by means of tendrils and attains more than 10 m in length. Stems fleshy, with abundant watery latex, cylindrical when young, flattened when mature, attaining 5 cm in diameter, the nodes swollen. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, ovate, 5-12 × 3.8-6.5 cm, the apex acute or rounded, the base cordiform, the margins revolute, denticulate; upper surface green, shiny; lower surface green, dull, with prominent venation; petioles 2-5 cm long, sulcate; stipules 2.5-3.5 mm long, auriculate; tendrils opposite the leaves, simple or bifurcate, up to 25 cm long, twisting in the form of a spiral. Inflorescences of compound cymes that are borne opposite the leaves; pedicels ca. 3 mm long, yellowish green or reddish. Calyx yellowish green or reddish, 0.7-1 mm long; petals 4, yellowish or pink, oblong-lanceolate, 2-2.5 mm long, deciduous; disc annular, yellow, 0.5-0.8 mm high. Fruits globose, fleshy, 0.7-1 cm in diameter, shiny, dark violet or black, with one or two seeds inside.

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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Cissus verticillata is native to the Americas, from Florida and Mexico to Argentina and Chile including the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2020). It has been introduced and can be found naturalized in Bangladesh, Texas, Hawaii and the Cook Islands (French et al., 2003; PIER, 2020; POWO, 2020). In the Bahamas, this species is listed as both native (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012) and an alien invasive (Smith, 2010).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced

North America

AnguillaPresentNative
Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
ArubaPresentNative
BahamasPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced. Cited as Cissus sicyoides where listed as introduced and invasive
BarbadosPresentNative
BelizePresentNative
BermudaPresentNativeListed as Cissus sicyoides
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentNative
-SabaPresentNative
-Sint EustatiusPresentNative
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAnegada, Guana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentNativeListed (as Cissus sicyoides) as a weed in citrus groves
CuraçaoPresentNative
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNativeSan Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz, Yucatan
MontserratPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint MartinPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Sint MaartenPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNative
United StatesPresent
-FloridaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TexasPresentIntroducedCited as Cissus sicyoides. Listed as a potentially exotic pest

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
-AcrePresentNative
-AlagoasPresentNative
-AmapaPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-CearaPresentNative
-Distrito FederalPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParaibaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-PiauiPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-RondoniaPresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-SergipePresentNative
-TocantinsPresentNative
ChilePresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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The roots of C. verticillata have been imported into Europe since the 16th century for medicinal use. Ethno-pharmacological usage of this species appears in texts dating back to 1582 and 1829 (Drobnik and de Oliveira, 2015). In Hawaii, it was introduced in the 1970s (PIER, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020).

Habitat

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Cissus verticillata grows in disturbed areas, pastures and roadsides, dry to wet thickets, moist forests and coastal thickets (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2020). It can be found climbing over shrubs, trees, fences, old buildings and electricity poles (Smith, 2010). Cut vines in the canopy are able to send long root tendrils down to the ground to re-root (Pettit, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Cissus verticillata is listed as a weed in orchards, pineapple plantations and in grapefruit and orange groves (Acuña, 1974; Futch and Hall, 2003; French et al., 2003; Brenes-Prendas and Agüero-Alvarado, 2007; Vibrans, 2009; Randall, 2017). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
    Citrus spp.Main

      Growth Stages

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      Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

      Biology and Ecology

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      Genetics

      The chromosome number reported for C. verticillata is 2n = 48 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018)

      Physiology and Phenology

      In the West Indies, C. verticillata has been reported flowering and fruiting throughout the year (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005)

      Longevity

      Cissus verticillata is a perennial fast-growing vine (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

      Environmental Requirements

      Cissus verticillata grows in a wide range of climates and soil types at elevations from near sea level up to 1800 m (Lombardi, 2000; Acevedo, 2005; Vibrans, 2009).

      Climate

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      ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
      Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
      Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
      As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
      Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
      Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

      Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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      Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
      35 40

      Rainfall Regime

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      Bimodal
      Summer
      Uniform
      Winter

      Soil Tolerances

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      Soil texture

      • heavy
      • light
      • medium

      Natural enemies

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      Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
      Maconellicoccus hirsutus Herbivore Fruits|pods; Plants|Growing point; Plants|Leaves not specific

      Notes on Natural Enemies

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      Cissus verticillata plants are affected by the parasitic fungus Mycosyrinx cissi, which causes the inflorescences to become deformed, producing numerous sterile branches (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). C. verticillata has been reported as a host for the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHMB) Maconellicoccus hirsutus, a serious economic threat to agriculture, forestry and the nursery industry in most tropical areas worldwide (Sagarra and Peterkin, 1999; Meyerdirk et al., 2001). In the Caribbean, biological control using the predatory beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali, was highly effective in bringing the PHMB populations under control (Sagarra and Peterkin, 1999).

      In Florida, C. verticillata is the only verified host plant of the weevil Eurhinus magnificus which completes its entire life cycle within it; eggs are laid within the stem where the larvae hatch and feed. The larvae complete five instars within a gall formed at the site of oviposition before pupating. Adults emerge from the host plant gall to feed on C. verticillata, mate and oviposit (Ulmer et al., 2007).

      In Trinidad, C. verticillata (as C. scyiodes) is listed as a food plant for the forest grasshopper Coscineuta virens (McComie, 1994).

      Means of Movement and Dispersal

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      Cissus verticillata spreads by seeds and vegetatively via rooting from stem fragments and broken offshoots. The fleshy fruits are dispersed mostly by birds (French et al., 2003; Smith, 2010).

      Pathway Causes

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      CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      DisturbanceCommon in disturbed areas, pastures, roadsides Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
      Garden waste disposalStem fragments, fruits Yes Yes Smith (2010)
      HorticultureCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
      Internet salesSold online Yes Yes
      Medicinal useRoots used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
      Ornamental purposesCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)

      Pathway Vectors

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      VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Debris and waste associated with human activitiesStem fragments, fruits Yes Yes Smith (2010)
      MailSold online Yes Yes
      Host and vector organismsSeeds dispersed by birds Yes Yes Smith (2010)

      Impact Summary

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      CategoryImpact
      Cultural/amenity Positive
      Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
      Environment (generally) Positive and negative
      Human health Positive

      Economic Impact

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      Cissus verticillata is regarded as a weed in areas within and outside its native distribution range of the Americas (Acuña, 1974; Futch and Hall, 2003; Brenes-Prendas and Agüero-Alvarado, 2007; Smith, 2010; Randall, 2017; PIER, 2020). In the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas, C. verticillata was reported affecting agricultural crops such as citrus (grapefruits and oranges) by completely covering them (French et al., 2003).

      Environmental Impact

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      Cissus verticillata is an invasive fast-growing vine that climbs and completely covers shrubs and trees, forming a thick canopy and blocking sunlight to the understorey native plants. This species has the potential to smother native vegetation by killing host trees, outcompeting understorey plants and negatively affecting the germination and establishment of native seedlings (French et al., 2003; Smith, 2010). C. verticillata is able to cover small trees with its foliage. Species affected in this way include Quercus virginiana (live oak), Salix nigra (black willow), Salix exigua (sandbar willow), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry), Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallow) and Carica papaya (papaya) (French et al., 2003).

      Risk and Impact Factors

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      Invasiveness
      • Invasive in its native range
      • Proved invasive outside its native range
      • Has a broad native range
      • Abundant in its native range
      • Highly adaptable to different environments
      • Is a habitat generalist
      • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
      • Pioneering in disturbed areas
      • Long lived
      • Fast growing
      • Reproduces asexually
      Impact outcomes
      • Host damage
      • Negatively impacts agriculture
      • Reduced native biodiversity
      • Threat to/ loss of native species
      Impact mechanisms
      • Competition - monopolizing resources
      • Competition - shading
      • Competition - smothering
      • Competition - strangling
      • Rapid growth
      • Rooting
      Likelihood of entry/control
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
      • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

      Uses

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      Cissus verticillata is cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant. The stems and roots are used as cordage and to make baskets. The leaves are macerated in water and used as soap. Leaf decoctions are taken widely as a popular remedy for diabetes in Brazil, where its common name is “vegetal insulin”. Leaves, stems, sap and roots are used in traditional medicines and cultural rituals by indigenous people in the Americas (Lombardi, 2000; Pepato et al., 2003). In the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago, C. verticillata is used as an anti-diabetic agent and as a treatment for urinary problems (Lans, 2006).

      Uses List

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      Environmental

      • Amenity

      General

      • Ritual uses

      Materials

      • Baskets
      • Fibre

      Medicinal, pharmaceutical

      • Traditional/folklore

      Ornamental

      • garden plant

      Prevention and Control

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      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

      Physical/Mechanical Control

      As there are no known biological herbicides available for eradication or control of C. verticillata, plants have to be manually removed (French et al., 2003).

      References

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      Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 51, 483 pp.

      Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

      Acuña G., J., 1974. Undesirable plants in Cuban crops. (Plantas indeseables en los cultivos cubanos). In: Plantas indeseables en los cultivos cubanos . Havana, Cuba: Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.241pp.

      Brenes-Prendas, S., Agüero-Alvarado, R., 2007. Weed surveys and identification, and description of their control strategies in four pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) farms in Costa Rica. (Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L.) en Costa Rica). Agronomía Mesoamericana, 18(2), 239-246. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/src/inicio/HomRevRed.jsp?iCveEntRev=437

      Drobnik, J., Oliveira, A. B. de, 2015. Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson and C.E. Jarvis (Vitaceae): its identification and usage in the sources from 16th to 19th century. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 171, 317-329. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.003

      Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

      French, JV, Lonard, RI, Everitt, JH, 2003. Cissus sicyoides C. Linnaeus (Vitaceae), a potential exotic pest in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Subtropical Plant Sciences, 55, 72-74.

      Futch SH, Hall DW, 2003. Identification of vine weeds in Florida citrus. #HS926. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension.https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HS/HS18500.pdf

      Lans, C. A., 2006. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2(45), (13 October 2006). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-2-45.pdf

      Lombardi JA, 2000. Vitaceae: The genera Ampelocissus, Ampelopsis and Cissus. (Vitaceae: Gêneros Ampelocissus, Ampelopsis e Cissus). Flora Neotropica, 80, 1-250.

      Lombardi JA, 2017. Vitaceae. Guide to the lianas and climbing plants of the Neotropics. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/research/botany/research/lianas-and-climbing-plants-neotropics/lianas-families

      Lombardi, JA, 2015. Vitaceae. List of species of flora of Brazil. (Vitaceae. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB21572

      McComie LD, 1994. A list of food plants and some implications of the feeding behaviour of the forest grasshopper, Coscineuta virens (Thunberg), in Trinidad. Living World Journal of The Trinidad & Tobago Field Naturalists' Club , 1993/1994, 8-13.

      Meyerdirk DE, Warkentin R, Attavian B, Gersabeck E, Francis A, Adams M, Francis G, 2001. Biological control of pink Hibiscus mealybug project manual. Riverdale, Maryland, USA: United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.195 pp.

      Pepato, M. T., Baviera, A. M., Vendramini, R. C., Perez, M. da P. M. da S., Kettelhut, I. do C., Brunetti, I. L., 2003. Cissus sicyoides (princess vine) in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 37(1), 15-20. doi: 10.1042/BA20020065

      Pettit D, 2016. An illustrated guide for Bermuda’s indigenous and invasive plants. [ed. by Pettit D]. Flatts, Bermuda: Department of Environment and Natural Resources.207 pp. https://www.gov.bm/sites/default/files/plantfinder-april-2016.pdf

      PIER, 2020. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

      Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

      Sagarra L, Peterkin D, 1999. Invasion of the Carribean by the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green [Homoptera: Pseudococcidae]. Phytoprotection, 80(2), 103-113. https://doi.org/10.7202/706185ar

      Smith, R. L., 2010. Invasive Alien Plant Species of the Bahamas and Biodiversity Management. Thesis. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, USA

      Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

      Ulmer, B. J., Duncan, R. E., Prena, J., Peña, J. E., 2007. Life history and larval morphology of Eurhinus magnificus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a new weevil to the United States. Neotropical Entomology, 36(3), 383-390. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000300006

      USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

      USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

      Useful Tropical Plants, 2020. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

      Vibrans, H, 2009. Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by genera. (Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

      Distribution References

      Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

      French JV, Lonard RI, Everitt JH, 2003. Cissus sicyoides C. Linnaeus (Vitaceae), a potential exotic pest in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Subtropical Plant Sciences. 72-74.

      Lombardi JA, 2015. Vitaceae. List of species of flora of Brazil. (Vitaceae. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB21572

      Naturalis Biodversity Center, 2017. Dutch Caribbean Species Register., Leiden, The Netherlands: Naturalis Biodversity Center. https://www.dutchcaribbeanspecies.org/

      PIER, 2020. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

      POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

      Romo J P, Osorio J G M, Yepes M S, 2012. Identification of new hosts for Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) race 2 from Colombia. Revista de Protección Vegetal. 27 (3), 151-161. http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-27522012000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

      Sánchez-Monge A, Retana-Salazar A, Brenes S, Agüero R, 2010. New records of aphid-plant associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Eastern Costa Rica. Florida Entomologist. 93 (4), 489-492. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/ DOI:10.1653/024.093.0402

      Smith R L, 2010. Invasive Alien Plant Species of the Bahamas and Biodiversity Management. Thesis. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, USA:

      USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

      Contributors

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      11/02/2020 Original text by:

      Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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